ABSTRACT: Prevention and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis are still a matter of debate among obstetricians, pediatricians and epidemiologists. There is no consensus about antenatal screening and diagnostic tests, nor there is about treatment for presumed infection in pregnancy. As an example of this type of organisation for health care delivery, a regional model has been promoted as a multidisciplinary approach for prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. The model had been designed on the national guidelines of the National Health Institute (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS).
Suspected maternal infections are referred and seen as outpatients at our centre on a specific day of the week; maternal investigation (specific IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG avidity titres) are performed at the Institute of Virology of the University of Bari, and patients are started on spiramycin. All cases of true or presumed seroconversion are counselled for amniotic fluid sampling and the sample is sent to ISS. In cases of late seroconversion and positive amniotic fluid results, patients are prescribed pyrimethamine+sulphonamide+folinic acid and alternate spiramycin until the end of pregnancy. A fetal-neonatal follow-up is performed in all cases.
During the period 1999-2001, 180 cases of presumed toxoplasmosis infection have been referred (average 60 cases per year). We have been able to reclute, since the adoption of the national network protocol, 1/3 of presumed regional cases with a positive increasing trend.
The service for prenatal diagnosis of toxoplasma gondii infection has definitely benefitted from the adoption of this protocol, which combines adherence to a national network and pays respect to regional requirements.
Minerva ginecologica 05/2004; 56(2):171-8.
Gastroenterology 01/1998; 114. · 11.68 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to evaluate the outcome of a group of fetuses with mild ventriculomegaly.
We retrospectively collected all cases of antenatally diagnosed mild enlargement of the lateral cerebral ventricles (transverse diameter of the atrium between 10 and 15 mm) between 1992 and 1997. Cases were included in the study if no other ultrasonic anomalies (including soft markers) were found. TORCH screening, karyotyping, search for associated anomalies and neurological examination (including imaging) were performed. Outcome information was available for all cases up to 30 months.
Fourteen cases were examined. TORCH was always negative, 1 case with a microdeletion of chromosome 1 was identified. During the course of pregnancy, 2 fetuses showed progression to frank hydrocephalus. Five cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum, 1 of lissencephaly and 1 of heterotopia were eventually diagnosed. After birth 2 syndromes were identified. Three babies died during the follow-up period, among the survivors 4 had severe neurological damage, 2 of them had no associated dysmorphic findings.
A heterogeneous group of central nervous system disorders may manifest antenatally as mild ventriculomegaly. The current management may not be able to identify dangerous conditions that present subtle dysmorphic features, or be able to predict abnormal outcome in most of the cases.
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 16(6):398-401. · 1.05 Impact Factor