[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two major lung diseases. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements represent driver mutations that are frequently assessed on initial evaluation of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study focused on the expression of driver mutations in NSCLC patients presenting with COPD and further evaluated the association between NSCLC and COPD. Data from 501 consecutive patients with histologically proven recurrent or metastatic NSCLC were analyzed retrospectively. The patients underwent spirometry and genotyping of EGFR, ALK, and KRAS in tissue samples. Patient characteristics and expression of driver mutations were compared between the COPD and non-COPD groups. Among 350 patients with spirometric results, 106 (30.3%) were diagnosed with COPD, 108 (30.9%) had EGFR mutations, 31 (8.9%) had KRAS mutations, and 34 (9.7%) showed ALK rearrangements. COPD was independently associated with lower prevalences of EGFR mutations (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.254-0.931, p = 0.029) and ALK rearrangements (95% CI, 0.065-0.600, p = 0.004). The proportions of EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements decreased as the severity of airflow obstruction increased (p = 0.001). In never smokers, the prevalence of EGFR mutations was significantly lower in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group (12.7% vs. 49.0%, p = 0.002). COPD-related NSCLC patients exhibited low prevalences of EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements compared with the non-COPD group. Further studies are required regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying lung cancer associated with COPD.
PLoS ONE 11/2015; 10(11):e0142306. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0142306 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Although exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with various medical conditions, only limited data are available on its association with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), particularly data obtained with the EQ-5D or EQ visual analogue scale (VAS).
This cross-sectional study evaluated 10,532 adult never-smokers who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. By using linear regression models to adjust for possible confounders and incorporating survey weights in analyses, the association between exposure to SHS and HRQOL-measured with the EQ-5D index and the EQ-VAS score-was evaluated. Data were further stratified by the amount of exposure time.
After weighted analysis and adjustment, exposure to SHS was significantly associated with lower measures on the EQ-5D index (β = -0.007, P = 0.005) and EQ-VAS score (β = -1.936, P < 0.001). When comparing the unexposed group with the groups exposed <2h/day and ≥2h/day, exposure to a longer duration of SHS was significantly associated with lower scores on the EQ-5D index and the EQ-VAS score.
In conclusion, exposure to SHS was associated with reduced HRQOL measured by the EQ-5D index and EQ-VAS score, revealing a dose-response relationship.
PLoS ONE 09/2015; 10(9):e0138731. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0138731 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectiveAclidinium bromide (‘aclidinium’) is a novel, inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist. Therapeutic effects of aclidinium on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been demonstrated in Caucasian populations in several clinical trials. This was a randomized, double-blind, multi-centre phase-3 clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aclidinium in a Korean population.MethodsA total of 263 Korean patients with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomized to receive aclidinium (400 μg, bd) (Genuai) or placebo via a dry-powder inhaler. The primary end point was change in trough forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at 12 weeks. Other lung function measurements, COPD exacerbation, health status (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), dyspnoea (Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) and safety were assessed throughout the study period.ResultsA significant improvement in trough FEV1 from baseline was shown with aclidinium compared with the placebo (0.126 L, P < 0.0001). Significant improvements were also demonstrated in peak FEV1 (0.190 L, P < 0.0001), SGRQ and TDI. Furthermore, aclidinium significantly reduced the prevalence of exacerbations (aclidinium, 5.4%; placebo, 15.6%, P < 0.05), and the duration of exacerbations was shorter compared with placebo (rate ratio: 0.27; P < 0.05). Aclidinium (400 μg) was well tolerated and the prevalence of adverse events was comparable with the placebo.Conclusions
Inhaled aclidinium (400 μg) was shown to be safe and efficacious in Korean patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.Clinical trial registration: NCT01636401 at Clinicaltrials.gov
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Patients with COPD are at an increased risk of osteoporosis. Although many studies have addressed the relationship between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and bone health, this relationship has not been fully investigated in patients with COPD. In this study, we investigated the association of VDR polymorphisms with bone mineral density (BMD) and other clinical parameters in patients with COPD.
Patients and methods
In total, 200 patients with COPD were included in this study. The VDR polymorphisms rs1544410 (A/G-BsmI), rs7975232 (A/C-ApaI), rs731236 (C/T-TaqI), and rs10735810 (C/T-FokI) were determined by Sanger sequencing using blood DNA samples. BMD of the lumbar vertebra and the femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Other clinical parameters were also evaluated. Haplotype and multivariate analyses were also performed.
Sex, body mass index, steroid use, percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly influenced the risk of osteoporosis. Patients with osteoporosis were more likely to carry the rs7975232 C allele compared to normal patients with BMD. Haplotypes GCT and GAT were related to osteoporosis. Patients without the haplotype GAT allele showed a significantly lower T-score at the femoral neck and an increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR]= 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.20–6.48, P=0.018) compared with carriers in the dominant model.
Genetic variations in VDR are significantly associated with osteoporosis among patients with COPD. Further studies are required to confirm the role of the VDR polymorphisms in osteoporosis among patients with COPD.
International Journal of COPD 09/2015; 10(1):1809. DOI:10.2147/COPD.S91576 · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objective:
According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines, either a modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score of ≥2 or a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) score of ≥10 is considered to represent COPD patients who are more symptomatic. We aimed to identify the ideal CAT score that exhibits minimal discrepancy with the mMRC score.
A receiver operating characteristic curve of the CAT score was generated for an mMRC scores of 1 and 2. A concordance analysis was applied to quantify the association between the frequencies of patients categorized into GOLD groups A-D using symptom cutoff points. A κ-coefficient was calculated.
For an mMRC score of 2, a CAT score of 15 showed the maximum value of Youden's index with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.70 and 0.66, respectively (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.77). For an mMRC score of 1, a CAT score of 10 showed the maximum value of Youden's index with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.77 and 0.65, respectively (AUC 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.83). The κ value for concordance was highest between an mMRC score of 1 and a CAT score of 10 (0.66), followed by an mMRC score of 2 and a CAT score of 15 (0.56), an mMRC score of 2 and a CAT score of 10 (0.47), and an mMRC score of 1 and a CAT score of 15 (0.43).
A CAT score of 10 was most concordant with an mMRC score of 1 when classifying patients with COPD into GOLD groups A-D. However, a discrepancy remains between the CAT and mMRC scoring systems.
International Journal of COPD 08/2015; 10(1):1623-31. DOI:10.2147/COPD.S87147 · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 18-year-old woman was evaluated for a chronic productive cough and dyspnea. She was subsequently diagnosed with mediastinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A covered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) was implanted to relieve narrowing in for both main bronchi. The NHL went into complete remission after six chemotherapy cycles, but atelectasis developed in the left lower lobe 18 months after SEMS insertion. The left main bronchus was completely occluded by granulation tissue. However, the right main bronchus and intermedius bronchus were patent. Granulation tissue was observed adjacent to the SEMS. The granulation tissue and the SEMS were excised, and a silicone stent was successfully implanted using a rigid bronchoscope. SEMS is advantageous owing to its easy implantation, but there are considerable potential complications such as severe reactive granulation, stent rupture, and ventilation failure in serious cases. Therefore, SEMS should be avoided whenever possible in patients with benign airway disease. This case highlights that SEMS implantation should be avoided even in malignant airway obstruction cases if the underlying malignancy is curable.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 01/2015; 78(1):31-5. DOI:10.4046/trd.2015.78.1.31
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with poor prognosis. The IGF-1R pathway activates downstream targets that bypass dependency in signals from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which mediates resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The aim of the present study was to determine the predictive role of IGF-1R expression in the response to EGFR-TKIs of NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations.
Materials and methods:
We retrospectively studied 62 NSCLC patients who had activating EGFR mutations and received TKIs. Protein expression of IGF-1R, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) were measured by immunohistochemical staining. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictive factors associated with the responses to EGFR-TKIs. The relationship of progression-free survival (PFS) with IGF-1R expression and the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) were examined.
Of 62 EGFR mutation positive patients, 26 expressed IGF-1R, and 13 had DM. In the multivariate analysis, young age, squamous cell carcinoma, and IGF-1R expression were independently associated with a shorter PFS after treatment with EGFR-TKIs. Patients expressing IGF-1R showed a significantly shorter PFS in response to EGFR-TKIs compared with those lacking IGF-1R expression (9.1 vs. 20.1 months, p=0.005). The 13 patients with DM were more likely to express IGF-1R (p=0.001) and had shorter PFS times when treated with first-line EGFR-TKIs (7.6 vs. 18.6 months, p=0.005), compared with those without DM.
IGF-1R expression was a negative predictive factor for a response to EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations. Moreover, patients with DM highly expressed IGF-1R in tumor tissues, which was associated with a poor response to first-line TKI therapy. Further studies aimed at overcoming EGFR-TKI resistance will need to also address IGF-1R pathways.
Lung Cancer 01/2015; 87(3). DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2015.01.004 · 3.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worksite smoking cessation programs offer accessibility of the target population, availability of occupational health support, and the potential for peer pressure and peer support. The purpose of this study was to identify the efficacy of the financial incentives given to various teams in the workplace. St. Paul's Hospital's employees were enrolled. Each team of employees consisted of smoking participants and non-smoking fellow workers from the same department. The financial incentive of 50000 won (about $45) was rewarded to the team for each successful participant-not to individual members-after the first week and then after one month. If the smokers in the team remained abstinent for a longer time period, the team was given an incentive of 100000 won for each successful participant after 3 and 6 months. A total 28 smoking participants and 6 teams were enrolled. Self-reported abstinence rates validated by urinary cotinine test at 3, 6, and 12 months after the initial cessation were 61%, 54%, and 50%, respectively. Smokers with high nicotine dependence scores or those who began participation 1 month after enrollment initiation had a lower abstinence rate at 3 months, but not at 6 and 12 months. Participants who succeeded at smoking cessation at 12 months were more likely to be older and have a longer smoking duration history. The financial incentives given to teams could be promising and effective to improve long-term rates of smoking cessation. This approach could use peer pressure and peer support in the workplace over a longer period.
Yonsei Medical Journal 01/2015; 56(1):295-9. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2015.56.1.295 · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that OSA and obesity are strongly associated, few Asian studies have examined the associations between anthropometric obesity indices and OSA, especially in the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric obesity indices on OSA in a Korean population.
Anthropometric indices, including neck circumference, waist circumference, and body mass index, were assessed in 383 consecutive subjects with suspected OSA.
Of the 383 subjects assessed, 316 (82.5%) were diagnosed with OSA. Neck circumference (r = 0.518), waist circumference (r = 0.570), and body mass index (r = 0.512) were correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (p<0.001, for all). After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and smoking, a logistic regression model showed that neck circumference [odds ratio (OR), 1.414; p<0.001)], waist circumference (OR, 1.114; p<0.001), and body mass index (OR, 1.364; p<0.001) were associated with OSA. The linear regression model showed that neck circumference (β = 3.748, p<0.001), waist circumference (β = 1.272, p<0.001), and body mass index (β = 3.082, p<0.001) were associated with apnea-hypopnea index. The cut-off values for predicting OSA were determined as 34.5 cm for neck circumference, 76.5 cm for waist circumference, and 23.05 kg/m2 for body mass index for females, and 38.75 cm for neck circumference, 88.5 cm for waist circumference, and 24.95 kg/m2 for body mass index for males.
Increased anthropometric indices were significantly associated with the presence and severity of OSA in a Korean population. In addition, this study demonstrated the cut-off values for body mass index, waist circumference, and neck circumference for increased OSA risk.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114463. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114463 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study investigated the efficacy and safety of the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) combination fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) in Asian asthma patients.
A 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, active-comparator, parallel-group, multicenter study. 309 Asian asthma patients (≥12 years, uncontrolled with high-strength ICS or mid-dose ICS/LABA) were randomized (1:1) and included in the intent-to-treat population; 155 received once-daily FF/VI 200/25 mcg and 154 received twice-daily fluticasone propionate (FP) 500 mcg. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in daily evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) averaged over 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints were mean change from baseline in % rescue-free 24-h periods, daily morning PEF, % symptom-free 24-h periods, and overall Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score. Safety assessments were performed.
For change from baseline in daily evening PEF, the adjusted mean treatment difference for FF/VI versus FP of 28.5 L/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.1, 36.9) was clinically and statistically significant (p < 0.001). For change from baseline in % rescue-free 24-h periods, the adjusted mean treatment difference (1.0%; 95% CI: -7.3, 9.2) was not statistically significant (p = 0.821). Statistical significance could not be inferred for the remaining endpoints due to the statistical hierarchy employed. Incidence of on-treatment adverse events was similar with FF/VI (26%; 3% treatment-related; n = 1 serious) and FP (27%; 3% treatment-related; n = 2 serious); none were fatal. No further safety concerns were identified.
FF/VI improved evening PEF over 12 weeks versus FP in Asian patients, with a similar safety profile. The results are generally consistent with a global study comparing the same treatments.
Respiratory Medicine 10/2014; 109(1). DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2014.10.012 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Cigarette smoking increases chronic airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which may result in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and tumor growth in the lung. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors are known to reduce inflammation, and they have recently been introduced for the treatment of COPD. We assessed the impact of rolipram, a selective PDE4 inhibitor, on chemoprevention in benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung cancer in mice.
Materials and methods:
Female A/J mice were given a single dose of benzo(a)pyrene. Intraperitoneal administration of rolipram began 2 weeks post-carcinogen treatment and continued tri-weekly for 28 weeks. Tumor load was determined by averaging the total tumor volume in each group.
Benzo(a)pyrene induced an average tumor size of 10.4 ± 1.7 tumors per mouse, with an average tumor load of 25.9 ± 3.8 mm(3). Rolipram significantly decreased tumor number, by 45.1%, and tumor load, by 52.9%, compared with the benzo(a)pyrene group. Ki67 staining was reduced in rolipram-treated mice compared with benzo(a)pyrene-treated mice. The increased expression of EMT markers caused by benzo(a)pyrene was inhibited by rolipram. Rolipram significantly attenuated NF-κB and Nrf2 expression in benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung cancer tissues.
In vivo experiments in the benzo(a)pyrene-induced model of lung cancer show that PDE4 inhibition significant inhibits lung carcinogenesis. Our results provide evidence that PDE4 inhibitors may be suitable for the prevention of the lung cancer in high-risk groups, for example, heavy smokers and patients with COPD.
Experimental Lung Research 10/2014; 40(10). DOI:10.3109/01902148.2014.950769 · 1.41 Impact Factor