[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optical near-field coupling between closely spaced plasmonic metal nanoparticles is important to a range of nanophotonic applications of high contemporary interest, including surface-enhanced molecular spectroscopy, nanooptical sensing, and various novel light-harvesting concepts. Here we report on monolayers of chiral heterotrimers and heterotetramers composed of closely spaced silver and/or gold nanodisks of different heights fabricated through facile hole-mask colloidal lithography. These quasi-three-dimensional oligomers are interesting for applications because they exhibit ?hot? gaps and crevices of nanometric dimensions, a pronounced circular dichroism, and optical chirality in the visible to near-infrared wavelength range, and they can be produced in large ensembles (>109) of identical orientation. We analyze the optical properties of the samples based on simulation results and find that the circular dichroism is due to strong near-field coupling and intricate phase retardation effects originati
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Localized surface-plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors are typically based on tracing resonance peak-shifts that precisely follow changes in the local refractive index. Such measurements usually require a spectrometer, a stable light source and an accurate LSPR position tracing technique. As a simple but efficient alternative, we investigated a self-referenced single-wavelength sensing scheme based on angle-dependent and highly directional radiation patterns originating from a monolayer of asymmetric gold nano-dimers. We found that one could easily trace a model biotin – neutravidin recognition reaction as well as minute bulk refractive index changes, by measuring the intensity ratio between the light scattered in two different directions with respect to the dimers. The refractometric resolution of the methodology was estimated to be on the order of ∆n≈10^(-5) RIU. These results may be particularly useful for label-free biosensing applications that require a combination of simple and cost-effective optical readout with a reasonable sensitivity.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 08/2014; · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We optically trap plasmonic gold particles in two dimensions and set them into circular motion around the optical axis using a helically phased vortex laser beam. The orbiting frequency of the particles reaches 86 Hz, which corresponds to a particle velocity of the order 1 mm per second, for an incident laser power of a few tens of milliwatts. The experimentally determined orbiting frequencies are found to be well in line with the notion that the beam carries an orbital angular momentum of ħl per photon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We experimentally demonstrate that an incident light beam can be completely annihilated in a single layer of randomly distributed, widely spaced gold nanoparticle antennas. Under certain conditions, each antenna dissipates more than 10 times the number of photons that enter its geometric cross-sectional area. The underlying physics can be understood in terms of a critical coupling to localized plasmons in the nanoparticles or, equivalently, in terms of destructive optical Fano interference and so-called coherent absorption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controlling the position and movement of small objects with light is an appealing way to manipulate delicate samples, such as living cells or nanoparticles. It is well-known that optical gradient and radiation pressure forces caused by a focused laser beam enables trapping and manipulation of objects with strength that is dependent on the particle's optical properties. However, by utilizing transfer of photon spin angular momentum, it is also possible set objects into rotational motion simply by targeting them with a beam of circularly polarized light. Here we show that this effect can set ~200 nm radii gold particles trapped in water in 2D by a laser tweezers into rotation at frequencies that reach several kilohertz, much higher than any previously reported light driven rotation of a microscopic object. We derive a theory for the fluctuations in light scattering from a rotating particle and we argue that the high rotation frequencies observed experimentally is the combined result of favorable optical particle properties and a low local viscosity due to substantial heating of the particles surface layer. The high rotation speed suggests possible applications in nanofluidics, optical sensing and micro-tooling of soft matter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied scattering and extinction of individual silver nanorods coupled to the J-aggregate form of the cyanine dye TDBC as a function of plasmon - exciton detuning. The measured single particle spectra exhibited a strongly suppressed scattering and extinction rate at wavelengths corresponding to the J-aggregate absorption band, signaling strong interaction between the localized surface plasmon of the metal core and the exciton of the surrounding molecular shell. In the context of strong coupling theory, the observed "transparency dips" correspond to an average vacuum Rabi splitting of the order of 100 meV, which approaches the plasmon dephasing rate and, thereby, the strong coupling limit for the smallest investigated particles. These findings could pave the way towards ultra-strong light-matter interaction on the nanoscale and active plasmonic devices operating at room temperature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we discuss several examples of generating directional light emission on a nanoscale as well as utilization of these results for color routing, sensing and strong coupling applications. Examples include propagating plasmons in metallic nanowires, spontaneous formation of optical phase mismatch in materially asymmetric silver-gold and palladium-gold dimers and exciton-induced transparency in individual silver nanorods covered by a thin layer of J-aggregates.
Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2013 15th International Conference on; 01/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have measured the angular distribution of light scattered off 2D plasmonic Al nanoparticle ensembles. We created these samples of disk-like nanoparticles, 175 nm and 500 nm in diameter, respectively, using hole-mask colloidal lithography and electron beam lithography. The nanoparticle arrangements in the samples display the short-range order (but no long-range order) characteristic of an ensemble formed by random sequential adsorption. As a consequence of this, the ensemble scattering patterns can be quantitatively well described by combining the single particle scattering pattern with a static structure factor that carries information about the diffraction effects caused by the short-range order of the ensemble. We also performed sensing experiments in which we monitored changes in the angle-resolved scattering intensity for a fixed wavelength as a function of the thickness of an ultrathin SiO(2) coating covering the Al nanoparticles. The data shows that angle and strength of the main diffraction peak varies linearly with SiO(2) coating thickness in the range 1.5-4.5 nm and suggests that measurements of the scattering profile could be a competitive alternative to traditional transmission measurements in terms of sensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a method for calculating the differential scattering cross sections from nanostructures close to an interface separating two semi-infinitive dielectric media. The method combines a fast finite element software (Comsol multiphysics), used for calculations of the fields around and inside the structure, and the Green's functions method, which is used to find the far field distribution from the calculated total fields inside the nanostructure. We apply the method to calculations of scattering spectra from silver nanowires supported by an air-glass interface, a system that is of high current interest in relation to various nanophotonics applications. The results are analyzed in relation to analytical models and compared to experimentally measured spectra, to which we find a good agreement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanoplasmonic sensing is typically based on quantification of changes in optical extinction or scattering spectra. Here we explore the possibility of facile self-referenced hydrogen sensing based on angle-resolved spectroscopy. We found that heterodimers built from closely spaced gold and palladium nanodisks exhibit pronounced directional scattering, that is, for particular wavelengths, much more light is scattered toward the Au than toward the Pd particle in a dimer. The effect is due to optical phase shifts associated with the material asymmetry and therefore highly sensitive to changes in the permittivity of Pd induced by hydrogen loading. In a wider perspective, the results suggest that directional scattering from bimetallic antennas, and material asymmetry in general, may offer many new routes toward novel nanophotonic sensing schemes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the electromagnetic interaction between a gold nanoparticle and a thin gold film on a glass substrate. The coupling between the particle plasmons and the surface plasmon polaritons of the film leads to the formation of two localized hybrid modes, one low-energy "film-like" plasmon and one high-energy plasmon dominated by the nanoparticle. We find that the two modes have completely different directional scattering patterns on the glass side of the film. The high-energy mode displays a characteristic dipole emission pattern while the low-energy mode sends out a substantial part of its radiation in directions parallel to the particle dipole moment. The relative strength of the two radiation patterns vary strongly with the distance between the particle and the film, as determined by the degree of particle-film hybridization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metal nanowires are thought to become key elements in future nanophotonics applications. Here we show that single crystal silver nanowires supported on a dielectric interface behave similar to broadband unidirectional antennas for visible light. The degree of directionality can be controlled through the nanowire radius and its dielectric environment and the effect can be interpreted in terms of so-called leakage radiation from surface plasmons propagating in a single direction along a wire. We measure a forward-to-backward emission ratio exceeding 15 dB and an angular spread of 4° for wires with radii of the order 150 nm on glass in air. These findings could pave the way for development of metal nanowires as subwavelength directors of light in solar, sensor, and spectroscopy applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent progress in nanophotonics includes demonstrations of meta-materials displaying negative refraction at optical frequencies, directional single photon sources, plasmonic analogies of electromagnetically induced transparency and spectacular Fano resonances. The physics behind these intriguing effects is to a large extent governed by the same single parameter-optical phase. Here we describe a nanophotonic structure built from pairs of closely spaced gold and silver disks that show phase accumulation through material-dependent plasmon resonances. The bimetallic dimers show exotic optical properties, in particular scattering of red and blue light in opposite directions, in spite of being as compact as ∼λ(3)/100. These spectral and spatial photon-sorting nanodevices can be fabricated on a wafer scale and offer a versatile platform for manipulating optical response through polarization, choice of materials and geometrical parameters, thereby opening possibilities for a wide range of practical applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The understanding of interaction forces between nanoparticles in colloidal suspension is central to a wide range of novel applications and processes in science and industry. However, few methods are available for actual characterization of such forces at the single particle level. Here we demonstrate the first measurements of colloidal interactions between two individual diffusing nanoparticles using a colorimetric assay based on plasmon hybridization, that is, strong near-field coupling between localized surface plasmon resonances. The measurements are possible because individual gold nanoparticle pairs can be loosely confined in an optical potential well created by a laser tweezers. We quantify the degree of plasmon hybridization for a large number of individual particle pairs as a function of increasing salt concentration. The data reveal a considerable heterogeneity at the single particle level but the estimated average surface separations are in excellent agreements with predictions based on the classical theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a computational study of the optical properties of systems of nanohole system in thin (the typical thickness is less than 100 nm) noble metal films. The Green's tensor technique adopted to layered systems forms the analytical framework to the calculations. We have studied individual holes as well as several interacting holes, and calculated quantities related both to far-field properties such as scattering cross sections and near fields and near-field properties such as resonance energy transfer between molecules. The resonance properties of nanoholes are determined by their size and shape. The interaction between two holes can, at a basic level, be understood as a dipole-dipole interaction between the holes, however, the interaction strength is strongly modulated by the properties of the surface plasmons of the metal film. . B. Sepulveda et al., Opt. Express 16, 5609 (2008). . J. Alegret, P. Johansson, and M. K"all, New J. Phys.10, 105004 (2008).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present numerical calculations of the plasmon properties of single-hole and hole-pair structures in optically thin gold films obtained with the Green's tensor formalism for stratified media. The method can be used to obtain the optical properties of a given hole system, without problems associated with the truncation of the infinite metal film. The calculations are compared with previously published experimental data and an excellent agreement is found. In particular, the calculations are shown to reproduce the evolution of the hole plasmon resonance spectrum as a function of hole diameter, film thickness and hole separation.
New Journal of Physics 10/2008; 10(10):105004. · 4.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the polarization-dependent optical response of elongated nanoholes in optically thin gold films. We measured elastic scattering spectra of spatially isolated ellipsoidal nanoholes with varying aspect ratio and compared the results to electrodynamic simulations. Both experiments and theory show that the plasmon mode that is polarized parallel to the short axis of the ellipsoidal hole red-shifts with increasing aspect ratio. This behavior is completely opposite to the case of elongated metal particles. We present a simple analytical model that qualitatively explains the observations in terms of the different orientations of the induced dipole moments in holes and particles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a computational algorithm which speeds up Green's tensor nano-optics calculations by means of optimizing the mesh that represents the system we want to investigate. The algorithm automates the process of creating a variable-size mesh that describes an arbitrary nanostructure. The total number of elements of this mesh is smaller than that of a regular mesh representing the same structure, and thus the Green's tensor calculations can be performed faster. Precision, however, is kept at a similar level than for the regular mesh. Typically, the algorithm yields a mesh that speeds up Green's tensor calculations by a factor of 4, while giving a maximum error in the field magnitude of about 5%. The speed-up factor makes it very suitable for otherwise lengthy calculations, and the error should be acceptable for most applications.