[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:To improve quality of newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry with a novel approach made possible by the collaboration of 154 laboratories in 49 countries.Methods:A database of 767,464 results from 12,721 cases affected with 60 conditions was used to build multivariate pattern recognition software that generates tools integrating multiple clinically significant results into a single score. This score is determined by the overlap between normal and disease ranges, penetration within the disease range, differences between conditions, and weighted correction factors.Results:Ninety tools target either a single condition or the differential diagnosis between multiple conditions. Scores are expressed as the percentile rank among all cases with the same condition and are compared to interpretation guidelines. Retrospective evaluation of past cases suggests that these tools could have avoided at least half of 279 false-positive outcomes caused by carrier status for fatty-acid oxidation disorders and could have prevented 88% of known false-negative events.Conclusion:Application of this computational approach to raw data is independent from single analyte cutoff values. In Minnesota, the tools have been a major contributing factor to the sustained achievement of a false-positive rate below 0.1% and a positive predictive value above 60%.Genet Med advance online publication 16 February 2012.
Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 07/2012; 14(7):648-55. · 3.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Bedside newborn hearing screening is highly successful in identifying deaf or hard-of-hearing infants. However, newborn hearing screening protocols have high loss to follow-up rates. We propose that bloodspot-based genetic testing for GJB2 alleles can provide a means for rapid confirmation in a subset of infants who fail bedside newborn hearing screening.
: We performed a case-control study comparing the prevalence of common GJB2 mutations from deidentified bloodspots designated as "refer" by newborn hearing screening and contemporaneously selected randomly chosen controls designated as "pass." Between March 2006 and December 2007, 2354 spots were analyzed for common alleles, c.35delG, c.167delT, c.235delC, and p.V37I in GJB2 with a subset reanalyzed by conventional Sanger sequencing to search for additional alleles.
: The prevalence of biallelic GJB2 mutations in bloodspots from infants who referred by newborn hearing screening is approximately 1 in 50 (23/1177). In contrast, one bloodspot from an infant who passed newborn hearing screening was identified to harbor biallelic GJB2 mutations.
: These findings show that when a newborn refers by newborn hearing screening, there is a significant chance that GJB2-related hearing loss is present. Bloodspot-based genetic testing for common GJB2 alleles should be considered as second tier testing for bedside newborn hearing screening.
Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 09/2011; 13(12):1006-10. · 3.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To achieve clinical validation of cutoff values for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry through a worldwide collaborative effort.
Cumulative percentiles of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots of approximately 25–30 million normal newborns and 10,742 deidentified true positive cases are compared to assign clinical significance, which is achieved when the median of a disorder range is, and usually markedly outside, either the 99th or the 1st percentile of the normal population. The cutoff target ranges of analytes and ratios are then defined as the interval between selected percentiles of the two populations. When overlaps occur, adjustments are made to maximize sensitivity and specificity taking all available factors into consideration.
As of December 1, 2010, 130 sites in 45 countries have uploaded a total of 25,114 percentile data points, 565,232 analyte results of true positive cases with 64 conditions, and 5,341 cutoff values. The average rate of submission of true positive cases between December 1, 2008, and December 1, 2010, was 5.1 cases/day. This cumulative evidence generated 91 high and 23 low cutoff target ranges. The overall proportion of cutoff values within the respective target range was 42% (2,269/5,341).
An unprecedented level of cooperation and collaboration has allowed the objective definition of cutoff target ranges for 114 markers to be applied to newborn screening of rare metabolic disorders.
Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 02/2011; 13(3):230-54. · 3.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to 15% of infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection will experience some degree of sensorineural hearing loss. Many infants who fail newborn hearing screening (NHS) are likely to have congenital CMV infection, but may escape definitive virologic identification because diagnostic evaluation may not commence until several weeks or months of age, making differentiation between congenital and postnatal CMV infection difficult. Early diagnosis linking virologic identification of congenital CMV infection to infants failing NHS may improve diagnostic precision and enhance opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
The goal of this study was to compare newborn dried blood spots from Minnesota infants who had failed NHS, and were designated for referral, with control infants who passed NHS, for the presence of CMV DNA by real-time PCR, using hybridization probes for the CMV gene UL54.
Of 479 infants with a failed NHS (bilateral failure), 13 had CMV DNA present in the blood spot (2.7%). This compared with only 2/479 positive results from a control group of infants who passed the NHS (0.4%; P = 0.007, Fisher exact test). Comparisons of the glycoprotein B (gB) genotype as well as direct DNA sequencing of selected positives revealed that PCR positive samples represented unique clinical isolates. The mean viral load among the 15 positive samples was 1.6 x 10(3) genomes/microgram of total DNA.
Newborn bloodspot CMV screening by real-time PCR may be a useful and rapid adjunct to functional NHS and may enable more rapid etiologic diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss in newborns.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary carnitine deficiency impairs fatty acid oxidation and can result in hypoglycemia, hepatic encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy and sudden death. We diagnosed primary carnitine deficiency in six unrelated women whose unaffected infants were identified with low free carnitine levels (C0) by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry. Given the lifetime risk of morbidity or sudden death, identification of adult patients with primary carnitine deficiency is an added benefit of expanded newborn screening programs.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 05/2007; 90(4):441-5. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is primarily caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency and leads to an accumulation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and reduced cortisol levels. Newborn screening for CAH is traditionally based on measuring 17-hydroxyprogesterone by different immunoassays. Despite attempts to adjust cutoff levels for birth weight, gestational age, and stress factors, the positive predictive value for CAH screening remains less than 1%. To improve this situation, we developed a method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and cortisol simultaneously in blood spots. A total of 1222 leftover blood spots from six different screening programs using different immunoassays (fluorescent immunoassay and ELISA) were reanalyzed in a blinded fashion by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-one samples were from babies with CAH, 190 had yielded false-positive results by immunoassay, and the remaining 1001 samples were from babies with normal screening results. Steroid profiling allowed for an elimination of 169 (89%) of the false-positive results and for an improvement of the positive predictive value from the reported 0.5 to 4.7%. Although this method is not suitable for mass screening due to the length of the analysis (12 min), it can be used as a second-tier test of blood spots with positive results for CAH by the conventional methods. This would prevent unnecessary blood draws, medical evaluations, and stress to families.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) involves measurement of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), usually by immunoassay. Because this testing has been characterized by high false-positive rates, we developed a steroid profiling method that uses liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure 17-OHP, androstenedione, and cortisol simultaneously in blood spots.
Whole blood was eluted from a 4.8-mm (3/16-inch) dried-blood spot by an aqueous solution containing the deuterium-labeled internal standard d(8)-17-OHP. 17-OHP, androstenedione, and cortisol were extracted into diethyl ether, which was subsequently evaporated and the residue dissolved in LC mobile phase. This extract was injected into a LC-MS/MS equipped with pneumatically assisted electrospray. The steroids were quantified in the selected-reaction monitoring mode by use of peak areas in reference to the stable-isotope-labeled internal standard. We analyzed 857 newborn blood spots, including 14 blood spots of confirmed CAH cases and 101 of false-positive cases by conventional screening.
Intra- and interassay CVs for 17-OHP were 7.2-20% and 3.9-18%, respectively, at concentrations of 2, 30, and 50 microg/L. At a cutoff for 17-OHP of 12.5 microg/L and a cutoff of 3.75 for the sum of peak areas for 17-OHP and androstenedione divided by the peak area for cortisol, 86 of the 101 false-positive samples were within reference values by LC-MS/MS, whereas the 742 normal and 14 true-positive results obtained by conventional screening were correctly classified.
Steroid profiling in blood spots can identify false-positive results obtained by conventional newborn screening for CAH.