Parul Sharma

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (9)20.26 Total impact

  • The orthopaedic journal at Harvard Medical School. 12/2012; 14:22-28.
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of multinucleated bone-resorbing osteoclasts results from activation of the receptor activated NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-receptor activated NF-kappaB (RANK) signaling pathway in primary bone marrow macrophages and a macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Osteoclasts, through bone remodeling, are key participants in the homeostatic regulation of calcium and phosphate levels within the body. Microarray analysis using Gene Expression Dynamic Inspector (GEDI) clustering software indicated that osteoclast differentiation is correlated with an increase in xenotropic and polytropic virus receptor 1 (XPR1) mRNA transcripts. XPR1 is a receptor of the xenotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and homolog of yeast Syg1 and plant Pi transporter PHO1. Quantitative PCR was used to validate the up-regulation of XPR1 message following RANKL stimulation in both primary bone marrow cells and a macrophage cell line. Immunostaining for the XPR1 protein showed that there is translocation of XPR1 to the membranes of the sealing zone in mature osteoclasts. This study is the first to demonstrate that the expression of retro-viral receptor, XPR1, is regulated by RANKL-RANK signaling.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2010; 399(2):129-32. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pericytes are essential to vascularization, but the purification and characterization of pericytes remain unclear. Smooth muscle actin alpha (alpha-SMA) is one marker [corrected] of pericytes. The aim of this study is to purify the alpha-SMA positive cells from bone marrow and study the characteristics of these cells and the interaction between alpha-SMA positive cells and endothelial cells. The bone marrow stromal cells were harvested from alpha-SMA-GFP transgenic mice, and the alpha-SMA-GFP positive cells were sorted by FACS. The proliferative characteristics and multilineage differentiation ability of the alpha-SMA-GFP positive cells were tested. A 3-D culture model was then applied to test their vascularization by loading alpha-SMA-GFP positive cells and endothelial cells on collagen-fibronectin gel. Results demonstrated that bone marrow stromal cells are mostly alpha-SMA-GFP positive cells which are pluripotent, and these cells expressed alpha-SMA during differentiation. The alpha-SMA-GFP positive cells could stimulate the endothelial cells to form tube-like structures and subsequently robust vascular networks in 3-D culture. In conclusion, the bone marrow derived pluripotent cells include [corrected] pericytes and can contribute to vascularization.
    Stem cell reviews 12/2009; 5(4):437-45. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway has emerged as a key regulator in bone development and bone homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt co-receptor LRP5 result in osteoporosis and "activating" mutations in LRP5 result in high bone mass. Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is a secreted Wnt inhibitor that binds LRP5 and LRP6 during embryonic development, therefore it is expected that a decrease in DKK1 will result in an increase in Wnt activity and a high bone mass phenotype. Dkk1-/- knockout mice are embryonic lethal, but mice with hypomorphic Dkk1d (doubleridge) alleles that express low amounts of Dkk1 are viable. In this study we generated an allelic series by crossing Dkk1+/- and Dkk1+/d mice resulting in the following genotypes with decreasing Dkk1 expression levels: +/+, +/d, +/- and d/-. Using muCT imaging we scanned dissected left femora and calvariae from 8-week-old mice (n=60). We analyzed the distal femur to represent trabecular bone and the femur diaphysis for cortical endochondral bone. A region of the parietal bones was used to analyze intramembranous bone of the calvaria. We found that trabecular bone volume is increased in Dkk1 mutant mice in a manner that is inversely proportional to the level of Dkk1 expression. Trabeculae number and thickness were significantly higher in the low Dkk1 expressing genotypes from both female and male mice. Similar results were found in cortical bone with an increase in cortical thickness and cross sectional area of the femur diaphysis that correlated with lower Dkk1 expression. No consistent differences were found in the calvaria measurements. Our results indicate that the progressive Dkk1 reduction increases trabecular and cortical bone mass and that even a 25% reduction in Dkk1 expression could produce significant increases in trabecular bone volume fraction. Thus DKK1 is a negative regulator of normal bone homeostasis in vivo. Our study suggests that manipulation of DKK1 function or expression may have therapeutic significance for the treatment of low bone mass disorders.
    Bone 10/2007; 41(3):331-9. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    BioTechniques 12/2006; 41(5):539-40, 542. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell factor (SCF) is the pleiotropic ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor, c-kit. Ligand and receptor are usually expressed in different cell types, and binding of SCF to c-kit promotes cell proliferation, differentiation, and recruitment of progenitor cells in various biologic systems. However, the localization of these two molecules in cells of the oral cavity has not been systematically examined. We investigated the expression of SCF and c-kit in human dental pulp (HDP) cells as well as in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Both alternatively spliced isoforms of SCF were detected (through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) in RNA obtained from the two cell types. Western analysis established that both cell types express SCF and/or c-kit, whereas flow cytometry demonstrated distinct cell populations expressing only the ligand (SCF), only the receptor (c-kit), or co-expressing the two. HDP cultures showed higher soluble SCF (sSCF) production associated with faster cell growth, as compared with HGF cultures. In both cell types, however, sSCF levels appeared to increase as a result of in vitro aging and/or differentiation.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 11/2006; 114(5):409-15. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pericytes, which surround endothelial cells in precapillary arterioles, capillaries, and postcapillary venules, are important for the development, maturation, and maintenance of the vascular system. Pericytes are also pluripotent cells that can differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal cells including smooth muscle cells and osteoblasts. Possibly because of their vasculature regulating activities and ability to differentiate in situ, pericytes are implicated in several diseases with vascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy, as well as Reynaud's Syndrome, central nervous system dementias, and vascular calcification among others. Statin drugs, which block the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, are known to have apoptotic and growth inhibitory effects on cells in vitro and complex pleiotropic effects on cells and tissues in vivo. Recently, evidence has emerged that statin drug use in human patients results in a significant 20% reduction in cancer incidence. It is not known whether these results are due to direct statin action on normal tissue, growth inhibitory/pro-apoptotic effects on tumor cells, and/or effects on angiogenesis. Because of the role of pericytes in angiogenesis and the effects of statins on cancer incidence, we tested the direct effects of statins on pericytes. Specifically, we demonstrate that 3 statins, simvastatin, lovastatin, and mevastatin induce dose-dependent apoptosis in the TR-PCT1 pericyte cell line, that simvastatin (empirically shown to be the most potent of the 3 statins) induces similar levels of apoptosis in freshly isolated pericytes, and that simvastatin-induced apoptosis in pericytes is cholesterol, caspase-3, and caspase-7 mediated.
    Microvascular Research 04/2006; 71(2):91-102. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    Developmental Biology - DEVELOP BIOL. 01/2006; 295(1):353-353.
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    ABSTRACT: We report here the genomic organization and phylogenic relationships of CD109, a member of the the alpha2-macroglobulin/complement (AMCOM) gene family. CD109 is a GPI-linked glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells, platelets, activated T-cells, and a wide variety of tumors. We cloned full-length CD109 cDNA from the mammalian U373 cell line by RT-PCR and performed analysis of its corresponding genomic sequence. The CD109 cDNA spans 128 kb of chromosome 6q with its 33 exons constituting approximately 3.3% of the total CD109 genomic sequence. Sequence analysis revealed that CD109 contains specific motifs in its N-terminus, that are highly conserved in all AMCOM members. CD109 also shares motifs with certain other AMCOM members including: (1) a thioester 'GCGEQ" motif, (2) a furin site of four positively charged amino acids, and (3) a double tyrosine near the C-terminus. Based on a phylogenic analysis of human CD109 with other human homologs as well as orthologs from other mammalian species, C. elegans (ZK337.1) and E. coli homologs, we propose CD109 represents a novel and independent branch of the alpha2-macroglobulin/complement gene family (AMCOM) and may be its oldest member.
    Gene 04/2004; 327(2):171-83. · 2.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

148 Citations
20.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States