[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical fingerprinting of commercial Pelargonium capitatum (Geraniaceae) essential oil samples of south African origin was performed by GC, GC/MS, and (13) C- and (1) H-NMR. Thirty-seven compounds were identified, among which citronellol (32.71%) and geraniol (19.58%) were the most abundant. NMR Spectra of characteristic chemicals were provided. Broad-spectrum bioactivity properties of the oil were evaluated and compared with those of commercial Thymus vulgaris essential oil with the aim to obtain a functional profile in terms of efficacy and safety. P. capitatum essential oil provides a good performance as antimicrobial, with particular efficacy against Candida albicans strains. Antifungal activity performed against dermatophyte and phytopathogen strains revealed the latter as more sensitive, while antibacterial activity was not remarkable against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. P. capitatum oil provided a lower antioxidant activity (IC(50) ) than that expressed by thyme essential oil, both in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching tests. Results in photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay were negligible. To test the safety aspects of P. capitatum essential oil, mutagenic and toxicity properties were assayed by Ames test, with and without metabolic activation. Possible efficacy of P. capitatum essential oil as mutagenic protective agent against NaN(3) , 2-nitrofluorene, and 2-aminoanthracene was also assayed, providing interesting and significant antigenotoxic properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stingless bee honey samples from west Amazonian Ecuador were studied for their physiochemical, chemical and functional properties. Reducing sugars (44.9 ± 5.72 g/100 g), water (34.1 ± 4.34 g/100 g), free acidity (31.8 ± 4.05 meq/100 g), diastase activity (1.60 ± 0.20 u.d./g), hydroxymethylfurfural (15.0 ± 1.91 mg/kg), electrical conductivity (0.48 ± 0.06 mS/cm), ash (0.28 ± 0.04 g/100 g), colour (150 mm Pfund) were determined as physicochemical parameters. Melissopalynological analyses were processed evidencing pollen belonging to 14 plant families. Glucose (25.5 ± 3.41 g/100 g), fructose (25.2 ± 3.37 g/100 g) and sucrose (3.72 ± 0.49 g/100 g) contents were determined by HPLC, evidencing equal concentrations between fructose and glucose. Coumarins and flavonoids were determined by densitometric HPTLC: fraxin and bergamotin (0.065 ± 0.009; 0.035 ± 0.005 μg/g) among coumarins; luteolin (0.045 ± 0.006 μg/g), quercitrin (0.020 ± 0.003 μg/g), isoramnetin (0.015 ± 0.002 μg/g) among flavonoids. Among the vitamin E isomers, evaluated by HPLC, the occurrence of the only β-tocopherol (1.12 ± 0.15 μg/g) was noted. All these results were compared with those acquired for two multifloral Apis mellifera honeys. DPPH and β-carotene bleaching tests were performed, showing interesting values for Ecuadorian honey samples, higher than those shown by multifloral A. mellifera honeys (88.1 ± 11.1 DPPH inhibition%; 70.8 ± 8.90 β-carotene inhibition%). Antibacterial activity, against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, revealed MIC values (10–50 μg/ml) always lower than those of A. mellifera honeys. Ecuadorian Meliponinae honey samples also showed anti-mutagenic activity assayed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain, inhibiting back mutation over the entire range of concentrations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500μg/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological activity (mortality and genotoxicity) of four thiophene compounds [a-terthienyl (a-T); 5-(4-hydroxy-1-butinyl)-2,2'-bithienyl (BBTOH); 5-(3-buten-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithienyl (BBT); 5-(4-acetoxy-1-butinyl)-2,2'-bithienyl (BBTOAc)] was evaluated on Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain cells. An high percentage of mortality was found with BBTOAc at all concentrations tested. A significant effect was also detected with a-T but only at the highest concentration. BBTOH stimulated colonies growth only at the lowest concentration, while BBT showed no effects. None of the tested compounds presented genotoxic activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Teucrium marum and T. subspinosum have been extracted with different polarity solvents, each crude extract was analysed with (1)H-NMR to compare the overall metabolic component. The polar extracts showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Verbascoside and arabinosyl-verbascoside were isolated and identified. Their concentrations were in connection to the antioxidant activity.
Natural Product Research 11/2007; 21(12):1061-6. DOI:10.1080/14786410701571384 · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves from two Italian regions (Calabria and Sardinia) were processed to determine the content of myrtenol, linalool and eucalyptol. Among the Calabrian and Sardinian myrtle samples, linalool and eucalyptol chemotypes were prevalent. The extracts were also tested for antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Myrtle leaves samples were dried and extracted through maceration. Partition chromatography was adopted to separate myrtenol, linalool and eucalyptol fractions. Analyses were performed through GC and GC-MS. Some of the samples showed a good scavenger activity evidenced by DPPH radical scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching test. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were generally weak. The phytochemical and biological characterization of all the extracts were determined with an aim to characterize the intra-specific biodiversity of myrtle populations.
Natural Product Research 03/2007; 21(2):167-79. DOI:10.1080/14786410600603783 · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hydroalcoholic extract of Maytenus krukovii bark was investigated for its in vitro mutageno-protective activities by means of the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. The extract showed an inhibitory effect in both T98 and T100 strains against the mutagenic activity of promutagen 2-aminoanthracene but was not protective against directly acting mutagens sodium azide and 2-nitrofluorene. When tested as a radical scavenger and antioxidant it produced a dose-dependent inhibition. The extract did not show significant antibacterial properties, and was weakly active against dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi, but inhibited the growth of phytopathogen Pithyum ultimum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the floral calyces of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) was studied by means of GC, GC-MS, and 1H, 13C, and bidimensional NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC). Twenty-five constituents were identified, and estragole (48.7%), alpha-phellandrene (19.6%) and sabinene (10.4%) were found to be the major components. Antimicrobial activity against six aerobic bacteria and five yeasts and antioxidant activity performed by photochemiluminescence (PCL), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and beta-carotene bleaching assays are reported. The oil showed fair inhibiting properties against bacteria and a good inhibition against most yeasts. Its radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant properties were comparable to or better than those provided by synthetic controls. Particular emphasis has been given to the use of NMR as a fast and reliable tool to discriminate O. bofo essential oil from other commercial anethole- and estragole-rich oils, namely, Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Artemisia dracunculus.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2006; 54(20):7778-88. DOI:10.1021/jf0605493 · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven essential oils, namely, Cananga odorata(Annonaceae), Cupressus sempervirens (Cupressaceae), Curcuma longa(Zingiber-
aceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae), Eucalyptus globulus(Myrtaceae), Pinus radiata (Pinaceae), Piper crassinervium(Piperaceae),
Psidium guayava(Myrtaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis(Lamiaceae), Thymus x citriodorus (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingib-
eraceae), were characterized by means of GC and GC–MS and evaluated for their food functional ingredient related properties.
These properties were compared to those of Thymus vulgaris essential oil, used as a reference ingredient. Antioxidant and radi-
cal-scavenging properties were tested by means of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, b-carotene bleaching test and lumi-
nol-photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. In the DPPH assay, C. odorata, C. citratus, R. officinalisand C. longa showed major
effectiveness, with a radical inhibition ranging from 59.6 ± 0.42–64.3 ± 0.45%. In the b-carotene bleaching test, C. odorata
(75.5 ± 0.53%), R. officinalis (81.1 ± 0.57%) and C. longa (72.4 ± 0.51%) gave the best inhibition results. Similar results were
obtained for the same essential oils in the PCL assay. Antimicrobial properties were obtained on five food-spoilage yeasts:Candida
albicans ATCC 48274,Rhodotorula glutinis ATCC 16740,Schizosaccharomyces pomb e ATCC 60232, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
ATCC 2365, Yarrowia lypoliticaATCC 16617 . C. citratus and T. x citriodorus were the most effective against the tested strains. Suggestions on relationships between chemical composition and biological activities are outlined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biovariability of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don grown wild in Calabria and Sardinia (Italy) was reported. This species has been characterized through the detection, isolation and quantitative evaluation of chemical markers (alpha-terpinolene, trans-cariophyllene and neryl acetate) by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic H. italicum extracts using DPPH and beta-carotene bleaching test showed that the Calabrian samples were more active than those from Sardinia. The antibacterial activity of all extracts evidenced the best performance on the Gram positive bacteria particularly on Micrococcus luteus. Moreover, antifungal activity of all extracts was also tested evidencing important results particularly on the phytopathogene fungus Pythium ultimum. In general, as regards the antifungal activity, the extracts from Sardinia were more active than those from Calabria. The phytochemical analysis and the biological activity data suggested a possible use of these plant matrices in alimentary, cosmetic and pharmaceutical fields.
Natural Product Research 07/2005; 19(4):379-87. DOI:10.1080/1478641042000261969 · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wild Amazonian basil Ocimum micranthum Willd. (O. campechianum Mill.) Labiatae essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS: 31 compounds were identified. The main components were eugenol (46.55 +/- 5.11%), beta-caryophyllene (11.94 +/- 1.31%), and beta-elemene (9.06 +/- 0.99%), while a small amount of linalool (1.49 +/- 0.16%) was detected. The oil was tested for its in vitro food-related biological activities and compared with common basil Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris commercial essential oils. Radical scavenging activity was evaluated employing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The oil exerted a good capacity to act as a nonspecific donor of hydrogen atoms or electrons when checked in the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay, quenching 76,61 +/- 0.33% of the radical, with values higher than those reported by reference oils. In the beta-carotene bleaching test, the oil provided an antioxidant efficacy comparable with that of O. basilicum and T. vulgaris essential oils. These data were confirmed by photochemiluminescence, where the oil showed a remarkable antioxidant capacity (2.39 +/- 0.1), comparable to that of Trolox and vitamin E, and higher than the other essential oils. Antibacterial activity of O. micranthum essential oil was evaluated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. The oil showed a dose-dependent antifungal activity against pathogenic and food spoiling yeasts.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2004; 52(11):3486-91. DOI:10.1021/jf035145e · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine samples of Glycyrrhiza glabra were collected in various sites of Calabria, Italy, with the aim to determine the variability in the confront of active constituents and in antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts. The samples showed remarkable differences in chemical composition and biological activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oil of Ishpingo (Ocotea quixos, Lauraceae) fruit calices was analysed by GC (gas chromatography) and GC–MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry). Fourty-four compounds were identified. The main components detected were trans-cinnamaldehyde (27.9%), methylcinnamate (21.6%), 1,8-cineole (8.0%), benzaldehyde (3.6%), and β-selinene (2.1%). In vitro antioxidant properties of the essential oil, obtained by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and β-carotene bleaching assays, were also evaluated. The oil exerted a relatively good capacity to act as a non-specific donor of hydrogen atoms or electrons when checked by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay, quenching 52% of the radical. On the other hand, it showed weak effects in inhibiting oxidation of linoleic acid when assayed by the β-carotene bleaching test. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil was also checked against gram positive (Enterococcus foecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The oil also showed a dose-dependent antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phytopathogen Pythium ultimum and dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oil of bergamot is receiving renewed popularity in aromatherapy. The biovariability of Citrus bergamia grown wild in Calabria (Italy) was investigated as far as chemical markers (linalool, linalyl acetate and bergapten) content and antioxidant and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts. The average content in the markers presents slight variations with the altitude and more evident changes with the latitude of the areas of plant collection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sardinian wild Euphorbia pithyusa, E. semiperfoliata, E. dendroides and E. characias seed oils were analyzed for their fatty acids, unsaponifiable and tocopherol content. Total tocopherol content showed a wide variability, ranging from 939 mg/kg in E. semiperfoliata seeds to its absence in E. characias. The results on tocopherol content were statistically correlated with both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and the beta-carotene bleaching antioxidant test. All seeds were rich in linolenic acid, while no uncommon fatty acids were detected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antioxidant activity of supercritical CO 2 extracts of H. italicum dried flower heads derived from the commercial drug and from plants grown in different areas of north-east Italy with different culturing conditions was determined. In particular, the characterization of the antioxidant activity was made by the DPPH and ß-carotene bleaching test methods. The four kind of H. italicum extracts were also tested for their ability to scavenger superoxide radicals. All extracts showed, although with different importance, an antioxidant activity with all the methods performed. The supercritical extracts obtained from commercial dried H. italicum flower heads and from dried flower heads belonging to wild plants exhibited the highest activity. These results established H. italicum supercritical extracts as important antioxidant solvent-free matrices in alimentary (i.e., dietary, nutraceutical, flavouring) and cosmetic fields, as well as the value of coastal Mediterranean areas to serve as an exploitable source of important plant matrices.