[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human pancarcinoma-associated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) (EGP-2, CO17-1A) is a well-known target for carcinoma-directed immunotherapy. Mouse-derived mAbs directed to EpCAM have been used to treat colon carcinoma patients showing well-tolerable toxic side effects but limited antitumor effects. Humanized or fully human anti-EpCAM mAbs may induce stronger antitumor activity, but proved to produce severe pancreatitis upon use in patients. To evaluate treatment-associated effects before a clinical trial, we have generated a transgenic mouse tumor model that expresses human EpCAM similar to carcinoma patients. In this study, we use this model to study the in vivo behavior of two humanized and one mouse-derived anti-EpCAM mAb, i.e., MOC31-hFc, UBS54, and MOC31. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the fully human mAb UBS54 and the mouse-derived MOC31 were largely the same after injection in tumor-bearing transgenic mice, whereas the molecularly engineered, humanized MOC31-hFc behaved differently. Injection of UBS54 and MOC31 resulted in significant, dose-dependent uptake of mAb in EpCAM-expressing normal and tumor tissues, accompanied by a drop in serum level, whereas injection of MOC31-hFc resulted in uptake in tumor tissue, limited uptake by normal tissues, and slow blood clearance. It is concluded that the EpCAM-transgenic mouse model provides valuable insights into the potential behavior of humanized anti-EpCAM mAbs in patients. mAbs sharing the same epitope and isotype but constructed differently were shown to behave differently in the model, indicating that the design of mAbs is important for eventual success in in vivo application.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2007; 179(2):1362-8. · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) used for clinical trials should be processed on a large scale conforming to current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) guidelines. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for clinical grade generation of immature DC in a closed-system. Aphereses were performed with the Cobe Spectra continuous flow cell separator and material was derived from one volume of blood processed. Optimisation of a 3-phase collection autoPBSC technique significantly improved the quality of the initial mononuclear cell (MNC) product. Monocytes were then enriched from MNC by immunomagnetic depletion of CD19+ B cells and CD2+ T cells and partial depletion of NK cells using the Isolex 300I Magnetic cell selector. The quality of the initial mononuclear cell product was found to determine the outcome of monocyte enrichment. Enriched monocytes were cultured in Opticyte gas-permeable containers using CellGro serum-free medium supplemented with GM-CSF and IL-4 to generate immature DC. A seeding concentration of 1 x 10(6) was found optimal in terms of DC phenotype expression, monocyte percentage in culture, and cell viability. The differentiation pattern favours day 7 for harvest of immature DC. DC recovery, viability, as well as phenotype expression after cryopreservation of immature DC was considered in this study. DC were induced to maturation and evaluated in FACS analysis for phenotype expression and proliferation assays. Mature DC were able to generate an allogeneic T-cell response as well as an anti-CMV response as detected by proliferation assays. These data indicate that the described large-scale GMP-compatible system results in the generation of stable DC derived from one volume of blood processed, which are qualitatively and quantitatively sufficient for clinical application in immunotherapeutic protocols.
Journal of Clinical Apheresis 01/2006; 20(4):197-207. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we developed a nonviral, cationic, targeted DNA-carrier system by coupling SAINT/DOPE lipids to monoclonal antibodies. The two monoclonal antibodies used were both tumor specific, that is, MOC31 recognizes the epithelial glycoprotein EGP-2 present in carcinomas and Herceptin recognizes the HER-2/neu protein in breast and ovarian cancers. Coupling was performed under nonreducing conditions by covalent attachment. The coupling procedure appeared to be reproducible and the binding capacity of the antibody was not affected by linking them to the cationic lipid. Binding and transfection efficiency was assayed with target cells and nontarget cells. SAINT/DOPE lipoplexes as such appeared to be an effective transfection reagent for various cell lines. After coupling SAINT/DOPE to the monoclonal antibodies or F(ab)2 fragments, it was shown that the targeted MoAb-SAINT/DOPE lipoplexes preferably bound to target cells, compared to binding to the nontarget cells, especially for the Herceptin-SAINT/DOPE lipoplexes. More importantly, transfection of the target cells could also be improved with these targeted lipoplexes. In conclusion, we have shown that by using monoclonal antibody-coupled SAINT/DOPE lipoplexes cells targeted gene delivery can be achieved, and also a higher number of transfected target cells was seen.
Cancer Gene Therapy 03/2004; 11(2):156-64. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graft function of encapsulated islets is restricted in spite of the fact that inflammatory responses against capsules are limited to a portion less than 10%. It has been shown that dysfunction is accompanied by a gradual decrease in the glucose-induced insulin response (GIIR), a hyperproliferation of islet cells, and gradual necrosis. Also, limited survival is associated with the presence of macrophages in the overgrowth. In the present study, we investigate whether macrophages are the inducers of dysfunction of encapsulated grafts. Four weeks after successful transplantation of microencapsulated rat allografts we determined the GIIR, the rate of islet cell replication, and islet cell death. Also, we quantified the number of macrophages on the overgrown capsules. This assessment was applied to set up an in vitro coculture system of macrophages and encapsulated islets. We retrieved 93 +/- 6.2% of the capsules of which 9.2 +/- 0.3% was overgrown. The GIIR of the retrieved nonovergrown islets was reduced when compared with freshly encapsulated islets. The replication rate of the retrieved islet cells was eightfold higher than in the normal pancreas. Apoptosis was rarely observed but 37 +/- 4% of the total islet surface was composed of necrosis. We found a mean of 1542 +/- 217 macrophages per capsule. Coculture of 1500 NR8383 macrophages per encapsulated islets induced a substantial reduction in GIIR but a decrease instead of increase in replication. Necrosis was restricted to 13 +/- 1.3% of the islet cells and was not increased by the presence of macrophages. Our observations indicate that we should focus on reduction of macrophage activation and on improving the nutrition of encapsulated islets to prevent islet cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survival of microencapsulated islet grafts is limited, even when inflammatory reactions against the capsules are restricted to a small portion of less than 10%.
This study investigates both in vivo in rat recipients and in vitro whether cellular overgrowth on this minority of the capsules contributes to limitations in the functional survival of the 90% of the encapsulated islets which remain free of any cellular overgrowth.
In successful rat recipients of an allogenic microencapsulated islet graft we found that the vast majority of cells in the capsular overgrowth were activated ED-1 and ED-2 positive macrophages which were found in numbers of approximately 1500 per capsule. Co-culture of encapsulated islets with 1500 (nr8383) rat-macrophages per capsule showed that the activation of macrophages was caused by islet-derived bioactive factors since TNF-alpha and IL-1beta secretion by macrophages was induced by islet-containing capsules and not by empty capsules. This activation of macrophages was associated with a decrease in function of the encapsulated islets as evidenced by a quantitatively reduced (35%) insulin response in static incubation and a slower response in perifusion.
Present research aims to design strategies for the temporary inhibition of macrophage activation since macrophages are predominantly present in the first two months after implantation. These strategies will serve as a pertinent basis for future clinical application of microencapsulated islets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transplantation of encapsulated living cells is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. Large-scale application of the technique, however, is hampered by insufficient biocompatibility of the capsules. In the present study, we have implemented new as well as previously reported technologies to test biocompatibility issues of immunoisolating microcapsules on the long term (i.e. 2 years) instead of usually reported short time periods. When transplanted empty, the capsules proved to be highly biocompatible not only for short periods (i.e. 1 month) but also on the long term as evidenced by the absence of any significant biological response up to 2 years after implantation in rats. The immunoprotective properties of the capsules were confirmed by prolonged survival of encapsulated islet allografts up to 200 days. The surface of the applied capsule was analyzed and provides new insight in the chemical structure of true biocompatible and immunoprotective capsules applicable for transplantation of encapsulated islets in type I diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated if dendritic cells (DCs) were able to present intracellularly located antigens derived from apoptotic cells to T cells, thereby inducing a CD4+ and a CD8+ response. A transfected cell line with the cytomegalovirus-derived protein pp65 was triggered to go into apoptosis by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, and after the uptake of apoptotic cells by DC, the activation and proliferation of T cells were determined. We found that DC efficiently phagocytosed apoptotic cells and induced a CD4+ and a CD8+ T-cell response specific for the viral protein pp65. This mechanism can be useful for vaccination studies to induce an antiviral immune response.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 10/2002; 56(3):254-9. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is still poorly understood which of the cytomegalovirus (CMV)-induced proteins are important for the host's cellular immunity during active infection and for establishing latency. To answer this question, in vitro proliferative T cell responses to four recombinant CMV proteins were compared and compared with responses to CMV-infected fibroblasts in immunocompetent healthy CMV-seropositive subjects and immunocompromised organ transplant recipients. The proteins studied were the lower matrix protein pp65 (ppUL83), the DNA-binding protein p52 (ppUL44), and the two immediate-early proteins IE1 (UL123) and IE2 (UL122). In healthy persons, pp65 was the most important protein with respect to its ability to induce a proliferative T cell response. In transplant recipients, severe suppression of the responses to these CMV proteins was found. This finding may be clinically relevant in view of the occurrence and course of CMV infection in these patients.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/1995; 172(3):879-82. · 5.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten fusion proteins derived from five various CMV encoded proteins were used for the detection of specific antibody response by immunoblot technique in sera from renal transplant recipients. The fusion proteins were derived from the following CMV specific proteins: the assembly protein ppUL80a with an apparent molecular weight of 38 kD, ppUL99 (MW of 28 kD), the basic phosphoprotein ppUL32 (MW of 150 kD), the lower matrix protein ppUL83 (65 kD), and the DNA binding protein ppUL44 (MW of 52 kD). Some fragments overlapped and responses to these recombinant proteins were compared. Antibody responses appeared to be predominately directed at fusion proteins of ppUL32, the basic phosphoprotein and at ppUL44, the major DNA binding protein. Some differences were found in the responses to these partly overlapping fusion proteins. In addition, an IgM response mainly present in primary infections to fusion proteins XP1 and G2, again representing ppUL32 and ppUL44, was found.
The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM) 05/1995; 18(2):223-8. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The humoral immune response to four intracellularly located cytomegalovirus (CMV) proteins was studied in 15 lung transplant recipients experiencing active CMV infections. Five patients had primary infections, and 10 had secondary infections. Antibodies of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG classes were measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system in which procaryotically expressed recombinant proteins were used as a substrate and also in a monoclonal antibody-based capture ELISA which uses naturally occurring proteins as a substrate. The proteins investigated were the lower matrix protein pp65 (ppUL83), the major DNA-binding protein p52 (ppUL44), and the two immediate early proteins IE1 and IE2 (different splicing products of UL123). Higher levels of antibodies were found to pp65 and especially to p52 than to the immediate early antigens. Antibody levels detected in the recombinant protein-based ELISAs were generally lower than antibody responses detected with the matching antigen capture ELISA. Moreover, some patients appeared to have antibodies mainly to epitopes present on naturally occurring proteins. The antibody responses detected in both assays were related to the viral load during infection as assessed by the CMV antigenemia test, which is a quantitative marker for CMV load. It was found that although epitopes on naturally occurring proteins induce higher antibody responses and responses in more patients, antibodies directed to epitopes present on the recombinant proteins were inversely related to the viral load during a CMV infection. Therefore, antibodies to epitopes on the recombinant proteins might be more clinically relevant in this group of lung transplant recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA fragments from eight different reading frames of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were generated by PCR and subsequently cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in fusion with glutathione S-transferase. The recombinant viral antigens were evaluated in immunoblot analyses. The most reactive antigens were purified and further evaluated in ELISAs. For this, sera from healthy blood donors and immunocompetent individuals with acute HCMV infection, and follow-up sera from transplant recipients with acute primary HCMV infection were used. The results of our experiments indicate that only three particular recombinant polypeptides from two viral proteins are necessary for serodiagnosis. While a fragment covering amino acids (aa) 495 to 691 of pp150 (150/1) was the most suitable antigen for the identification of infected individuals in general, immunoglobulin M antibodies against the C-terminal parts of pp150 (aa 862 to 1048; 150/7) and p52 (aa 297 to 433; 52/3) proved to be excellent serological markers to monitor acute HCMV infection. The selected recombinant antigens enable the improvement of serodiagnosis of HCMV-related diseases, especially during the early stages of infection.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 05/1994; 32(4):981-6. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific B cells were enriched to a purity of up to 38% on CMV-coated dishes and subsequently clonally expanded in the presence of human T cell supernatant and irradiated murine thymoma helper cells. The expanded cells were immortalized by a mini-electrofusion with K6H6B5 myeloma cells. Twenty-two anti-CMV positive B cell clones could be obtained from as little as 1.5 ml donor blood. The majority of these clones produced anti-CMV antibodies of the IgG class. Ten anti-CMV positive B cell clones were submitted to separate mini-electrofusions yielding stable, human anti-CMV IgG-producing hybridomas in six out of ten fusions. These antibodies recognized different proteins of the CMV virus, as deduced from the immunofluorescence staining pattern on infected human fibroblasts.
Human antibodies and hybridomas 11/1993; 4(4):166-73.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The humoral immune response to individual proteins of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) was studied by immunoblotting. CMV polypeptides present in an extract of CMV-infected fibroblasts in a late stage of infection were recognized by sera of healthy seropositive individuals and transplant recipients who suffered from a primary or secondary CMV infection. The results showed that the sera reacted with a maximum number of 18 polypeptides ranging in molecular weight from 28-235 kDa. In 60% or more of the healthy seropositives, polypeptides were recognized with an apparent molecular weight of 150, 98, 94, 58, 50, 44, 38, and 32 kDa. In the patient group, the most immunogenic polypeptides were those with an apparent molecular weight of 150, 104, 94, 66, 50, 38, and 32 kDa. A correlation was found between the antibody levels in sera from the healthy seropositives and the number of recognized polypeptides but no such relationship was seen in the transplant recipients. However, sera of patients with a high virus load during their secondary CMV infection, as detected by the CMV-antigenemia test, appeared to react less frequently and less intensely with the polypeptides than those with low viremia. A high number of antigen-positive leukocytes in the CMV-antigenemia test was related to a low frequency of polypeptides with molecular weights of 85, 76, 66, 44, 38, and 32 kDa recognized before transplantation.
Journal of Medical Virology 02/1993; 39(1):80-7. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-mediated immunity is important in maintaining the virus-host equilibrium in persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. The HCMV 72-kDa major immediate early 1 protein (IE1) is a target for CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in humans, as is the equivalent 89-kDa protein in mouse. Less is known about responses against this protein by CD4+ T cells, which may be important as direct effector cells or helper cells for antibody and CD8+ responses. Proliferative-T-cell responses to HCMV IE1 were studied in normal seropositive subjects. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 85% of seropositive subjects proliferated in response to HCMV from infected fibroblasts, and of these, 73% responded to recombinant baculovirus IE1. Responding cells were predominantly CD3+ CD4+. IE1 antigen preparations, including baculovirus recombinant protein, transfected rat cell nuclei, and synthetic peptides, induced IE1-specific T-cell lines which cross-reacted between the preparations. The fine specificity of these IE1-specific T-cell lines was studied by using overlapping synthetic peptides encompassing the entire sequence of the IE1 protein. The regions of the IE1 molecule recognized were identified and these varied between individuals, possibly reflecting differences in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II haplotype. In one subject, the peptide specificities of proliferative and MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic determinants on IE1 were spatially distinct. Thus, no single immunodominant T-cell determinant within HCMV IE1 was identified, suggesting that multiple peptides or a region of the 72-kDa IE1 protein would be required to induce specific T-cell responses in humans.
Journal of Virology 10/1991; 65(9):4812-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 24 renal transplant recipients who had a secondary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, the magnitude and development of CMV-specific antibodies directed against two different antigens were studied in relation to the presence of CMV-immediate early antigen-positive peripheral blood leucocytes (CMV antigenaemia). These antibodies were measured in an antigen-capture ELISA using two monoclonal antibodies: one directed against the major immediate early antigen (IEA) and a second one directed against the CMV-encoded glycoprotein B (gB). A statistically significant inverse relationship between the level of anti-IEA antibodies present at the time of transplantation as well as the magnitude of the increase of these antibodies during CMV infection and the maximum number of IEA-positive cells during infection was shown. In contrast, both anti-gB and anti-total CMV antibodies did not give any correlation with the CMV antigenaemia. This may indicate that the anti-IEA immune response plays a role in defence mechanisms against a CMV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antigen capture immunoassay which is described herein is based on the binding of specific antigens of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by monoclonal antibodies bound to a solid phase. The specificity of the binding was demonstrated by the analysis of antigens labelled with [35S]methionine and captured by the bound monoclonal antibodies. These specific antigens are recognized in turn by specific anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies in human sera. The immunoassay permits quantitation of these specific anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies and should facilitate both qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the antibodies against specific CMV antigens in different individuals.
Journal of Immunological Methods 08/1989; 121(1):95-103. · 2.01 Impact Factor