P. A. R. Ade

University of British Columbia - Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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Publications (859)1801.17 Total impact

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    Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim, M. I. R. Alves, M. Arnaud, D. Arzoumanian, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, [......], L. Valenziano, J. Valiviita, B. Van Tent, P. Vielva, F. Villa, L. A. Wade, B. D. Wandelt, D. Yvon, A. Zacchei, A. Zonca
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    ABSTRACT: Planck observations at 353GHz provide the first fully-sampled maps of the polarized dust emission of interstellar filaments, offering unprecedented information on the structure of the magnetic field. We present the polarization properties of three nearby filaments, Musca, B211, and L1506. These three filaments have similar total intensities (Stokes I), while the variations of the Stokes Q and U are all different: the Musca filament is visible in the Q and U maps, B211 and L1506 are seen in the Q map but are not distinguishable in the U map, and the Q increase for L1506 is not spatially coincident with that of I. They all offer 3pc segments, along which both the filament and the background Stokes parameters are almost uniform. In all three cases, the polarization fraction (p) towards the filaments is smaller than that of their background. The polarized emission results from the combination of the magnetic field (B) structure and the dust polarization properties. We model the variations of the Stokes parameters across the filaments using variations solely of the orientation of B, assuming constant dust polarization fraction (p_0). Our modelling shows that the magnetic fields in the filaments and their background have an ordered component. We find that for L1506, the depolarization arises only from the rotation by 65^\circ of the plane of the sky (POS) projection of the field in the filament with respect to that of its background. For Musca and B211, the drop in p is due mostly to different orientations of B with respect to the POS inside and outside the filaments. The magnetic fields inside Musca and B211 are nearly orthogonal to their long axes, but almost parallel in the case of L1506. In spite of the degeneracy between p_0 and the angle of B with respect to the POS, we find that for Musca and B211 the quality of the fit is better for p_0 values larger than 13% and 7%, respectively.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of $E$-mode polarization and temperature-$E$-mode correlation in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using data from the first season of observations with SPTpol, the polarization-sensitive receiver currently installed on the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The observations used in this work cover 100~\sqdeg\ of sky with arcminute resolution at $150\,$GHz. We report the $E$-mode angular auto-power spectrum ($EE$) and the temperature-$E$-mode angular cross-power spectrum ($TE$) over the multipole range $500 < \ell \leq5000$. These power spectra improve on previous measurements in the high-$\ell$ (small-scale) regime. We fit the combination of the SPTpol power spectra, data from \planck\, and previous SPT measurements with a six-parameter \LCDM cosmological model. We find that the best-fit parameters are consistent with previous results. The improvement in high-$\ell$ sensitivity over previous measurements leads to a significant improvement in the limit on polarized point-source power: after masking sources brighter than 50\,mJy in unpolarized flux at 150\,GHz, we find a 95\% confidence upper limit on unclustered point-source power in the $EE$ spectrum of $D_\ell = \ell (\ell+1) C_\ell / 2 \pi < 0.40 \ \mu{\mbox{K}}^2$ at $\ell=3000$, indicating that future $EE$ measurements will not be limited by power from unclustered point sources in the multipole range $\ell < 3600$, and possibly much higher in $\ell.$
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14 May 2009 and has been scanning the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously since 12 August 2009. This paper gives an overview of the mission and its performance, the processing, analysis, and characteristics of the data, the scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. The science products include maps of the CMB and diffuse extragalactic foregrounds, a catalogue of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources, and a list of sources detected through the SZ effect. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data and a lensing likelihood are described. Scientific results include robust support for the standard six-parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements of its parameters, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large-scale anomalies in the temperature distribution of the CMB, first detected by WMAP, are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at greater than 25 sigma. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Planck finds a lower Hubble constant than found in some more local measures. Some tension is also present between the amplitude of matter fluctuations derived from CMB data and that derived from SZ data. The Planck and WMAP power spectra are offset from each other by an average level of about 2% around the first acoustic peak.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2014; 571(A1):1. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the CMB anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25sigma. We use the temperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting LCDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z=1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing potential. When combined with the temperature power spectrum, our measurement provides degeneracy-breaking power for parameter constraints; it improves CMB-alone constraints on curvature by a factor of two and also partly breaks the degeneracy between the amplitude of the primordial perturbation power spectrum and the optical depth to reionization, allowing a measurement of the optical depth to reionization which is independent of large-scale polarization data. Discarding scale information, our measurement corresponds to a 4% constraint on the amplitude of the lensing potential power spectrum, or a 2% constraint on the RMS amplitude of matter fluctuations at z~2.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2014; 571(A17):1. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an all-sky model of dust emission from the Planck 857, 545 and 353 GHz, and IRAS 100 micron data. Using a modified black-body fit to the data we present all-sky maps of the dust optical depth, temperature, and spectral index over the 353-3000 GHz range. This model is a tight representation of the data at 5 arcmin. It shows variations of the order of 30 % compared with the widely-used model of Finkbeiner, Davis, and Schlegel. The Planck data allow us to estimate the dust temperature uniformly over the whole sky, providing an improved estimate of the dust optical depth compared to previous all-sky dust model, especially in high-contrast molecular regions. An increase of the dust opacity at 353 GHz, tau_353/N_H, from the diffuse to the denser interstellar medium (ISM) is reported. It is associated with a decrease in the observed dust temperature, T_obs, that could be due at least in part to the increased dust opacity. We also report an excess of dust emission at HI column densities lower than 10^20 cm^-2 that could be the signature of dust in the warm ionized medium. In the diffuse ISM at high Galactic latitude, we report an anti-correlation between tau_353/N_H and T_obs while the dust specific luminosity, i.e., the total dust emission integrated over frequency (the radiance) per hydrogen atom, stays about constant. The implication is that in the diffuse high-latitude ISM tau_353 is not as reliable a tracer of dust column density as we conclude it is in molecular clouds where the correlation of tau_353 with dust extinction estimated using colour excess measurements on stars is strong. To estimate Galactic E(B-V) in extragalactic fields at high latitude we develop a new method based on the thermal dust radiance, instead of the dust optical depth, calibrated to E(B-V) using reddening measurements of quasars deduced from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2014; 571(A11):1. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dust-Hi correlation is used to characterize the emission properties of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) from far infrared wavelengths to microwave frequencies. The field of this investigation encompasses the part of the southern sky best suited to study the cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds. We cross-correlate sky maps from Planck, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE), at 17 frequencies from 23 to 3000 GHz, with the Parkes survey of the 21 cm line emission of neutral atomic hydrogen, over a contiguous area of 7500 deg2 centred on the southern Galactic pole. We present a general methodology to study the dust-H i correlation over the sky, including simulations to quantify uncertainties. Our analysis yields four specific results. (1) We map the temperature, submillimetre emissivity, and opacity of the dust per H-atom. The dust temperature is observed to be anti-correlated with the dust emissivity and opacity. We interpret this result as evidence of dust evolution within the diffuse ISM. The mean dust opacity is measured to be (7.1 ± 0.6) × 10−27 cm2 H−1 × (ν/353 GHz)1.53 ± 0.03 for 100 ≤ ν ≤ 353 GHz. This is a reference value to estimate hydrogen column densities from dust emission at submillimetre and millimetre wavelengths. (2) We map the spectral index βmm of dust emission at millimetre wavelengths (defined here as ν ≤ 353GHz), and find it to be remarkably constant at βmm = 1.51 ± 0.13. We compare it with the far infrared spectral index βFIR derived from greybody fits at higher frequencies, and find a systematic difference, βmm −βFIR = −0.15, which suggests that the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) flattens at ν ≤ 353 GHz. (3) We present spectral fits of the microwave emission correlated with Hi from 23 to 353 GHz, which separate dust and anomalous microwave emission (AME). We show that the flattening of the dust SED can be accounted for with an additional component with a blackbody spectrum. This additional component, which accounts for (26 ± 6)% of the dust emission at 100GHz, could represent magnetic dipole emission. Alternatively, it could account for an increasing contribution of carbon dust, or a flattening of the emissivity of amorphous silicates, at millimetre wavelengths. These interpretations make different predictions for the dust polarization SED. (4) We analyse the residuals of the dust-Hi correlation. We identify a Galactic contribution to these residuals, which we model with variations of the dust emissivity on angular scales smaller than that of our correlation analysis. This model of the residuals is used to quantify uncertainties of the CIB power spectrum in a companion Planck paper.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2014; 566(A55):1. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: POLARBEAR-2 is a next-generation receiver for precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)). Scheduled to deploy in early 2015, it will observe alongside the existing POLARBEAR-1 receiver, on a new telescope in the Simons Array on Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of Chile. For increased sensitivity, it will feature a larger area focal plane, with a total of 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers, with a design sensitivity of 4.1 uKrt(s). The focal plane will be cooled to 250 milliKelvin, and the bolometers will be read-out with 40x frequency domain multiplexing, with 36 optical bolometers on a single SQUID amplifier, along with 2 dark bolometers and 2 calibration resistors. To increase the multiplexing factor from 8x for POLARBEAR-1 to 40x for POLARBEAR-2 requires additional bandwidth for SQUID readout and well-defined frequency channel spacing. Extending to these higher frequencies requires new components and design for the LC filters which define channel spacing. The LC filters are cold resonant circuits with an inductor and capacitor in series with each bolometer, and stray inductance in the wiring and equivalent series resistance from the capacitors can affect bolometer operation. We present results from characterizing these new readout components. Integration of the readout system is being done first on a small scale, to ensure that the readout system does not affect bolometer sensitivity or stability, and to validate the overall system before expansion into the full receiver. We present the status of readout integration, and the initial results and status of components for the full array.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Future cosmology space missions will concentrate on measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background, which potentially carries invaluable information about the earliest phases of the evolution of our universe. Such ambitious projects will ultimately be limited by the sensitivity of the instrument and by the accuracy at which polarized foreground emission from our own Galaxy can be subtracted out. We present the PILOT balloon project which will aim at characterizing one of these foreground sources, the polarization of the dust continuum emission in the diffuse interstellar medium. The PILOT experiment will also constitute a test-bed for using multiplexed bolometer arrays for polarization measurements. We present the results of ground tests obtained just before the first flight of the instrument.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich (tSZ) effect is expected to provide a low scatter mass proxy for galaxy clusters since it is directly proportional to the cluster thermal energy. tSZ observations have proven to be a powerful tool to detect and study them but high angular resolution observations are now necessary to push their investigation at higher redshift. In this paper, we report high angular (< 20 arcsec) resolution tSZ observations of the high-redshift cluster CLJ1226.9+3332 (z=0.89). It was imaged at 150 and 260 GHz using the NIKA camera at the IRAM 30-meter telescope. The 150 GHz map shows that CLJ1226.9+3332 is morphologically relaxed on large scales with evidence of a disturbed core, while the 260 GHz channel is used mostly to identify point source contamination. NIKA data are combined with those of Planck and X-ray from Chandra to infer the cluster radial pressure, density, temperature and entropy distributions. The total mass profile of the cluster is derived, and we find $M_{500} = 5.96^{+1.02}_{-0.79} $ x $10^{14} M_{\odot}$ within the radius $R_{500} = 930^{+50}_{-43}$ kpc, at 68% confidence level ($R_{500}$ is the radius within which the average density is 500 times the critical density at the cluster's redshift). NIKA is the prototype camera of NIKA2, a KIDs (Kinetic Inductance Detectors) based instrument to be installed at the end of 2015. This work is, therefore, part of a pilot study aiming at optimizing tSZ NIKA2 large programs.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5 m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and ~3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid helium cooled cryostat will have a 28-day hold time and will utilize a closed-cycle $^3$He refrigerator to cool the detector arrays to 270 mK. This will enable a detailed mapping of more targets with higher polarization resolution than any other submillimeter experiment to date. BLAST-TNG will also be the first balloon-borne telescope to offer shared risk observing time to the community. This paper outlines the motivation for the project and the instrumental design.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The role of the magnetic field in the formation of the filamentary structures observed in the interstellar medium (ISM) is a debated topic. The Planck all-sky maps of linearly polarized emission from dust at 353GHz provide the required combination of imaging and statistics to study the correlation between the structures of the Galactic magnetic field and of interstellar matter, both in the diffuse ISM and in molecular clouds. The data reveal structures, or ridges, in the intensity map with counterparts in the Stokes Q and/or U maps. We focus on structures at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes with column density from $10^{20}$ to $10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$. We measure the magnetic field orientation on the plane of the sky from the polarization data, and present an algorithm to estimate the orientation of the ridges from the dust intensity map. We use analytical models to account for projection effects. Comparing polarization angles on and off the structures, we estimate the mean ratio between the strengths of the turbulent and mean components of the magnetic field to be between 0.6 and 1.0, with a preferred value of 0.8. We find that the ridges are preferentially aligned with the magnetic field measured on the structures. This trend becomes more striking for increasing polarization fraction and decreasing column density. We interpret the increase of alignment with polarization fraction as a consequence of projections effects. The decrease of alignment for high column density is not due to a loss of correlation between the structures and the geometry of the magnetic field. In molecular complexes, we observe structures perpendicular to the magnetic field, which cannot be accounted for by projection effects. We discuss our results in the context of models and MHD simulations, which describe the formation of structures in the magnetized ISM.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust is the main foreground present in measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at frequencies above 100GHz. We exploit the Planck HFI polarization data from 100 to 353GHz to measure the dust angular power spectra $C_\ell^{EE,BB}$ over the range $40<\ell<600$. These will bring new insights into interstellar dust physics and a precise determination of the level of contamination for CMB polarization experiments. We show that statistical properties of the emission can be characterized over large fractions of the sky using $C_\ell$. For the dust, they are well described by power laws in $\ell$ with exponents $\alpha^{EE,BB}=-2.42\pm0.02$. The amplitudes of the polarization $C_\ell$ vary with the average brightness in a way similar to the intensity ones. The dust polarization frequency dependence is consistent with modified blackbody emission with $\beta_d=1.59$ and $T_d=19.6$K. We find a systematic ratio between the amplitudes of the Galactic $B$- and $E$-modes of 0.5. We show that even in the faintest dust-emitting regions there are no "clean" windows where primordial CMB $B$-mode polarization could be measured without subtraction of dust emission. Finally, we investigate the level of dust polarization in the BICEP2 experiment field. Extrapolation of the Planck 353GHz data to 150GHz gives a dust power $\ell(\ell+1)C_\ell^{BB}/(2\pi)$ of $1.32\times10^{-2}\mu$K$_{CMB}^2$ over the $40<\ell<120$ range; the statistical uncertainty is $\pm0.29$ and there is an additional uncertainty (+0.28,-0.24) from the extrapolation, both in the same units. This is the same magnitude as reported by BICEP2 over this $\ell$ range, which highlights the need for assessment of the polarized dust signal. The present uncertainties will be reduced through an ongoing, joint analysis of the Planck and BICEP2 data sets.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Shortened abstract: Observations of the nearby Chamaeleon clouds in gamma rays with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and in thermal dust emission with Planck and IRAS have been used with the HI and CO radio data to (i) map the gas column densities in the different phases and at the dark neutral medium (DNM) transition between the HI-bright and CO-bright media; (ii) constrain the CO-to-$H_2$ conversion factor, $X_{CO}$; (iii) probe the dust properties per gas nucleon in each gas phase and spatially across the clouds. We have separated clouds in velocity in HI and CO emission and modelled the 0.4-100 GeV intensity, the dust optical depth at 353 GHz, the thermal radiance of the large grains, and an estimate of the dust extinction empirically corrected for the starlight intensity, $A_{VQ}$. The gamma-ray emissivity spectra confirm that the GeV-TeV cosmic rays uniformly permeate all gas phases up to the CO cores. The dust and cosmic rays reveal large amounts of DNM gas, with comparable spatial distributions and twice as much mass as in the CO-bright clouds. We give constraints on the HI-DNM-CO transitions and CO-dark $H_2$ fractions for separate clouds. The corrected extinction provides the best fit to the total gas traced by the gamma rays, but we find evidence for a rise in $A_{VQ}/N_H$ and a steep rise in opacity, with increasing $N_H$ and $H_2$ fraction, and with decreasing dust temperature. We observe less variations for the specific power of the grains, except for a decline by half in the CO cores. This combined information suggests grain evolution. The gamma rays and dust radiance yield consistent $X_{CO}$ estimates near $0.7\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$ (K km/s)$^{-1}$. The other dust tracers yield biased values because of the grain opacity rise in the CO clouds. These results also confirm a factor of 2 difference between $X_{CO}$ estimates at pc and kpc scales.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present all-sky dust modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL). We study the performance of this model and present implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends to the full sky the dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. We test the model by comparing these maps with independent estimates of the dust optical extinction AV . In molecular clouds, we compare the DL AV estimates with maps generated from stellar optical observations from the 2MASS survey. The DL AV estimates are a factor of about 3 larger than values estimated from 2MASS observations. In the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) we compare the DL optical extinction AV estimates with optical estimates from approximately 200,000 QSOs observed in the Sloan digital sky survey. The DL AV estimates are larger than those determined from the QSOs, and this discrepancy depends on Umin. We propose an empirical renormalization of the DL AV estimate, dependent of Umin, which compensates for the systematic differences found here. This renormalization, bringing into agreement the AV estimates on QSOs, also brings into agreement the AV estimates on molecular clouds. In the diffuse ISM, the DL fitting parameter Umin, appears to trace variations in the far-IR opacity of the dust grains. Therefore, some of the physical assumptions of the DL model need to be revised. We provide a family of SEDs normalized by optical reddening, parameterized by Umin; these will be the constraints for a next generation of dust models.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: High resolution observations of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect are necessary to allow the use of clusters of galaxies as a probe for large scale structures at high redshifts. With its high resolution and dual-band capability at millimeter wavelengths, the NIKA camera can play a significant role in this context. NIKA is based on newly developed Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) and operates at the IRAM 30m telescope, Pico Veleta, Spain. In this paper, we give the status of the NIKA camera, focussing on the KID technology. We then present observations of three galaxy clusters: RX J1347.5-1145 as a demonstrator of the NIKA capabilities and the recent observations of CL J1226.9+3332 (z = 0.89) and MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55). We also discuss prospects for the final NIKA2 camera, which will have a 6.5 arcminute field of view with about 5000 detectors in two bands at 150 and 260 GHz.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The New IRAM KID Array (NIKA) is a dual-band camera operating with frequency multiplexed arrays of Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKIDs) cooled to 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the intensity and polarisation of the sky at 1.25 and 2.14 mm from the IRAM 30 m telescope. We present the improvements on the control of systematic effects and astrophysical results made during the last observation campaigns between 2012 and 2014.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The BICEP2 instrument was designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1 to 5 degrees ($\ell$=40-200), near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. Measuring B-modes requires dramatic improvement in sensitivity combined with exquisite control of systematics. We have built on the successful strategy of BICEP1, which achieved the most sensitive limit on B-modes at these scales. The telescope had a 26 cm aperture and cold, on-axis, refractive optics, and it observed from a three-axis mount at the South Pole. BICEP2 adopted a new detector design in which beam-defining slot antenna arrays couple to transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, all fabricated monolithically on a common substrate. BICEP2 took advantage of this design's scalable fabrication and multiplexed SQUID readout to field more detectors than BICEP1, improving mapping speed by more than a factor of ten. In this paper we report on the design and performance of the instrument and on the three-year data set. BICEP2 completed three years of observation with 500 detectors at 150 GHz. After optimization of detector and readout parameters BICEP2 achieved an instrument noise equivalent temperature of 17.0 $\mu$K sqrt(s) and the full data set reached Stokes Q and U map depths of 87.8 nK in square-degree pixels (5.3 $\mu$K arcmin) over an effective area of 390.3 square degrees within a 1000 square degree field. These are the deepest CMB polarization maps at degree angular scales.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 792(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,801.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2003–2014
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, IL, United States
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007–2012
    • Princeton University
      • • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      • • Department of Physics
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2000–2012
    • University of Wales
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • Washington & Lee University
      Lexington, Virginia, United States
  • 1994–2011
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 2010
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department Physics and Astronomy
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Toronto
      • Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008–2009
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • Stanford University
      • Kavli Institute for Particle Physics and Cosmology (KIPAC)
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1999–2008
    • University of Lethbridge
      • Department of Physics
      Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
  • 1970–2008
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, NY, United States
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Department of Physics
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1995–2002
    • California Institute of Technology
      • • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      • • Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2001
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      • Physics Division
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • National University of Ireland, Maynooth
      • Department of Experimental Physics
      Maynooth, L, Ireland
  • 1974–2001
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990–2000
    • Joint Astronomy Centre
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
  • 1998
    • National Research Council
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1981–1984
    • University of Oregon
      • Department of Physics
      Eugene, Oregon, United States