P. A. R. Ade

University of British Columbia - Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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Publications (852)1741.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: POLARBEAR-2 is a next-generation receiver for precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)). Scheduled to deploy in early 2015, it will observe alongside the existing POLARBEAR-1 receiver, on a new telescope in the Simons Array on Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of Chile. For increased sensitivity, it will feature a larger area focal plane, with a total of 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers, with a design sensitivity of 4.1 uKrt(s). The focal plane will be cooled to 250 milliKelvin, and the bolometers will be read-out with 40x frequency domain multiplexing, with 36 optical bolometers on a single SQUID amplifier, along with 2 dark bolometers and 2 calibration resistors. To increase the multiplexing factor from 8x for POLARBEAR-1 to 40x for POLARBEAR-2 requires additional bandwidth for SQUID readout and well-defined frequency channel spacing. Extending to these higher frequencies requires new components and design for the LC filters which define channel spacing. The LC filters are cold resonant circuits with an inductor and capacitor in series with each bolometer, and stray inductance in the wiring and equivalent series resistance from the capacitors can affect bolometer operation. We present results from characterizing these new readout components. Integration of the readout system is being done first on a small scale, to ensure that the readout system does not affect bolometer sensitivity or stability, and to validate the overall system before expansion into the full receiver. We present the status of readout integration, and the initial results and status of components for the full array.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Future cosmology space missions will concentrate on measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background, which potentially carries invaluable information about the earliest phases of the evolution of our universe. Such ambitious projects will ultimately be limited by the sensitivity of the instrument and by the accuracy at which polarized foreground emission from our own Galaxy can be subtracted out. We present the PILOT balloon project which will aim at characterizing one of these foreground sources, the polarization of the dust continuum emission in the diffuse interstellar medium. The PILOT experiment will also constitute a test-bed for using multiplexed bolometer arrays for polarization measurements. We present the results of ground tests obtained just before the first flight of the instrument.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich (tSZ) effect is expected to provide a low scatter mass proxy for galaxy clusters since it is directly proportional to the cluster thermal energy. tSZ observations have proven to be a powerful tool to detect and study them but high angular resolution observations are now necessary to push their investigation at higher redshift. In this paper, we report high angular (< 20 arcsec) resolution tSZ observations of the high-redshift cluster CLJ1226.9+3332 (z=0.89). It was imaged at 150 and 260 GHz using the NIKA camera at the IRAM 30-meter telescope. The 150 GHz map shows that CLJ1226.9+3332 is morphologically relaxed on large scales with evidence of a disturbed core, while the 260 GHz channel is used mostly to identify point source contamination. NIKA data are combined with those of Planck and X-ray from Chandra to infer the cluster radial pressure, density, temperature and entropy distributions. The total mass profile of the cluster is derived, and we find $M_{500} = 5.96^{+1.02}_{-0.79} $ x $10^{14} M_{\odot}$ within the radius $R_{500} = 930^{+50}_{-43}$ kpc, at 68% confidence level ($R_{500}$ is the radius within which the average density is 500 times the critical density at the cluster's redshift). NIKA is the prototype camera of NIKA2, a KIDs (Kinetic Inductance Detectors) based instrument to be installed at the end of 2015. This work is, therefore, part of a pilot study aiming at optimizing tSZ NIKA2 large programs.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5 m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and ~3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid helium cooled cryostat will have a 28-day hold time and will utilize a closed-cycle $^3$He refrigerator to cool the detector arrays to 270 mK. This will enable a detailed mapping of more targets with higher polarization resolution than any other submillimeter experiment to date. BLAST-TNG will also be the first balloon-borne telescope to offer shared risk observing time to the community. This paper outlines the motivation for the project and the instrumental design.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The role of the magnetic field in the formation of the filamentary structures observed in the interstellar medium (ISM) is a debated topic. The Planck all-sky maps of linearly polarized emission from dust at 353GHz provide the required combination of imaging and statistics to study the correlation between the structures of the Galactic magnetic field and of interstellar matter, both in the diffuse ISM and in molecular clouds. The data reveal structures, or ridges, in the intensity map with counterparts in the Stokes Q and/or U maps. We focus on structures at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes with column density from $10^{20}$ to $10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$. We measure the magnetic field orientation on the plane of the sky from the polarization data, and present an algorithm to estimate the orientation of the ridges from the dust intensity map. We use analytical models to account for projection effects. Comparing polarization angles on and off the structures, we estimate the mean ratio between the strengths of the turbulent and mean components of the magnetic field to be between 0.6 and 1.0, with a preferred value of 0.8. We find that the ridges are preferentially aligned with the magnetic field measured on the structures. This trend becomes more striking for increasing polarization fraction and decreasing column density. We interpret the increase of alignment with polarization fraction as a consequence of projections effects. The decrease of alignment for high column density is not due to a loss of correlation between the structures and the geometry of the magnetic field. In molecular complexes, we observe structures perpendicular to the magnetic field, which cannot be accounted for by projection effects. We discuss our results in the context of models and MHD simulations, which describe the formation of structures in the magnetized ISM.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust is the main foreground present in measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at frequencies above 100GHz. We exploit the Planck HFI polarization data from 100 to 353GHz to measure the dust angular power spectra $C_\ell^{EE,BB}$ over the range $40<\ell<600$. These will bring new insights into interstellar dust physics and a precise determination of the level of contamination for CMB polarization experiments. We show that statistical properties of the emission can be characterized over large fractions of the sky using $C_\ell$. For the dust, they are well described by power laws in $\ell$ with exponents $\alpha^{EE,BB}=-2.42\pm0.02$. The amplitudes of the polarization $C_\ell$ vary with the average brightness in a way similar to the intensity ones. The dust polarization frequency dependence is consistent with modified blackbody emission with $\beta_d=1.59$ and $T_d=19.6$K. We find a systematic ratio between the amplitudes of the Galactic $B$- and $E$-modes of 0.5. We show that even in the faintest dust-emitting regions there are no "clean" windows where primordial CMB $B$-mode polarization could be measured without subtraction of dust emission. Finally, we investigate the level of dust polarization in the BICEP2 experiment field. Extrapolation of the Planck 353GHz data to 150GHz gives a dust power $\ell(\ell+1)C_\ell^{BB}/(2\pi)$ of $1.32\times10^{-2}\mu$K$_{CMB}^2$ over the $40<\ell<120$ range; the statistical uncertainty is $\pm0.29$ and there is an additional uncertainty (+0.28,-0.24) from the extrapolation, both in the same units. This is the same magnitude as reported by BICEP2 over this $\ell$ range, which highlights the need for assessment of the polarized dust signal. The present uncertainties will be reduced through an ongoing, joint analysis of the Planck and BICEP2 data sets.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Shortened abstract: Observations of the nearby Chamaeleon clouds in gamma rays with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and in thermal dust emission with Planck and IRAS have been used with the HI and CO radio data to (i) map the gas column densities in the different phases and at the dark neutral medium (DNM) transition between the HI-bright and CO-bright media; (ii) constrain the CO-to-$H_2$ conversion factor, $X_{CO}$; (iii) probe the dust properties per gas nucleon in each gas phase and spatially across the clouds. We have separated clouds in velocity in HI and CO emission and modelled the 0.4-100 GeV intensity, the dust optical depth at 353 GHz, the thermal radiance of the large grains, and an estimate of the dust extinction empirically corrected for the starlight intensity, $A_{VQ}$. The gamma-ray emissivity spectra confirm that the GeV-TeV cosmic rays uniformly permeate all gas phases up to the CO cores. The dust and cosmic rays reveal large amounts of DNM gas, with comparable spatial distributions and twice as much mass as in the CO-bright clouds. We give constraints on the HI-DNM-CO transitions and CO-dark $H_2$ fractions for separate clouds. The corrected extinction provides the best fit to the total gas traced by the gamma rays, but we find evidence for a rise in $A_{VQ}/N_H$ and a steep rise in opacity, with increasing $N_H$ and $H_2$ fraction, and with decreasing dust temperature. We observe less variations for the specific power of the grains, except for a decline by half in the CO cores. This combined information suggests grain evolution. The gamma rays and dust radiance yield consistent $X_{CO}$ estimates near $0.7\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$ (K km/s)$^{-1}$. The other dust tracers yield biased values because of the grain opacity rise in the CO clouds. These results also confirm a factor of 2 difference between $X_{CO}$ estimates at pc and kpc scales.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present all-sky dust modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL). We study the performance of this model and present implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends to the full sky the dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. We test the model by comparing these maps with independent estimates of the dust optical extinction AV . In molecular clouds, we compare the DL AV estimates with maps generated from stellar optical observations from the 2MASS survey. The DL AV estimates are a factor of about 3 larger than values estimated from 2MASS observations. In the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) we compare the DL optical extinction AV estimates with optical estimates from approximately 200,000 QSOs observed in the Sloan digital sky survey. The DL AV estimates are larger than those determined from the QSOs, and this discrepancy depends on Umin. We propose an empirical renormalization of the DL AV estimate, dependent of Umin, which compensates for the systematic differences found here. This renormalization, bringing into agreement the AV estimates on QSOs, also brings into agreement the AV estimates on molecular clouds. In the diffuse ISM, the DL fitting parameter Umin, appears to trace variations in the far-IR opacity of the dust grains. Therefore, some of the physical assumptions of the DL model need to be revised. We provide a family of SEDs normalized by optical reddening, parameterized by Umin; these will be the constraints for a next generation of dust models.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: High resolution observations of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect are necessary to allow the use of clusters of galaxies as a probe for large scale structures at high redshifts. With its high resolution and dual-band capability at millimeter wavelengths, the NIKA camera can play a significant role in this context. NIKA is based on newly developed Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) and operates at the IRAM 30m telescope, Pico Veleta, Spain. In this paper, we give the status of the NIKA camera, focussing on the KID technology. We then present observations of three galaxy clusters: RX J1347.5-1145 as a demonstrator of the NIKA capabilities and the recent observations of CL J1226.9+3332 (z = 0.89) and MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55). We also discuss prospects for the final NIKA2 camera, which will have a 6.5 arcminute field of view with about 5000 detectors in two bands at 150 and 260 GHz.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The New IRAM KID Array (NIKA) is a dual-band camera operating with frequency multiplexed arrays of Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKIDs) cooled to 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the intensity and polarisation of the sky at 1.25 and 2.14 mm from the IRAM 30 m telescope. We present the improvements on the control of systematic effects and astrophysical results made during the last observation campaigns between 2012 and 2014.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The BICEP2 instrument was designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1 to 5 degrees ($\ell$=40-200), near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. Measuring B-modes requires dramatic improvement in sensitivity combined with exquisite control of systematics. We have built on the successful strategy of BICEP1, which achieved the most sensitive limit on B-modes at these scales. The telescope had a 26 cm aperture and cold, on-axis, refractive optics, and it observed from a three-axis mount at the South Pole. BICEP2 adopted a new detector design in which beam-defining slot antenna arrays couple to transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, all fabricated monolithically on a common substrate. BICEP2 took advantage of this design's scalable fabrication and multiplexed SQUID readout to field more detectors than BICEP1, improving mapping speed by more than a factor of ten. In this paper we report on the design and performance of the instrument and on the three-year data set. BICEP2 completed three years of observation with 500 detectors at 150 GHz. After optimization of detector and readout parameters BICEP2 achieved an instrument noise equivalent temperature of 17.0 $\mu$K sqrt(s) and the full data set reached Stokes Q and U map depths of 87.8 nK in square-degree pixels (5.3 $\mu$K arcmin) over an effective area of 390.3 square degrees within a 1000 square degree field. These are the deepest CMB polarization maps at degree angular scales.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 792(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe optical characterisation of a Strained Silicon Cold Electron Bolometer (CEB), operating on a $350~\mathrm{mK}$ stage, designed for absorption of millimetre-wave radiation. The silicon Cold Electron Bolometer utilises Schottky contacts between a superconductor and an n++ doped silicon island to detect changes in the temperature of the charge carriers in the silicon, due to variations in absorbed radiation. By using strained silicon as the absorber, we decrease the electron-phonon coupling in the device and increase the responsivity to incoming power. The strained silicon absorber is coupled to a planar aluminium twin-slot antenna designed to couple to $160~\mathrm{GHz}$ and that serves as the superconducting contacts. From the measured optical responsivity and spectral response, we calculate a maximum optical efficiency of $50~\%$ for radiation coupled into the device by the planar antenna and an overall noise equivalent power (NEP), referred to absorbed optical power, of $1.1 \times 10^{-16}~\mathrm{\mbox{W Hz}^{-1/2}}$ when the detector is observing a $300~\mathrm{K}$ source through a $4~\mathrm{K}$ throughput limiting aperture. Even though this optical system is not optimised we measure a system noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of $6~\mathrm{\mbox{mK Hz}^{-1/2}}$. We measure the noise of the device using a cross-correlation of time stream data measured simultaneously with two junction field-effect transistor (JFET) amplifiers, with a base correlated noise level of $300~\mathrm{\mbox{pV Hz}^{-1/2}}$ and find that the total noise is consistent with a combination of photon noise, current shot noise and electron-phonon thermal noise.
    Applied Physics Letters 07/2014; 105(4):043509. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background (CMB) studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated twenty-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the noise-equivalent temperatures (NET) for a 4 K optical load are in the range 26$\thinspace\pm6 \thinspace \mu \mbox{K} \sqrt{\mbox{s}}$.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark and grey clear time available at the telescope was devoted to observations of Planck objects. Some observations of distant clusters were also done at the 6-m Bolshoy Telescope Azimutal'ny (BTA) of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In total, deep, direct images of more than one hundred fields were obtained in multiple filters. We identified 47 previously unknown galaxy clusters, 41 of which are included in the Planck catalogue of SZ sources. The redshifts of 65 Planck clusters were measured spectroscopically and 14 more were measured photometrically. We discuss the details of cluster optical identifications and redshift measurements. We also present new spectroscopic redhifts for 39 Planck clusters that were not included in the Planck SZ source catalogue and are published here for the first time.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: EBEX is a balloon-borne telescope designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. During its eleven day science flight in the Austral Summer of 2012, it operated 955 spider-web transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers separated into bands at 150, 250 and 410 GHz. This is the first time that an array of TES bolometers has been used on a balloon platform to conduct science observations. Polarization sensitivity was provided by a wire grid and continuously rotating half-wave plate. The balloon implementation of the bolometer array and readout electronics presented unique development requirements. Here we present an outline of the readout system, the remote tuning of the bolometers and Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) amplifiers, and preliminary current noise of the bolometer array and readout system.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is one of a few galaxies that has sufficient angular size on the sky to be resolved by the Planck satellite. Planck has detected M31 in all of its frequency bands, and has mapped out the dust emission with the High Frequency Instrument, clearly resolving multiple spiral arms and sub-features. We examine the morphology of this long-wavelength dust emission as seen by Planck, including a study of its outermost spiral arms, and investigate the dust heating mechanism across M31. We find that dust dominating the longer wavelength emission ($\gtrsim 0.3$ mm) is heated by the diffuse stellar population (as traced by 3.6 $\mu$m emission), with the dust dominating the shorter wavelength emission heated by a mix of the old stellar population and star-forming regions (as traced by 24 $\mu$m emission). We also fit spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for individual 5' pixels and quantify the dust properties across the galaxy, taking into account these different heating mechanisms, finding that there is a linear decrease in temperature with galactocentric distance for dust heated by the old stellar population, as would be expected, with temperatures ranging from around 22 K in the nucleus to 14 K outside of the 10 kpc ring. Finally, we measure the integrated spectrum of the whole galaxy, which we find to be well-fitted with a global dust temperature of ($18.9\pm0.9$) K with a spectral index of $1.61\pm0.11$ (assuming a single modified blackbody), and a significant amount of free-free emission at intermediate frequencies, which when converted into a star formation rate agrees well with the star formation estimate from H$\alpha$ emission of 0.4$M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We see no evidence for spinning dust emission, with a 3$\sigma$ upper limit of 1.26 Jy in the 20-60 GHz band.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) is a suborbital mapping experiment designed to study the role magnetic fields play in star formation. BLASTPol has had two science flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. These flights have produced thousands of polarization vectors at 250, 350 and 500 microns in several molecular cloud targets. We present the design, specifications, and progress towards the next-generation BLASTPol experiment (BLAST-TNG). BLAST-TNG will fly a 40% larger diameter primary mirror, with almost 8 times the number of polarization-sensitive detectors resulting in a factor of 16 increase in mapping speed. With a spatial resolution of 22 arcseconds and four times the field of view of BLASTPol, BLAST-TNG will bridge the angular scales between Planck's low resolution all-sky maps and ALMA's ultra-high resolution narrow fields. The new receiver has a larger cryogenics volume, allowing for a 28 day hold time. BLAST-TNG employs three arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) with 30% fractional bandwidth at 250, 350 and 500 microns. In this paper, we will present the new BLAST-TNG instrument and science objectives.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Gravitational lensing due to the large-scale distribution of matter in the cosmos distorts the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby induces new, small-scale B-mode polarization. This signal carries detailed information about the distribution of all the gravitating matter between the observer and CMB last scattering surface. We report the first direct evidence for polarization lensing based on purely CMB information, from using the four-point correlations of even- and odd-parity E- and B-mode polarization mapped over ∼30 square degrees of the sky measured by the POLARBEAR experiment. These data were analyzed using a blind analysis framework and checked for spurious systematic contamination using null tests and simulations. Evidence for the signal of polarization lensing and lensing B modes is found at 4.2σ (stat+sys) significance. The amplitude of matter fluctuations is measured with a precision of 27%, and is found to be consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter cosmological model. This measurement demonstrates a new technique, capable of mapping all gravitating matter in the Universe, sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, and essential for cleaning the lensing B-mode signal in searches for primordial gravitational waves.
    Physical Review Letters 07/2014; 113(2):021301. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a feasibility study, which examined deployment of a ground-based millimeter-wave polarimeter, tailored for observing the cosmic microwave background (CMB), to Isi Station in Greenland. The instrument for this study is based on lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) and an F/2.4 catoptric, crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture. The telescope is mounted inside the receiver and cooled to $<\,4$ K by a closed-cycle $^4$He refrigerator to reduce background loading on the detectors. Linearly polarized signals from the sky are modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is rotated at the aperture stop of the telescope with a hollow-shaft motor based on a superconducting magnetic bearing. The modular detector array design includes at least 2300 LEKIDs, and it can be configured for spectral bands centered on 150~GHz or greater. Our study considered configurations for observing in spectral bands centered on 150, 210 and 267~GHz. The entire polarimeter is mounted on a commercial precision rotary air bearing, which allows fast azimuth scan speeds with negligible vibration and mechanical wear over time. A slip ring provides power to the instrument, enabling circular scans (360 degrees of continuous rotation). This mount, when combined with sky rotation and the latitude of the observation site, produces a hypotrochoid scan pattern, which yields excellent cross-linking and enables 34\% of the sky to be observed using a range of constant elevation scans. This scan pattern and sky coverage combined with the beam size (15~arcmin at 150~GHz) makes the instrument sensitive to $5 < \ell < 1000$ in the angular power spectra.
    07/2014;

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,741.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2003–2014
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, IL, United States
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007–2012
    • Princeton University
      • • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      • • Department of Physics
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2000–2012
    • University of Wales
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • Washington & Lee University
      Lexington, Virginia, United States
  • 1994–2011
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, MO, United States
  • 2010
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department Physics and Astronomy
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Toronto
      • Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008–2009
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • Stanford University
      • Kavli Institute for Particle Physics and Cosmology (KIPAC)
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1999–2008
    • University of Lethbridge
      • Department of Physics
      Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
  • 1970–2008
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, NY, United States
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Department of Physics
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1995–2002
    • California Institute of Technology
      • • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      • • Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2001
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      • Physics Division
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • National University of Ireland, Maynooth
      • Department of Experimental Physics
      Maynooth, L, Ireland
  • 1974–2001
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990–2000
    • Joint Astronomy Centre
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
  • 1998
    • National Research Council
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1981–1984
    • University of Oregon
      • Department of Physics
      Eugene, Oregon, United States