[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The worldwide market for therapies for CNS disorders is worth more than 50 billion dollars and is set to grow substantially in the years ahead. This is because: 1) the incidence of many CNS disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and Parkinson's disease) increase exponentially after age 65 and 2) the number of people in the world over 65 is about to increase sharply because of a marked rise in fertility after World War II. However, CNS research and development are associated with significant challenges: it takes longer to get a CNS drug to market (12-16 years) compared with a non-CNS drug (10-12 years) and there is a higher attrition rate for CNS drug candidates than for non-CNS drug candidates. This is attributable to a variety of factors, including the complexity of the brain, the liability of CNS drugs to cause CNS side effects, and the requirement of CNS drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This review focuses on BBB penetration, along with pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, in the process of the discovery and development of safe and effective medicines for CNS disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The functional characterization of hispidulin (4',5,7-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone), a potent benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor ligand, was initiated to determine its potential as a modulator of central nervous system activity. After chemical synthesis, hispidulin was investigated at recombinant GABA(A)/BZD receptors expressed by Xenopus laevis oocytes. Concentrations of 50 nm and higher stimulated the GABA-induced chloride currents at tested receptor subtypes (alpha(1-3,5,6)beta(2)gamma(2)S) indicating positive allosteric properties. Maximal stimulation at alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2)S was observed with 10 microm hispidulin. In contrast to diazepam, hispidulin modulated the alpha(6)beta(2)gamma(2)S-GABA(A) receptor subtype. When fed to seizure-prone Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) in a model of epilepsy, hispidulin (10 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day) and diazepam (2 mg kg(-1) BW per day) markedly reduced the number of animals suffering from seizures after 7 days of treatment (30 and 25% of animals in the respective treatment groups, vs 80% in the vehicle group). Permeability across the blood-brain barrier for the chemically synthesized, (14)C-labelled hispidulin was confirmed by a rat in situ perfusion model. With an uptake rate (K(in)) of 1.14 ml min(-1) g(-1), measurements approached the values obtained with highly penetrating compounds such as diazepam. Experiments with Caco-2 cells predict that orally administered hispidulin enters circulation in its intact form. At a concentration of 30 microm, the flavone crossed the monolayer without degradation as verified by the absence of glucuronidated metabolites.
British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2004; 142(5):811-20. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705828 · 4.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding mechanisms associated with flavonoid neuroprotection is complicated by the lack of information on their ability to enter the CNS. This study examined naringenin and quercetin permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), using in vitro (ECV304/C6 coculture) and in situ (rat) models. We report measurable permeabilities (P(app)) for both flavonoids across the in vitro BBB model, consistent with their lipophilicity. Both flavonoids showed measurable in situ BBB permeability. The rates of uptake (K(in)) into the right cerebral hemisphere were 0.145 and 0.019 ml min(-1) g(-1) for naringenin and quercetin, respectively. Quercetin K(in) was comparable to that of colchicine (0.006 ml min(-1) g(-1)), a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Preadministration of the P-gp inhibitor PSC833 or GF120918 (10 mg/kg body wt) significantly increased colchicine K(in), but only GF120918 (able to inhibit breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP) affected K(in) for quercetin. Naringenin K(in) was not affected. The influence of efflux transporters on flavonoid permeability at the BBB was further studied using MDCK-MDR1 and immortalized rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4). Colchicine, quercetin, and naringenin all showed measurable accumulation (distribution volume, V(d) (microl/mg protein)) in both cell types. The V(d) for colchicine increased significantly in both cell lines following coincubation with either PSC833 (25 microM) or GF120918 (25 microM). Both inhibitors also caused an increase in naringenin V(d); by contrast only GF120918 coincubation significantly increased quercetin V(d). In conclusion, the results demonstrate that flavonoids are able to traverse the BBB in vivo. However, the permeability of certain flavonoids in vivo is influenced by their lipophilicity and interactions with efflux transporters.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 04/2004; 36(5):592-604. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2003.11.023 · 5.71 Impact Factor