[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) regulates fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) and plays a central role in the metabolic and energetic homeostasis of striated muscles. The thermodynamic consequences of the absence of PPAR alpha were investigated in diaphragm muscle of PPAR alpha knockout mice (KO). Statistical mechanics provides a powerful tool for determining entropy production, which quantifies irreversible chemical processes generated by myosin molecular motors and which is the product of thermodynamic force A/T (chemical affinity A and temperature T) and thermodynamic flow (myosin crossbridge (CB) cycle velocity upsilon). The behavior of both wild type (WT) and KO diaphragm was shown to be near-equilibrium and in a stationary state, but KO was farther from equilibrium than WT. In KO diaphragm, a substantial decrease in contractile function was associated with an increase in both A/T and upsilon and with profound histological injuries such as contraction band necrosis. There were no changes in PPAR delta and gamma expression levels or myosin heavy chain (MHC) patterns. In KO diaphragm, a marked increase in entropy production (A/T x upsilon) accounted for major thermodynamic dysfunction and a dramatic increase in irreversible chemical processes during the myosin CB cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the effects of PPARalpha lack on cardiac mechanical performance and to identify potential intracellular mechanisms linking PPARalpha pathway deficiency to cardiac contractile dysfunction. Echocardiography, ex vivo papillary muscle assays, and in vitro motility assays were used to assess global, intrinsic ventricular muscle performance and myosin mechanical properties, respectively, in PPARalpha(-/-) and age-matched wild-type mice. Three-nitrotyrosine formation and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein-adducts, both markers of oxidative damage, were analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunolabeling. Radical scavenging capacity was analyzed by measuring protein levels and/or activities of the main antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and manganese and copper-zinc superoxide dismutases. Echocardiographic left ventricular fractional shortening in PPARalpha(-/-) was 16% lower than that in wild-type. Ex vivo left ventricular papillary muscle exhibited reduced shortening velocity and isometric tension (three- and twofold, respectively). In vitro myosin-based velocity was approximately 20% slower in PPARalpha(-/-), indicating that myosin itself was involved in the contractile dysfunction. Staining of 3-nitrotyrosine was more pronounced in PPARalpha(-/-), and myosin heavy chain was the main nitrated protein. Formation of 3-nitrotyrosine myosin heavy chain was twofold higher in PPARalpha(-/-) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein-adducts were threefold higher. The expression and activity of manganese superoxide dismutase were respectively 33% and 50% lower in PPARalpha(-/-), with no changes in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, or glutathione peroxidase. These findings demonstrate that PPARalpha pathway deficiency impairs cardiac function and also identify oxidative damage to myosin as a link between PPARalpha deficiency and contractile dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statistical mechanics provides the link between microscopic properties of matter and its bulk properties. The grand canonical ensemble formalism was applied to contracting rat skeletal muscles, the soleus (SOL, n = 30) and the extensor digitalis longus (EDL, n = 30). Huxley's equations were used to calculate force (pi) per single crossbridge (CB), probabilities of six steps of the CB cycle, and peak muscle efficiency (Eff(max)). SOL and EDL were shown to be in near-equilibrium (CB cycle affinity 2.5 kJ/mol) and stationary state (linearity between CB cycle affinity and myosin ATPase rate). The molecular partition function (z) was higher in EDL (1.126+/-0.005) than in SOL (1.050+/-0.003). Both pi and Eff(max) were lower in EDL (8.3+/-0.1 pN and 38.1+/-0.2%, respectively) than in SOL (9.2+/-0.1 pN and 42.3+/-0.2%, respectively). The most populated step of the CB cycle was the last detached state (D3) (probability P(D3): 0.890+/-0.004 in EDL and 0.953+/-0.002 in SOL). In each muscle group, both pi and Eff(max) linearly decreased with z and statistical entropy and increased with P(D3). We concluded that statistical mechanics and Huxley's formalism provided a powerful combination for establishing an analytical link between chemomechanical properties of CBs, molecular partition function and statistical entropy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We prospectively documented right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fractions in a large series of patients with arrhythmogenic RV dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C). Eighty-five patients with ARVD/C and 11 controls underwent 2 successive orthogonal right and left monoplane x-ray-digitized cineangiographies. Volumes were calculated using the hemielliptical RV and ellipsoidal LV models. All controls and 58 of 85 patients (ARVD/C-I) had a RV ejection fraction > or =35% and 27 patients had a RV ejection fraction <35% (ARVD/C-II). Tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was lower in ARVD/C-II than in ARVD/C-I patients (6 +/- 3 vs 14 +/- 3 mm) and controls (16 +/- 2 mm) (each p <0.001). In patients with ARVD/C, TAPSE was positively related to RV ejection fraction (r = 0.79) and to crista supraventricularis shortening (r = 0.81) (each p <0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of TAPSE <12 mm in identifying patients with RV ejection fraction <35% were 96% and 78%, respectively. LV ejection fraction was > or =50% in 68 patients, 40% to 49% in 10, and <40% in 7. Diffuse RV outflow tract aneurysm was observed in 9 patients, all belonging to ARVD/C-II, and this sign identified patients with LV ejection fraction <40% with 86% sensitivity and 96% specificity. In conclusion, 68% of ARVD/C patients had normal RV ejection fraction and RV volumes, and 80% of ARVD/C patients had normal LV ejection fraction. Decreased TAPSE <12 mm and a diffuse RV outflow tract aneurysm were sensitive and specific indicators of RV ejection fraction <35% and LV ejection fraction <40%, respectively.
The American Journal of Cardiology 04/2004; 93(6):728-33. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.11.055 · 3.43 Impact Factor