ABSTRACT: To evaluate the percentage and risk indicators leading to retinal redetachment in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) patients with CMV (cytomegalovirus) retinitis related retinal detachments that were repaired with silicone oil, and then subsequently underwent oil removal.
Retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series.
The study cohort consisted of a series of 15 eyes in 14 patients with HIV and CMV retinitis with a retinal detachment (RD) repaired with silicone oil at a single center and followed from the time of the CMV retinitis diagnosis through the time of silicone oil removal. Patient- and eye-specific data regarding demographic and clinical characteristics were collected retrospectively and statistical analyses were performed to compare differences between the eyes that had retinal detachments versus the eyes that remained attached following removal of silicone oil.
Eight eyes (53%) redetached after a median of 4.0 months following oil removal. Cataract surgery performed at the time of oil removal was a statistically significant risk factor for redetachment (P = .01). There was a trend for lower CD4 levels to be associated with a higher risk of retinal redetachment. The use of a scleral buckle at the time of surgery (initial RD repair or at the time of oil removal) did not reduce the risk of redetachment.
Approximately half of the eyes with CMV related retinal detachment may safely undergo oil removal. The risk factor for redetachment was simultaneous cataract extraction at the time of silicone oil removal. There was also a trend for lower CD4 levels to be associated with a higher risk of retinal redetachment.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 12/2005; 140(5):786-793. · 4.22 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine whether treatment with valganciclovir will improve visual acuity in eyes with immune recovery uveitis complicated by macular edema.
Prospective open label controlled Phase II drug study.
Five patients with chronic macular edema as a result of immune recovery uveitis were studied. Baseline fluorescein angiograms, best-corrected ETDRS visions, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) lymphoproliferative T-cell function assays were obtained and repeated after three months of valganciclovir therapy (900 mg daily) and again three months after withdrawal of therapy.
Vision improved by a mean of 11 letters in the treatment phase (P =.05). Graded angiograms showed three patients had treatment reduction of macular edema. One patient had rebound increase in macular edema after the withdrawal phase. The CMV lymphoproliferative response was not affected by the valganciclovir.
Results suggest valganciclovir treatment may benefit visual acuity in patients with macular edema from immune recovery uveitis.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 05/2004; 137(4):636-8. · 4.22 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We report a case of uveitic acute angle closure glaucoma in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated with inactive cytomegalovirus retinitis and immune recovery vitritis. We conducted a long-term, follow-up examination of a 47-year-old male with AIDS and inactive cytomegalovirus retinitis caused by immune recovery on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We found vitritis and ultimate development of uveitic glaucoma in the postoperative periods following repair of retinal detachment and extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implant. An episode of acute angle closure secondary to posterior synechiae and iris bombé subsequently developed, requiring peripheral laser iridotomy. Immune recovery in the setting of inactive cytomegalovirus retinitis can result in intraocular inflammation severe enough to cause angle closure glaucoma and profound ocular morbidity.
Ophthalmic surgery and lasers 33(5):421-5.
ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in restoring immune function in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has led to changes in the incidence, natural history, management, and sequelae of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated retinopathies, especially cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.
The medical literature pertaining to HIV-associated retinopathies was reviewed with special attention to the differences in incidence, management strategies, and complications of these conditions in the eras both before and after the widespread use of HAART.
In the pre-HAART era, CMV retinitis was the most common HIV-associated retinopathy, occurring in 20%-40% of patients. Median time to progression was 47 to 104 days, mean survival after diagnosis was 6 to 10 months, and indefinite intravenous maintenance therapy was mandatory. Retinal detachment occurred in 24%-50% of patients annually. Herpetic retinopathy and toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis occurred in 1%-3% of patients and Pneumocystis carinii choroiditis, syphilitic retinitis, tuberculous choroiditis, cryptococcal choroiditis, and intraocular lymphoma occurred infrequently. In the HAART era the incidence of CMV retinitis has declined 80% and survival after diagnosis has increased to over 1 year. Immune recovery in patients on HAART has allowed safe discontinuation of maintenance therapy in patients with regressed CMV retinitis and other HIV-associated retinopathies. Immune recovery uveitis (IRU) is a HAART dependent inflammatory response that may occur in up to 63% of patients with regressed CMV retinitis and elevated CD4 counts and is associated with vision loss from epiretinal membrane, cataract, and cystoid macular edema.
The incidence, visual morbidity, and mortality of CMV retinitis and other HIV-associated retinopathies have decreased in the era of HAART and lifelong maintenance therapy may safely be discontinued in patients with restored immune function. Patients with regressed CMV retinitis, however, may still lose vision from epiretinal membrane, cystoid macular edema, and cataract secondary to IRU.
Retina 25(5):633-49; quiz 682-3. · 2.81 Impact Factor