[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During development of a novel method for constructing a series of deletions in Bacillus subtilis using an isogenic set of gene-disrupted mutants created by integration of pMutin, deletion of the trnS operon, consisting of seven tRNA genes, was found to affect cell growth, development of competence and spore formation. A suppressor (sts1) of the DeltatrnS mutant was isolated, sequenced and found to have undergone a single base change, CAG to GAG, in the first anticodon of tRNA(Leu), in the trnB operon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutational inactivation of both nonA and nonB genes are required for the permissiveness of Bacillus subtilis Marburg cells to infection by phage SP10. By transformational analysis of the nonA strain with DNAs from gently lysed protoplasts carrying the integrative plasmid pMUTIN (em) insertions in every 20 kb along the whole chromosome, we have identified the nonA to be the cured state of endogenous prophage SPbeta. Direct DNA sequencing, on the other hand, revealed one nonsense mutation of nonB in ydiR, which is a component gene of the intrinsic restriction system BsuMR of B.subtilis Marburg. Introduction of the wild type ydiR into the nonB strain at aprE locus resulted in complementation of nonB. Furthermore, as the SP10 genome was found to possess multiple BsuM target sites, it is considered that SP10 can infect and multiply in B.subtilis cells, which are SPbeta free and possess a defective BsuMR restriction system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a simple semi-synthetic competence and sporulation medium (CSM), we found evidence that Bacillus subtilis cells transformed in the competence phase can sporulate, indicating that genetic information acquired during the competence phase is inherited by the next generation after germination of the transformed spores. Moreover, the results from mixed cell culture experiments suggest that spontaneous genetic transformation can occur between competent cells and DNA released from lysed cells in the natural environment. We also found evidence that the spontaneous transformation system can be used for genetic mapping in B. subtilis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have analysed changes in the composition of ribosomal proteins during cell growth in Bacillus subtilis. Ribosome fractions were prepared from B. subtilis cells at different phases of growth and were separated by radical-free and highly reducing (RFHR) two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We identified 50 ribosomal proteins, including two paralogues of L31 protein (RpmE and YtiA). Although the ribosome fraction extracted from exponentially growing cells contained RpmE protein, this protein disappeared during the stationary phase. In contrast, YtiA was detected in the ribosome fraction extracted after the end of exponential growth. Expression of the ytiA gene encoding YtiA was found to be negatively controlled by Zur, a zinc-specific transcriptional repressor that controls zinc transport operons. Analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) indicated that RpmE contains one zinc ion per molecule of protein. In addition, mutagenesis of the rpmE gene encoding RpmE revealed that Cys-36 and Cys-39, located within a CxxC motif, are required not only for binding zinc but also for the accumulation of RpmE in the cell. Taken together, these results indicate that zinc plays an essential role in the alternation between two types of L31 protein in the ribosome of B. subtilis.