María José Galindo

Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (49)170.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction In general, HIV co-infected patients included in clinical trials evaluating the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with telaprevir (TVR) or boceprevir (BOC) with advanced fibrosis, are scarce. We analyze data concerning the use of these drugs in a real-life clinical setting with patients affected by a more advanced degree of fibrosis in a Spanish cohort. Methods We evaluated safety and efficacy in an interim analysis encompassing the first 24 weeks of triple therapy with peginterferon (alfa-2a or alfa-2b), ribavirin and TVR or BOC in an observational, multicentre study. HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients beginning therapy from January 2012 to July 2013 were included. Results Enrolled patients were 155 (144 patients on TVR and 11 on BOC), average age was 47 years, 83% were male. With respect to HCV treatment, 44% were naïve, 13% relapsers, 17% partial responders, 21% null responders, and in seven patients, the previous response was unknown. All but three (98%) were under antiretroviral therapy (ART) (other than reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the backbone was raltegravir 43%, atazanavir 35%, and etravirine 28%). Median HCV-RNA at baseline was 6.1 log10, 54% were cirrhotic and 38% F3. At week 4, 93% of patients continued on therapy, 81% at w12, and 73% at w24. Virological failure was observed more frequently in: cirrhotic patients (19% [95% CI, 11–27]) vs F3 (12% [CI, 4–20]); patients with TT allele of the IL28B polymorphism (40% [CI, 18–61]) vs CT (21% [CI, 12–31]), or CC (2,2% [CI, −2–6]); previous null responders (37.5% [CI, 21–54]) vs partial responders (15.4% [CI, 1–29]), naïve (13% [CI, 5–21]) or relapsers (0% [CI, 0–0]); and in patients with a genotype subtype 1a (23.6% [CI, 57–76]) vs 1b (8.1% [CI, −1–17]). Overall, 17% had virological failure and in 8% treatment was discontinued due to adverse events. Severe adverse events occurred in 30 patients (19%). Haematologic disorders were the most common type including severe anaemia in 12 (7.7%) patients. Erythropoietin was employed in 41 patients (26.4%) and 11 (7.1%) received blood transfusions. Nineteen patients (12.2%) were treated with G-CSF, and 17 (11%) with thrombopoietin-receptor agonists. Five patients died (3.2%), three due to hepatic decompensation, one due to pneumonia and one due to pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions In a real-life setting, therapy against HCV in co-infected patients with advanced liver fibrosis shows high virologic success at 24 weeks. However, frequent haematologic disorders are observed and a close monitoring and an intensive therapy are needed to optimize the results.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19634. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19634 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to update the 2010 recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Renal function should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients. The basic renal work-up should include measurements of serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and urinary sediment. Tubular function tests should include determination of serum phosphate levels and urine dipstick for glycosuria. In the absence of abnormal values, renal screening should be performed annually. In patients treated with tenofovir, or with risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), more frequent renal screening is recommended. In order to prevent disease progression, potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral drugs are not recommended in patients with CKD or risk factors for CKD. The document provides indications for renal biopsy and advises on the optimal time for referral of a patient to the nephrologist. The indicat6ions for and evaluation and management of dialysis and renal transplantation are also addressed.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.eimc.2014.09.002 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To update the 2010 recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in HIV-infected patients. Methods: This document was approved by a panel of experts from the AIDS Working Group (GESIDA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC), the Spanish Society of Nephrology (S.E.N.), and the Spanish Society of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Pathology (SEQC). The quality of evidence and the level of recommendation were evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Results: The basic renal work-up should include measurements of serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI, Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and urinary sediment. Tubular function tests should include determination of serum phosphate levels and urine dipstick for glucosuria. In the absence of abnormal values, renal screening should be performed annually. In patients treated with tenofovir or with risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), more frequent renal screening is recommended. In order to prevent disease progression, potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral drugs are not recommended in patients with CKD or risk factors for CKD. The document advises on the optimal time for referral of a patient to the nephrologist and provides indications for renal biopsy. The indications for and evaluation and management of dialysis and renal transplantation are also addressed. Conclusions: Renal function should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients. The information provided in this document should enable clinicians to optimize the evaluation and management of HIV-infected patients with renal disease.
    Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 09/2014; 34 Suppl(2):1-81. DOI:10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2014.Jul.12674 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective:We assessed the effects of sustained viral response (SVR), after treating with interferon-ribavirin (IF-RB), on mortality, liver-related (LR) events (decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma), HIV progression, and liver stiffness in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with nonadvanced liver fibrosis.Methods:From a cohort of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with IF-RB, we selected those with baseline liver fibrosis stages F0, F1, or F2 according to METAVIR. The study started when IF-RB was stopped and ended at death or at the last follow-up visit.Results:A total of 695 patients were included (HCV genotype 1 or 4, 431; F0, 77; F1, 290; and F2, 328), and 274 patients achieved SVR. After a median follow-up of 4.9 years, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of LR events or overall death, for patients with SVR taking the group of patients with no SVR as a reference was 0.217 (0.079 to 0.599) (P = 0.003) for the whole cohort with F0 to F2. For patients with F0, the aHR (95% CI) was 0.514 (0.040 to 6.593) (P = 0.609), for patients with F1, the aHR (95% CI) was 0.305 (0.053 to 1.762) (P = 0.185), and for patients with F2, it was 0.075 (0.009 to 0.662) (P = 0.020). We also found that, in comparison with no SVR, SVR was followed by less frequent HIV progression for the entire population (F0 to F2) and less frequent liver stiffness across all categories of fibrosis.Conclusions:SVR in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with moderate stages of liver fibrosis is associated with a reduction of mortality and LR events, and with a reduction of progression of HIV and liver fibrosis.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 07/2014; 66(3):280-287. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000156 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the frequency and the characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases appeared in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with previous sustained virological response (SVR) and to compare these cases to those diagnosed in patients without SVR. All HIV/HCV-coinfected patients diagnosed of HCC in 26 hospitals in Spain before 31 December 2012 were analyzed. Comparisons between cases diagnosed in patients with and without previous SVR were made. One hundred sixty seven HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were diagnosed with HCC in the participant hospitals. Sixty five (39%) of them had been previously treated against HCV. In 13 cases, HCC was diagnosed after achievement consecution of SVR, accounting for 7.8% of the overall cases. The median (Q1-Q3) elapsed time from SVR to diagnosis of HCC was 28 (20-39) months. HCC was multicentric and was complicated with portal thrombosis in nine and six patients, respectively. Comparisons with HCC cases diagnosed in patients without previous SVR only yielded a significantly higher proportion of genotype 3 infection [10 (83%) out of 13 cases versus 34 (32%) out of 107; P = 0.001)]. The median (Q1-Q3) survival of HCC was 3 (1-39) months among cases developed in patients with previous SVR, whereas it was 6 (2-20) months in the remaining individuals (P = 0.7). HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with previous SVR may develop HCC in the mid-term and long-term. These cases account for a significant proportion of the total cases of HCC in this setting. Our findings reinforce the need to continue surveillance of HCC with ultrasound examinations in patients with cirrhosis who respond to anti-HCV therapy.
    AIDS (London, England) 09/2013; 28(1). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000005 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sustained viral response (SVR) after therapy with interferon-ribavirin (IF-RB) reduces liver-related (LR) complications and mortality in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Here, we assess the impact of end-of-treatment response with subsequent relapse (REL) on LR events (LR death, liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver transplantation), and liver stiffness (LS) by transient elastography. METHODS: We analyzed the GESIDA 3603 Cohort (HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with IF-RB in 19 centers in Spain). Response to IF-RB was categorized as SVR, REL, and no response (NR). The study started when IF-RB was stopped and ended at death or the last follow-up visit. Multivariate regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, HIV category of transmission, CDC clinical category, nadir CD4+ cell count, HCV genotype, HCV RNA viral load, and liver fibrosis. RESULTS: Of 1599 patients included response was categorized as NR in 765, REL in 250 and SVR in 584. Median follow-up was more than 4 years in each group. Taking the group of patients with NR as reference, we found that the adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of liver-related events (liver-related death, liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation) for patients with REL and for patients with SVR were 0.17 (0.05; 0.50) and 0.03 (0; 0.20), respectively. We also found that SVR was followed by less liver stiffness than both REL and NR. However, REL was associated with less liver stiffness than NR. CONCLUSIONS: Best outcomes were achieved with an SVR. However, REL was associated with less LR mortality, decompensation, and liver stiffness than NR.
    Journal of Hepatology 02/2013; 58(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.01.042 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The latest version of the Spanish clinical practice guidelines on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected adults, developed by the Spanish AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and the National AIDS Plan, recommends initiating ART early in certain circumstances. The aim of this study was to estimate the budget impact of this recommendation by using the data from the VACH cohort. Methods: We considered a scenario in which all naive asymptomatic patients would initiate ART if they had <500 lymphocytes, or a CD4/mu L count >500/mu L if they were older than 55 years, or had high viral load, liver disease, chronic kidney disease or high cardiovascular risk. The study was designed as a cost analysis in terms of annual pharmaceutical expenditure. The only costs included were those relating to the ART combinations analyzed. To estimate these costs, we assumed that this guideline had a penetration of 80%, an adherence of 95% and 12% dropouts. Results: A total of 12,500 patients were reviewed. Of these, 1,127 (10%) had not initiated ART; CD4 lymphocyte count was 350-500 in 294 (26.1%) and > 500 in 685 (60.8%). If the new clinical practice guideline were applied, 45.2% of naive patients (95% Cl: 42.4%-48.2%) would be advised to start ART. Carrying out this recommendation in hospitals of the VACH cohort Would require an additional annual investment of 3,270,975 and would increase the overall cost of antiretroviral drugs by 3%. Conclusions: In the framework of health economics, incorporating economic impact estimates - such as those performed in this study - into clinical practice guidelines would be advisable to increase their feasibility.
    Gaceta Sanitaria 11/2012; 26(6):541-546. DOI:10.1016/j.gaceta.2012.01.015 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. To report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Spain.Methods. All HIV-infected patients diagnosed of HCC in 18 hospitals in Spain before 31 December 2010 were included. The main characteristics of HCC cases are described and comparisons between cases according to the year of diagnosis are presented.Results. Eighty-two cases of HCC in HIV-infected patients were included, all of them related to viral hepatitis coinfection: hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 66 (81%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 6 (7%), and HBV/HCV in 10 (12%). From 1999, when the first case of HCC was diagnosed, a progressive increment in the incidence of HCC in the cohort has occurred. In patients coinfected with HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, the incidence HCC increased from 0.2 to 2.8 cases per 1000 person-years between 2000 and 2009. Death occurred in 65 patients (79%), with a median survival of 91 days (interquartile range, 31-227 days). Three of 11 patients (28%) who received potentially curative therapy died, compared with 62 of 71 patients (87%) who did not receive curative therapy (P = .0001). Compared with cases of HCC diagnosed before 2005, cases diagnosed later did not show a higher survival rate.Conclusions. HCC is an emerging complication of cirrhosis in HIV-infected patients. A sharp increase in its incidence has occurred in those also infected by HCV in the recent years. Unfortunately, HCC is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage, and mortality continues to be very high, with no significant changes in recent years. Earlier diagnosis, which may allow potentially curative therapy, is necessary.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2012; 56(1). DOI:10.1093/cid/cis777 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sustained virological response (SVR) after therapy with interferon plus ribavirin reduces liver-related complications and mortality in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). We assessed the effect of SVR on HIV progression and mortality not related to liver disease. An observational cohort study including consecutive HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with interferon plus ribavirin between 2000 and 2008 in 19 centers in Spain. Of 1599 patients, 626 (39%) had an SVR. After a median follow-up of approximately 5 years, we confirmed that failure to achieve an SVR was associated with an increased risk of liver-related events and liver-related death. We also observed higher rates of the following events in nonresponders than in responders: AIDS-defining conditions (rate per 100 person years, 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), .59-1.10] vs 0.29 [.10-.48]; P= .003), non-liver-related deaths (0.65 [.42-.87] vs 0.16 [.02-.30]; P = .002), and non-liver-related, non-AIDS-related deaths (0.55 [.34-.75] vs 0.16 [.02-.30]; P = .002). Cox regression analysis showed that the adjusted hazard ratios of new AIDS-defining conditions, non-liver-related deaths, and non-liver-related, non-AIDS-related deaths for nonresponders compared with responders were 1.90 (95% CI, .89-4.10; P = .095), 3.19 (1.21-8.40; P = .019), and 2.85 (1.07-7.60; P = .036), respectively. Our findings suggest that eradication of HCV after therapy with interferon plus ribavirin in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients is associated not only with a reduction in liver-related events but also with a reduction in HIV progression and mortality not related to liver disease.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2012; 55(5):728-36. DOI:10.1093/cid/cis500 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the most frequent resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) to lopinavir/ritonavir in a cohort of patients attended in daily practice. We retrospectively identified 195 multitreated subjects with virological failure. Patients were classified as follows: (i) 71 (36.4%) never received lopinavir/ritonavir (lopinavir/ritonavir naive); (ii) 75 (38.5%) had previously failed on lopinavir/ritonavir; and (iii) 49 (25.1%) were on lopinavir/ritonavir at failure. RAM patterns were assessed. Medians, IQRs, percentages, Kruskal-Wallis, χ(2) or Fisher's exact test, and multinomial logistic regression were used whenever appropriate. L10I/F, K20R, L24I, L33F, M36I, M46I/L, I47V, G48V, F53L, I54V, A71V, G73S, V82A, I84V and L90M (all with P ≤ 0.037) were protease RAMs overexpressed in patients with lopinavir/ritonavir failure. L10I, M36I, M46I, I54V, L63P, A71V, V82A, I84V and L90M were the most common in lopinavir/ritonavir-naive patients. Other IAS-USA RAMs for lopinavir/ritonavir (L10R/V, K20M, V32I, I47A, I50V, I54L/A/M/T/S, A71T, L76V and V82F/T/S) were not associated with previous or current failure to lopinavir/ritonavir. Lopinavir/ritonavir failure was associated with the number of protease RAMs (OR = 1.146, 95% CI = 1.287, 1.626), higher exposure to protease inhibitors, and the presence of E44D, L33F, I54V and I84V. In multitreated patients with previous or current lopinavir/ritonavir failure, some protease mutations are selected at significantly greater rates. L10I, M36I, I54V, L63P, A71V, V82A and L90M were found in >50% of cases. Thus, their presence should be expected when genotypic testing results are not available. The number of protease RAMs and higher prior exposures to protease inhibitors were significantly associated with lopinavir/ritonavir failure.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 03/2012; 67(6):1462-9. DOI:10.1093/jac/dks080 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of antiretroviral drugs on the response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin remain uncertain. We evaluated whether antiretroviral drugs affected the response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a retrospective analysis of two cohorts of HIV/HCV-co-infected patients treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin between 2001 and 2007 in Spain. The outcome measure was sustained virological response (SVR). Logistic regression models were used to test possible associations between non-response and pre-treatment characteristics, including accompanying antiretroviral drugs. The study sample comprised 1701 patients: 63% were infected with HCV genotype (G) 1 or 4 and 88% were taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Factors independently associated with increased odds of SVR were G2 or 3, HVC RNA <500,000 IU/mL and CDC clinical category A or B. When we adjusted for these prognostic factors and dose of ribavirin/kg, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of SVR for patients without HAART was 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.88; P = 0.144]. Taking the backbone of tenofovir and lamivudine/emtricitabine as a reference, we found that, with the exception of regimens including zidovudine, the effect of other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbones had little effect on SVR. The AOR of SVR for zidovudine and lamivudine was 0.65 (95% CI 0.46-0.93, P = 0.017). We carried out several sensitivity analyses, the results of which were consistent with the findings of the primary analysis. Our results suggest that, with the exception of regimens including zidovudine, accompanying antiretroviral drugs have little effect on the virological response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 09/2011; 66(12):2843-9. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkr362 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information concerning lipid disturbances in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is scarce. The objective of the study is to describe the lipid profile in a large cohort of HIV-infected women on contemporary ART and analyse differences between regimes and patient's characteristics. Observational, multicentre, cross-sectional study from the Spanish VACH Cohort. 922 women on stable ART without lipid-lowering treatment were included. Median age was 42 years, median CD4 lymphocyte count was 544 cells/mm3, and 85.6% presented undetectable HIV-1 viral load. Median total cholesterol (TC) was 189 mg/dL (interquartile range, IQR, 165-221), HDL cholesterol 53 mg/dL (IQR, 44-64), LDL cholesterol 108 mg/dL (IQR, 86-134), and triglycerides 116 mg/dL (IQR, 85-163). Mean accumulated time on ART was 116 months; 47.4% were on NNRTI-based regimes, 44.7% on PI, and 6.7% on only-NRTI therapy. 43.8% were also hepatitis C (HCV) coinfected. Patients on PI treatment presented higher TC/HDL ratio than those on NNRTI (p < 0.001). Significantly higher HDL values were observed in NNRTI-treated patients. HCV-coinfected patients presented lower TC/HDL ratio than the non HCV-coinfected. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with TC/HDL ratio were age, triglyceride levels and HCV co-infection. PI treatment presented a non-significant association with higher TC/HDL ratio. In HIV-infected women, the NNRTI-based ART is associated with a better lipid profile than the PI-based. Factors unrelated to ART selection may also exert an independent, significant influence on lipids; in particular, age, and triglyceride levels are associated with an increased TC/HDL ratio while HCV co-infection is associated with a reduced TC/HDL ratio.
    BMC Women's Health 08/2011; 11:36. DOI:10.1186/1472-6874-11-36 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to analyze the impact of high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on renal lesions observed in autopsies of HIV patients. Clinical records and renal pathologic samples from 100 HIV patients, who had died between 1984 and 2006, were reviewed, 61 before 1997 (group I) and 39 after. 24 of them had not received HAART (group II) and 15 had (group III). Premortem clinical and analytical data were obtained. Renal samples were stained with hematoxilin-eosin, PAS, Masson trichrome and silver-methenamine. The final pathologic diagnosis was recorded along with the findings at glomerular, tubular and interstitial levels. HIVAN was defined as the presence of focal or segmental glomerulosclerosis with glomerular collapse and microcystic tubulo -interstitial lesions. The main causes of death were infections 68%, tumours 14%, and others 18%, especially liver diseases. Renal failure was present in 42% at the time of death. A predominance of tubular lesions exists in the three study groups, followed by interstitial lesions and glomerular lesions. The main diagnoses were acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and septic nephritis. Four cases of HIVAN were found. When the subjects who received HAART treatment were compared with those who did not, a significantly higher percentage of interstitial lesions in the group with HAART was observed. There were also more cases of acute tubular necrosis but these differences were not statistically significant. Renal lesions were frequent in HIV patients independent of the presence or absence of HAART.
    Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 01/2010; 30(4):420-6. DOI:10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2010.Jun.10456 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:The aim of the present study is to analyze the impact of high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on renal lesions observed in autopsies of HIV patients. Subjects and methods: Clinical records and renal pathologic samples from 100 HIV patients, who had died between 1984 and 2006, were reviewed, 61 before 1997 (group I) and 39 after. 24 of them had not received HAART (group II) and 15 had (group III). Premortem clinical and analytical data were obtained. Renal samples were stained with hematoxilin-eosin, PAS, Masson trichrome and silver-methenamine. Final pathologic diagnosis was recorded along with the findings at glomerular, tubular and interstitial levels. HIVAN was defined by the presence of focal or segmental glomerulosclerosis with glomerular collapse and microcystic tubulo-interstitial lesions. Results: The main causes of death were infections 68%, tumours 14%, and others 18%, especially liver diseases. Renal failure was present in 42% at the time of the dead. A predominance of tubular lesions exists in the three study groups. The main diagnoses were acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and septic nephritis. Four cases of HIVAN were found. In subjects under HAART more interstitial lesions have been observed. There were also more cases of acute tubular necrosis but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Renal lesions were frequent in HIV patients independent of the presence or the at absence of HAART.
    Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 12/2009; 30(4):420-426. · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 10/2009; 27. · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • HIV Medicine 10/2009; 10(2). · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The spectrum of complications emerging in successfully treated HIV-infected patients has dramatically changed since the advent of HAART. Typical AIDS-defining illnesses have been substituted by new comorbid conditions that threaten even those patients who maintain virologic suppression. Proper management of cardiovascular risk, and early diagnosis of AIDS-related and, particularly, non-AIDS-related malignancies (including papilomavirus-related neoplasms) must be introduced into the routine of care. Hot areas of investigation include HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, hepatitis B and C coinfection, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and tuberculosis. Bone and kidney long-term toxicities and lipoatrophy remain as issues of paramount importance. The identification and early treatment of immune reconstitution disease is also of major interest, specially in those patients starting their antiretroviral treatment with severe CD4 cell depletion. The present review focuses on these twelve areas of increasing interest for physicians currently facing successfully treated HIV+ patients.
    Current HIV research 08/2009; 7(4):365-77. DOI:10.2174/157016209788680633 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The strategy of switching nevirapine (NVP) twice daily to once daily was evaluated. Forty-eight-week randomized, open, multicenter trial. Stable HIV-infected patients on NVP twice daily for >12-18 weeks with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) <2.5, the upper normal limit were randomized to continue their regimen or switch to NVP 400 mg once daily. Primary end point was the proportion of ALT/aspartate transaminase (AST) > or =grade 3. Two hundred eighty-nine patients were included, mean CD4 620 cells per microliter. Noninferiority was demonstrated in the per protocol analysis, with 97.9% (once daily) and 99.3% (twice daily) of patients event free (difference, 1.4%; 95% confidence interval, -1.95% to 5.4%), whereas 81.8% vs. 93.8% were event free by intent-to-treat switch = toxicity analysis (difference, 12%; 95% confidence interval, 4.6% to 19.4%). Only 4 patients (3 once daily, 1 twice daily) had NVP-related grade 3/4 ALT/AST increases, but in 2 of them (once daily), transaminases decreased despite continuation with NVP. Two other once daily patients presented grade 3/4 ALT/AST increase due to well-documented acute hepatitis A virus or hepatitis C virus infection. Grade 2 ALT/AST increases occurred in 11.2% (once daily) vs. 10.3% (twice daily) of patients (P = 0.80). A larger number of once daily patients were lost to follow-up/violated protocol (15% vs. 5%). In patients on standard twice daily NVP-containing regimens for at least 12-18 weeks, per protocol analysis showed that switching to once daily NVP was not inferior to continued twice daily NVP in terms of the predefined noninferiority margin of 10% for hepatotoxicity.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 02/2009; 50(4):390-6. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a0cc · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preliminary data suggest that a once-daily combination of lamivudine, didanosine and efavirenz is an effective alternative regimen for antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients. However, data from randomized trials comparing this combination versus standard first-line regimens are not available yet. In an observational study, we analyse the efficacy and tolerability of didanosine plus lamivudine and efavirenz versus zidovudine plus lamivudine and efavirenz in a cohort of therapy naive patients. We performed an observational study on prospectively collected data from patients participating in a multicentre Spanish treatment-naive cohort (VACH cohort). Efficacy was assessed comparing time to therapeutic failure and CD4 cell recovery. Safety was analysed comparing the proportion of patients who discontinued therapy for toxicity or any other reason. Overall, 219 patients treated with once-daily didanosine/lamivudine/efavirenz and 409 patients receiving twice-daily zidovudine/lamivudine (Combivir) plus efavirenz were evaluated. By intent-to treat analysis (non-completers and therapeutic change=failure), time to treatment failure was similar in both groups of treatment: 40.0 months (95% CI 23.3-56.8 months) among patients on didanosine/lamivudine/efavirenz and 33.3 months (95% CI 25.6-41.1 months) in patients treated with zidovudine/lamivudine/efavirenz (P=0.253). The risk of failure due to treatment change was almost double among patients treated with zidovudine/lamivudine/efavirenz compared with those who received didanosine/lamivudine/efavirenz. Our data suggest that didanosine/lamivudine/efavirenz is a combination with an efficacy comparable to zidovudine/lamivudine/efavirenz as first-line therapy for HIV infection. The risk of treatment change was significantly higher among patients treated with zidovudine/lamivudine/efavirenz than in those starting therapy with didanosine/lamivudine/efavirenz.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2008; 63(1):189-96. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkn450 · 5.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

518 Citations
170.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
    • University of Oviedo
      Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
  • 2007
    • Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
    • Hospital Carlos III - Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1999–2004
    • University of Valencia
      • Departamento de Microbiología y Ecología
      Valencia, Valencia, Spain