[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor (ER)-α has long been a potential target in ER-α-positive breast cancer therapeutics. In this study, we integrated ER-α-related bioinformatic data at different levels to systematically explore the mechanistic and therapeutic implications of ER-α. Firstly, we identified ER-α-interacting proteins and target genes of ER-α-regulating microRNAs (miRNAs), and analyzed their functional gene ontology (GO) annotations of those ER-α-associated proteins. In addition, we predicted ten consensus miRNAs that could target ER-α, and screened candidate traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds that might hit diverse conformations of ER-α ligand binding domain (LBD). These findings may help to uncover the mechanistic implications of ER-α in breast cancer at a systematic level, and provide clues of miRNAs- and small molecule modulators- based strategies for future ER-α-positive breast cancer therapeutics.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91894. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polygonatum odoratum lectin (POL), isolated from traditional Chinese medicine herb (Mill.) Druce, has drawn rising attention due to its wide biological activities. In the present study, anti-tumor effects, including apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing properties of POL, were determined by a series of cell biology methods such as MTT, cellular morphology observation, flow cytometry, immunoblotting. Herein, we found that POL could simultaneously induce apoptosis and autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. POL initiated apoptosis through inhibiting Akt-NF-κB pathway, while POL triggered autophagy via suppressing Akt-mTOR pathway, suggesting the molecular switch role of Akt in regulating between POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Moreover, ROS was involved in POL-induced inhibition of Akt expression, and might therefore mediate both apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. In addition, POL displayed no significant cytotoxicity toward normal human embryonic lung fibroblast HELF cells. Due to the anti-tumor activities, POL might become a potent anti-cancer drug in future therapy, which might pave the way for exploring GNA-related lectins into effective drugs in cancer treatment.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e101526. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis, a type of cell death, is necessary for maintaining tissue homeostasis and removing malignant cells. Interrupted apoptosis process contributes to carcinogenesis, developmental defects, autoimmune diseases and neurological disorders. Due to the complexity of the process, the molecular dynamics and relative interactions of individual proteins responsible for the activation or inhibition of apoptosis should be researched systematically. In this study, we integrate known protein interactions from databases DIP, IntAct, MINT, HPRD and BioGRID by Naïve Bayes classifier. The receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.797 indicates it has a good performance in prediction. Then, we predict the global human apoptotic protein interactions network. Within it, we not only identify the already known interactions of caspases (caspase-8/-10, caspase-9, caspase-3/-6/-7) and Bcl-2 family, but also reveal that Bid can interact with casein kinases (CSK21/22/2B, KC1A, KC1E); both of B2LA1 and B2CL2 can interact with Bid, Bax and Bak; caspase-8 interacts with autophagic proteins (MLP3B, MLP3A and LRRk2). Consequently, we make an initial step to develop the web service IntApop that provides an appropriate platform for apoptosis researchers, systems biologists and translational clinician scientists to predict apoptotic protein interactions in human. In addition, the interaction network can be visualized online, making it a widely applicable systems biology tool for apoptosis and cancer researchers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Camptothecin (CPT), the third largest anticancer drug, is produced mainly by Camptotheca acuminata and Nothapodytes foetida. CPT itself is the starting material for clinical CPT-type drugs, but the plant-derived CPT cannot support the heavy demand from the global market. Research efforts have been made to identify novel sources for CPT. In this study, three CPT-producing endophytic fungi, Aspergillus sp. LY341, Aspergillus sp. LY355, and Trichoderma atroviride LY357, were isolated and identified from C. acuminata. Most CPT produced by these fungi was found in the fermentation broth, and their corresponding CPT yields were 7.93, 42.92, and 197.82 μg l(-1), respectively. The CPT-producing capability of LY341 and LY355 was completely lost after repeat subculturing. A substantial decrease of CPT production was also observed in the second generation of LY357. However, a stable and sustainable production of CPT was found from the second generation through the eighth generation of LY357. The fermentation medium, time, pH, temperature, and agitation rate were optimized for CPT production. Methyl jasmonate and XAD16 were proven to be an optimum elicitor and adsorbent resin, respectively, in view of that CPT yield was increased 3.4- and 11-fold through their use. A 50- to 75-fold increase of CPT yield was obtained when the optimized fermentation conditions, elicitor, and adsorbent resin were combined and applied to the culture of the seventh and eighth generations of LY357, and the highest CPT yield was 142.15 μg l(-1). The CPT-producing T. atroviride LY357 paves a potential to uncover the mysteries of CPT biosynthesis.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza virus is a major viral respiratory pathogen that causes yearly epidemics in temperate climates. The H3N2 subtype is one of the major causative agents of severe epidemics and plays a critical role in vaccine development. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir are two commercially available NA-targeted competitive antiviral drugs. However, their effectiveness has been compromised by the rapid emergence of resistance. Q136K is a novel mutation in NA which confers resistance to zanamivir. In this study, a Q136K mutant N2 protein was expressed in a baculovirus system and crystals were obtained. The crystal of N2 belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 109.5, b = 112.8, c = 165.2 Å. Data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Four monomers were found in the asymmetric unit. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 3.0 Å(3) Da(-1) and 59.0%, respectively.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 08/2013; 69(Pt 8):861-863. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The newly emergent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) can cause severe pulmonary disease in humans, representing the second example of a highly pathogenic coronavirus, the first being SARS-CoV. CD26 (also known as dipeptidyl peptidase 4, DPP4) was recently identified as the cellular receptor for MERS-CoV. The engagement of the MERS-CoV spike protein with CD26 mediates viral attachment to host cells and virus-cell fusion, thereby initiating infection. Here we delineate the molecular basis of this specific interaction by presenting the first crystal structures of both the free receptor binding domain (RBD) of the MERS-CoV spike protein and its complex with CD26. Furthermore, binding between the RBD and CD26 is measured using real-time surface plasmon resonance with a dissociation constant of 16.7 nM. The viral RBD is composed of a core subdomain homologous to that of the SARS-CoV spike protein, and a unique strand-dominated external receptor binding motif that recognizes blades IV and V of the CD26 β-propeller. The atomic details at the interface between the two binding entities reveal a surprising protein-protein contact mediated mainly by hydrophilic residues. Sequence alignment indicates, among betacoronaviruses, a possible structural conservation for the region homologous to the MERS-CoV RBD core, but a high variation in the external receptor binding motif region for virus-specific pathogenesis such as receptor recognition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term nonprogression during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been strongly associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele Mamu-B*17. Here, a complex of rhesus macaque Mamu-B*17 with rhesus macaque β2-microglobulin (β2m) and an immunodominant peptide (SIVmac239 Env241-251; LRCNDTNYSGF; Env LF11) derived from the SIV Env protein was crystallized by the hanging-drop method using PEG 3350 as a precipitating agent. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 45.0, c = 81.5 Å, β = 96.5°. Assuming the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 2.96 Å(3) Da(-1) and 58.5%, respectively.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 06/2013; 69(Pt 6):643-5. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the therapeutic effect of Agaricus bisporus lectins (ABL) by the regeneration of β-cells in mice following 70% partial pancreatectomy (PPx), and to explore the mechanisms of ABL-induced β-cell proliferation. Adult C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 70% PPx operation or a sham operation, and mice received 10 mg/kg body weight of ABL or saline immediately after surgery. Blood glucose concentrations and insulin secretion levels were measured. To determine the growth rates of β-cells and duct cells, immunohistological analysis of pancreatic tissues was performed. Key cell cycle proteins and β-cell specific genes were measured by realtime polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistological staining. In this study, a significant decrease in blood glucose concentrations, increase in glucose tolerance and expanded β-cell mass were observed in the ABL-treated mice. At the same time, after ABL treatment, increased β-cell proliferation rates were observed. Further studies on the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2 and Cdk4 demonstrated that these genes were significantly up-regulated in the ABL-treated mice. Meanwhile, Cdk4 activity was also enhanced. Moreover, the expression of PDX-1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1), Ngn3 (neurogenin 3), insulin, GLUT-1 (glucose transporter 1) and glucokinase was also increased in the ABL-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that ABL administration could partially reverse the impaired β-cell growth potential by regulating cell cycle proteins. Induction of islet β-cell proliferation by ABL suggests the therapeutic potential in preventing and/or treating diabetes.
Experimental Biology and Medicine 03/2012; 237(3):287-96. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has long been considered as a principal force for an organism to gain novel genes in genome evolution. Homology search, phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide composition analysis are three major objective approaches to arguably determine the occurrence and directionality of HGT. Here, 21 genes that possess the potential to horizontal transfer were acquired from the whole genome of Magnaporthe grisea according to annotation, among which three candidate genes (corresponding protein accession numbers are EAA55123, EAA47200 and EAA52136) were selected for further analysis. According to BLAST homology results, we subsequently conducted phylogenetic analysis of the three candidate HGT genes. Moreover, nucleotide composition analysis was conducted to further validate these HGTs. In addition, the functions of the three candidate genes were searched in COG database. Consequently, we conclude that the gene encoding protein EAA55123 is transferred from Clostridium perfringens. Another HGT event is between EAA52136 and a certain metazoan's corresponding gene, but the direction remains uncertain. Yet, EAA47200 is not a transferred gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel mannose-binding lectin (designated OJL) was purified from rhizomes of Ophiopogon japonicus by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-100. This novel lectin was a homodimer consisting of approximately 12 kDa subunits linked by non-covalent bonds. The hemagglutination activity of OJL was inhibited by Man-α(1,3:1,6)-mannotriose, Man-α(1,3)-Man, Man-α(1,6)-Man, Man-α(1,2)-Man, Me α-d-man and d-mannose. The hemagglutination activity was stable in the pH range of 5.0–9.0 and at temperatures below 60 °C. It was inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type II (HSV-II) with an EC50 of 3.93 μg/mL and showed antifungal activity against Gibberella saubinetii and Rhizoctonia solani. The full-length cDNA of OJL contained 704 bp with an open reading frame encoding a precursor protein of 170 amino acid residues. Molecular modeling studies demonstrated that OJL exhibits a very similar three-dimensional structure of the mannose-binding sites with other monocot mannose-binding lectins. Docking experiments further revealed that two of three putative mannose-binding sites of OJL are active. These results can be used to further explain the carbohydrate-binding activity and specific hemagglutinating activity. A model of the molecular evolution of the monocot mannose-binding lectins is proposed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A lectin with a novel N-terminal amino acid sequence was purified from the rhizomes of Aspidistra elatior Blume by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose and carboxymethyl-Sepharose and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100. The A. elatior Blume lectin (AEL) is a heterotetramer with a molecular mass of 56 kDa and composed of two homodimers consisting of two different polypeptides of 13.5 kDa and 14.5 kDa held together by noncovalent interactions. Hapten inhibition assay indicated that hemagglutinating activity of AEL towards rabbit erythrocytes could be inhibited by D-mannose, mannan, thyroglobulin and ovomucoid. The lectin was stable up to 70 degrees C, and showed maximum activity in a narrow pH range of 7.0-8.0. Chemical modification and spectrum analysis indicated that tryptophan, arginine, cysteine and carboxyl group residues were essential for its hemagglutinating activity. However, they might not be present in the active center, except some carboxyl group residues. AEL also showed significant in vitro antiproliferative activity towards Bre-04 (66%), Lu-04 (60%) and HepG2 (56%) of human cancer cell lines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel mannose-binding tuber lectin with in vitro antiproliferative activity towards human cancer cell lines and antiviral activity against HSV-II was isolated from fresh tubers of a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Typhonium divaricatum (L.) Decne by a combined procedure involving extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-SEPHAROSE, CM-SEPHAROSE and gel-filtration on sephacryl S-200. The apparent molecular mass of the purified Typhonium divaricatum lectin (TDL) was 48 kDa. TDL exhibits hemagglutinating activity toward rabbit erythrocytes at 0.95 microg/ml, and its activity could be strongly inhibited by mannan, ovomucoid, asialofetuin and thyroglobulin. TDL showed antiproliferative activity towards some well established human cancer cell lines, e.g. Pro-01 (56.7 +/- 6.8), Bre-04 (41.5 +/- 4.8), and Lu-04 (11.4 +/- 0.3). The anti-HSV-II activity of TDL was elucidated by testing its HSV-II infection inhibitory activity in Vero cells with TC(50) and EC(50) of 5.176 mg/ml and 3.054 microg/ml respectively. The full-length cDNA sequence of TDL was 1145 bp and contained an 813-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 271 amino acid precursor of 29-kDa. Homology analysis showed that TDL had high homology with many other mannose-binding lectins. Secondary and three-dimensional structures analyses showed that TDL is heterotetramer and similar with lectins from mannose-binding lectin superfamily, especially those from family Araceae.
Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology 06/2007; 40(3):358-67. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mannose-binding agglutinin from bulbs of Lycoris aurea (LAA) agglutinates rabbit but not human erythrocytes. The molecular mass of the monomer in SDS/PAGE is 12 kDa while the apparent molecular mass in gel filtration is 48 kDa, indicating that LAA is a homotetramer. The full-length cDNA of LAA contains 683 bp with an open reading frame encoding a protomer of 162 amino-acid residues. Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis and molecular modeling of the 109-residue mature polypeptide suggested a similar secondary and tertiary structure to those of Narcissus pseudonarcissus agglutinin (NPA). Molecular docking revealed that, besides the three mannose-binding sites common among Amaryllidaceae lectins, LAA also contains a fourth unique mannose-binding site formed by a tryptophan cluster. The existence of four mannose-binding sites in each monomer of LAA is very unusual and has only been reported for NPA earlier.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The monocot mannose-binding lectin can inhibit HIV from infecting the target cells. The total RNA of Zephyranthes grandiflora was extracted and reversely transcribed into cDNA. Degenerate primers were designed based on the conserved regions of other monocot mannose-binding agglutinins by homology alignment. The 694bp full-length cDNA of Zephyranthes grandiflora agglutinin (ZGA) was cloned by RT-PCR, 3' and 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The start codon and stop codon of ZGA were at 37-39bp and 529-531bp respectively. The NCBI Blast analysis result showed that ZGA gene encoded a protein precursor with signal peptide, mature protein and C-terminal cleavage sequence. The mature ZGA protein contained 106 amino acids residues and its molecular weight was 11.6KD. The percentages of identity of the deduced mature ZGA protein with those of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, Narcissus hybrid cultivar agglutinin, Lycoris radiate agglutinin and Clivia miniata agglutinin were 71.8%, 81%, 81.8% and 84.5%, respectively. Blocks analysis revealed that ZGA had three functional domains and three mannose-binding boxes (QDNY).
Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi 11/2004; 21(5):812-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comparative study on gossypol content of various genetic types of pigment glands of cotton varieties was conducted through an optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm particle) with methanol-0.5% acetic acid aqueous solution, 90 : 10 (v/v), as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 254 nm. The method was shown to be highly reproducible, with precision [as relative standard deviation (RSD)] and accuracy [as relative mean error (RME)] < 10%, both intra-day and inter-day. Absolute recoveries were > 94%. The results revealed major differences among the different gland varieties or species of cotton, including the special and ordinary glandless and glanded Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense, and displayed the precious resources of different glands of extraordinary cotton.
Journal of Biosciences 03/2004; 29(1):67-71. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. lectins (PCLs) were extracted from plantlets regenerated from rhizome explants of P. cyrtonema. Rhizome explants demonstrated a high frequency of callus induction (72.5%) and adventitious shoots differentiation (83.7%)
on Murashige Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0mgl−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.0mgl−1 6-benzyladenine. The adventitious shoots could root readily on 1/2 MS medium+0.5mgl−1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid and regenerate plantlets with a survival rate of 75.0%. Regenerated rhizomes were freeze-dried,
macerated and prepared for total RNAs and proteins extraction. The PCL gene was cloned and its expression level was measured by RT-PCR. Western blot using a lectin-specific antibody revealed a
similar amount in regenerated rhizomes compared to wild rhizomes, Furthermore, lectin derived from regenerated rhizomes retained
its ability to haemagglutinate rabbit blood cells.
Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 99(3):269-275. · 3.63 Impact Factor