Lance J. Dixon

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (147)241.41 Total impact

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    Lance J. Dixon, Matt von Hippel
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    ABSTRACT: We extend the hexagon function bootstrap to the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) configuration for six-point scattering in planar \${\cal N}=4\$ super-Yang-Mills theory at three loops. Constraints from the \$\bar{Q}\$ differential equation, from the operator product expansion (OPE) for Wilson loops with operator insertions, and from multi-Regge factorization, lead to a unique answer for the three-loop ratio function. The three-loop result also predicts additional terms in the OPE expansion, as well as the behavior of NMHV amplitudes in the multi-Regge limit at one higher logarithmic accuracy (NNLL) than was used as input. Both predictions are in agreement with recent results from the flux-tube approach. We also study the multi-particle factorization of multi-loop amplitudes for the first time. We find that the function controlling this factorization is purely logarithmic through three loops. We show that a function \$U\$, which is closely related to the parity-even part of the ratio function \$V\$, is remarkably simple; only five of the nine possible final entries in its symbol are non-vanishing. We study the analytic and numerical behavior of both the parity-even and parity-odd parts of the ratio function on simple lines traversing the space of cross ratios \$(u,v,w)\$, as well as on a few two-dimensional planes. Finally, we present an empirical formula for $V$ in terms of elements of the coproduct of the six-gluon MHV remainder function \$R_6\$ at one higher loop, which works through three loops for \$V\$ (four loops for \$R_6\$).
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We study $W$-boson production accompanied by multiple jets at 7 TeV at the LHC. We study the jet-production ratio, of total cross sections for $W$+$n$- to $W$+($n-1$)-jet production, and the ratio of distributions in the total transverse hadronic jet energy $H_{\rm T}^{\rm jets}$. We use the ratios to extrapolate the total cross section, and the differential distribution in $H_{\rm T}^{\rm jets}$, to $W$+6-jet production. We use the BlackHat software library in conjunction with SHERPA to perform the computations.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the hexagon function bootstrap for solving for six-gluon scattering amplitudes in the large $N_c$ limit of ${\cal N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills theory. In this method, an ansatz for the finite part of these amplitudes is constrained at the level of amplitudes, not integrands, using boundary information. In the near-collinear limit, the dual picture of the amplitudes as Wilson loops leads to an operator product expansion which has been solved using integrability by Basso, Sever and Vieira. Factorization of the amplitudes in the multi-Regge limit provides additional boundary data. This bootstrap has been applied successfully through four loops for the maximally helicity violating (MHV) configuration of gluon helicities, and through three loops for the non-MHV case.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present next-to-leading order QCD predictions for cross sections and for a comprehensive set of distributions in diphoton + 2-jet production at the Large Hadron Collider. We consider the contributions from loop amplitudes for two photons and four gluons, but we neglect top quarks. We use BlackHat together with SHERPA to carry out the computation. We use a Frixione cone isolation for the photons. We study standard sets of cuts on the jets and the photons, and also sets of cuts appropriate for studying backgrounds to Higgs-boson production via vector-boson fusion.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the four-loop remainder function for six-gluon scattering with maximal helicity violation in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as an analytic function of three dual-conformal cross ratios. The function is constructed entirely from its analytic properties, without ever inspecting any multi-loop integrand. We employ the same approach used at three loops, writing an ansatz in terms of hexagon functions, and fixing coefficients in the ansatz using the multi-Regge limit and the operator product expansion in the near-collinear limit. We express the result in terms of multiple polylogarithms, and in terms of the coproduct for the associated Hopf algebra. From the remainder function, we extract the BFKL eigenvalue at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy (NNLLA), and the impact factor at NNNLLA. We plot the remainder function along various lines and on one surface, studying ratios of successive loop orders. As seen previously through three loops, these ratios are surprisingly constant over large regions in the space of cross ratios, and they are not far from the value expected at asymptotically large orders of perturbation theory.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a recent calculation of prompt photon-pair production in association with two jets to next-to-leading order (NLO) at the LHC. The virtual contribution is evaluated using the BlackHat library, a numerical implementation of on-shell methods for one-loop amplitudes, in conjunction with SHERPA. We study four sets of cuts: standard jet cuts, a set of Higgs-related cuts suggested by ATLAS, and corresponding sets which isolate the kinematic region where the process becomes the largest background to Higgs production via vector-boson fusion.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present an event-file format for the dissemination of next-to-leading-order (NLO) predictions for QCD processes at hadron colliders. The files contain all information required to compute generic jet-based infrared-safe observables at fixed order (without showering or hadronization), and to recompute observables with different factorization and renormalization scales. The files also make it possible to evaluate cross sections and distributions with different parton distribution functions. This in turn makes it possible to estimate uncertainties in NLO predictions of a wide variety of observables without recomputing the short-distance matrix elements. The event files allow a user to choose among a wide range of commonly-used jet algorithms and jet-size parameters. We provide event files for a $W$ or $Z$ boson accompanied by up to four jets, and for pure-jet events with up to four jets. The files are for the Large Hadron Collider with a center of mass energy of 7 or 8 TeV. A C++ library along with a Python interface for handling these files are also provided and described in this article. The library allows a user to read the event files and recompute observables transparently for different pdf sets and factorization and renormalization scales.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present recent next-to-leading order (NLO) results in perturbative QCD obtained using the BlackHat software library. We discuss the use of n-tuples to separate the lengthy matrix-element computations from the analysis process. The use of n-tuples allows many analyses to be carried out on the same phase-space samples, and also allows experimenters to conduct their own analyses using the original NLO computation.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We introduce a generating function for the coefficients of the leading logarithmic BFKL Green's function in transverse-momentum space, order by order in alpha_s, in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms. As an application, we exhibit fully analytic azimuthal-angle and transverse-momentum distributions for Mueller-Navelet jet cross sections at each order in alpha_s. We also provide a generating function for the total cross section valid to any number of loops.
    09/2013;
  • Lance J Dixon, Ye Li
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    ABSTRACT: We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ^{*} channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.
    Physical Review Letters 09/2013; 111(11):111802. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study on high-performance computing and large-scale distributed computing for perturbative QCD calculations.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In these proceedings we present results from a recent calculation for the production of a W boson in conjunction with five jets at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. We also use results at lower multiplicities to extrapolate the cross section to the same process with six jets.
    08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the three-loop remainder function, which describes the scattering of six gluons in the maximally-helicity-violating configuration in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as a function of the three dual conformal cross ratios. The result can be expressed in terms of multiple Goncharov polylogarithms. We also employ a more restricted class of "hexagon functions" which have the correct branch cuts and certain other restrictions on their symbols. We classify all the hexagon functions through transcendental weight five, using the coproduct for their Hopf algebra iteratively, which amounts to a set of first-order differential equations. The three-loop remainder function is a particular weight-six hexagon function, whose symbol was determined previously. The differential equations can be integrated numerically for generic values of the cross ratios, or analytically in certain kinematics limits, including the near-collinear and multi-Regge limits. These limits allow us to impose constraints from the operator product expansion and multi-Regge factorization directly at the function level, and thereby to fix uniquely a set of Riemann-zeta-valued constants that could not be fixed at the level of the symbol. The near-collinear limits agree precisely with recent predictions by Basso, Sever and Vieira based on integrability. The multi-Regge limits agree with the factorization formula of Fadin and Lipatov, and determine three constants entering the impact factor at this order. We plot the three-loop remainder function for various slices of the Euclidean region of positive cross ratios, and compare it to the two-loop one. For large ranges of the cross ratios, the ratio of the three-loop to the two-loop remainder function is relatively constant, and close to -7.
    08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present next-to-leading order QCD predictions for the total cross section and for a comprehensive set of transverse-momentum distributions in W + 5-jet production at the Large Hadron Collider. We neglect the small contributions from subleading-color virtual terms, top quarks and some terms containing four quark pairs. We also present ratios of total cross sections, and use them to obtain an extrapolation formula to an even larger number of jets. We include the decay of the $W$ boson into leptons. This is the first such computation with six final-state vector bosons or jets. We use BlackHat together with SHERPA to carry out the computation.
    04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The connection of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory to the (2,0) theory in six dimensions has raised the possibility that it might be perturbatively ultraviolet finite in five dimensions. We test this hypothesis by computing the coefficient of the first potential ultraviolet divergence of planar (large N_c) maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in D = 5, which occurs at six loops. We show that the coefficient is nonvanishing. Furthermore, the numerical value of the divergence falls very close to an approximate exponential formula based on the coefficients of the divergences through five loops. This formula predicts the approximate values of the ultraviolet divergence at loop orders L > 6 in the critical dimension D = 4 + 6/L. To obtain the six-loop divergence we first construct the planar six-loop four-point amplitude integrand using generalized unitarity. The ultraviolet divergence follows from a set of vacuum integrals, which are obtained by expanding the integrand in the external momenta. The vacuum integrals are integrated via sector decomposition, using a modified version of the FIESTA program.
    Physical Review D 10/2012; 87(2):025018. · 4.69 Impact Factor
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    Johannes Broedel, Lance J. Dixon
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate color-kinematics duality for gauge-theory amplitudes produced by the pure nonabelian Yang-Mills action deformed by higher-dimension operators. For the operator denoted by F^3, the product of three field strengths, the existence of color-kinematic dual representations follows from string-theory monodromy relations. We provide explicit dual representations, and show how the double-copy construction of gravity amplitudes based on them is consistent with the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations. It leads to the amplitudes produced by Einstein gravity coupled to a dilaton field phi, and deformed by operators of the form phi R^2 and R^3. For operators with higher dimensions than F^3, such as F^4-type operators appearing at the next order in the low-energy expansion of bosonic and superstring theory, the situation is more complex. The color structure of some of the F^4 operators is incompatible with a simple color-kinematics duality based on structure constants f^{abc}, but even the color-compatible F^4 operators do not admit the duality. In contrast, the next term in the alpha-prime expansion of the superstring effective action --- a particular linear combination of D^2 F^4 and F^5-type operators --- does admit the duality, at least for amplitudes with up to six external gluons.
    Journal of High Energy Physics 08/2012; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    Lance J. Dixon, Claude Duhr, Jeffrey Pennington
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    ABSTRACT: We argue that the natural functions for describing the multi-Regge limit of six-gluon scattering in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory are the single-valued harmonic polylogarithmic functions introduced by Brown. These functions depend on a single complex variable and its conjugate, (w,w*). Using these functions, and formulas due to Fadin, Lipatov and Prygarin, we determine the six-gluon MHV remainder function in the leading-logarithmic approximation (LLA) in this limit through ten loops, and the next-to-LLA (NLLA) terms through nine loops. In separate work, we have determined the symbol of the four-loop remainder function for general kinematics, up to 113 constants. Taking its multi-Regge limit and matching to our four-loop LLA and NLLA results, we fix all but one of the constants that survive in this limit. The multi-Regge limit factorizes in the variables (\nu,n) which are related to (w,w*) by a Fourier-Mellin transform. We can transform the single-valued harmonic polylogarithms to functions of (\nu,n) that incorporate harmonic sums, systematically through transcendental weight six. Combining this information with the four-loop results, we determine the eigenvalues of the BFKL kernel in the adjoint representation to NNLLA accuracy, and the MHV product of impact factors to NNNLLA accuracy, up to constants representing beyond-the-symbol terms and the one symbol-level constant. Remarkably, only derivatives of the polygamma function enter these results. Finally, the LLA approximation to the six-gluon NMHV amplitude is evaluated through ten loops.
    Journal of High Energy Physics 07/2012; 2012(10). · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We extend our investigation of backgrounds to new physics signals, following CMS's data-driven search for supersymmetry at the LHC. The aim is to use different sets of cuts in gamma + 3-jet production to predict the irreducible Z + 3-jet background (with the Z boson decaying to neutrinos) to searches with missing transverse energy + 3-jet signal topologies. We compute ratios of Z + 3-jet to gamma + 3-jet production cross sections and kinematic distributions at next-to-leading order (NLO) in alpha_s. We compare these ratios with those obtained using a parton shower matched to leading-order matrix elements (ME+PS). This study extends our previous work [arXiv:1106.1423 [hep-ph]] on the Z + 2-jet to gamma + 2-jet ratio. We find excellent agreement with the ratio determined from the earlier NLO results involving two instead of three jets, and agreement to within 10% between the NLO and ME+PS results for the ratios. We also examine the possibility of large QCD logarithms in these processes. Ratios of Z + n-jet to gamma + n-jet cross sections are plausibly less sensitive to such corrections than the cross sections themselves. Their effect on estimates of Z + 3-jet to gamma + 3-jet ratios can be assessed experimentally by measuring the gamma + 3-jet to gamma + 2-jet production ratio in search regions. We partially address the question of potentially large electroweak logarithms by computing the real-emission part of the electroweak corrections to the ratio using ME+PS, and find that it is 1% or less. Our estimate of the remaining theoretical uncertainties in the Z to gamma ratio is in agreement with our earlier study.
    06/2012;
  • Zvi Bern, Lance J Dixon, David A Kosower
    Scientific American 05/2012; 306(5):34-41. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this contribution we present recent progress in the computation of next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections for the production of an electroweak vector boson in association with jets at hadron colliders. We focus on results obtained using the virtual matrix element library BLACKHAT in conjunction with SHERPA, focusing on results relevant to understanding the background to top production.
    01/2012;

Publication Stats

5k Citations
241.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2013
    • Stanford University
      • SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • Stony Brook University
      • Institute for Theoretical Physics (C.N. Yang)
      Stony Brook, NY, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Center for Theoretical Physics
      Cambridge, MA, United States
    • Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute)
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 1993–2011
    • CERN
      • Physics Department (PH)
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2002
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      East Lansing, MI, United States
  • 1996
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States