Y. Anikster

Tel Aviv University, Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Publications (37)50.32 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rust, caused by Puccinia dracunculina, is the main foliar disease of open‐field tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) crops in Israel. As not much is known about the biology or epidemiology of this pathogen, the long‐term objective of the current study was to accumulate the knowledge needed to develop an effective, environmentally friendly means of adequately managing the disease. Puccinia dracunculina is an autoecious brachy‐form pathogen, but it is not known whether the life cycle is completed under field conditions in Israel. Field observations and greenhouse studies revealed that although the telial stage is produced, the pathogen overwinters in the uredinial stage. In vitro experiments were used to quantify the temperature and wetness requirements for urediniospore germination and to calculate the daily duration of conducive weather (DDCW); DDCW was defined as the number of hours during which temperature ranged between 15 and 25°C and RH was >90%. Cumulative DDCW values (CDDCW) were a good predictor of disease under natural conditions in two growing seasons. Disease onset occurred when CDDCW values reached a level of 10 and the relationship between log CDDCW values and season‐long severity values (in logit) was highly significant, explaining 90·6% of the variation.
    Plant Pathology 01/2013; 62(1). · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aecial and telial host range, interfertility, teliospore dimensions, and amount of nuclear DNA were determined for Puccinia recondita collected either worldwide from species of cultivated wheats (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum ssp. durum and rye (Secale cereale), or from wild emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) and four species of wild wheat (Aegilops) in Israel. The results indicate that the collections belong in two major groups: Group I (from cultivated wheats and wild emmer), which has Thalictrum speciosissimum (in the Ranunculaceae) as principal aecial host; and Group II (principally from wild wheats or rye), which has several species in the Boraginaceae, such as Anchusa aggregata, Anchusa italica, Echium glomeratum, and Lycopsis arvensis as aecial hosts. In glasshouse experiments, intercrosses could be made readily among collections within Groups I and II but not between the two groups. Group I consisted of all collections from Triticum aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, and most collections from Triticum turgidum ssp. durum. For Group I collections, four species of Aegilops, Hordeum maritimum, S. cereale, as well as Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum ssp. durum and ssp. dicoccoides could all serve as telial host in glasshouse experiments. Group II consisted of four types, all clearly different from Group I. Type A was from Triticum turgidum ssp. durum found in fields near Anchusa italica, which was its only aecial host; Triticum aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, and Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides could serve as telial hosts. Type B was from Aegilops ovata and had E. glomeratum, Anchusa undulata, and L. arvensis as aecial hosts. Type C was from Aegilops longissima, Aegilops sharonensis, and Aegilops variabilis and had Anchusa aggregata, Anchusa undulata and L. arvensis as aecial hosts. Type D was from S. cereale and had L. arvensis and Anchusa undulata as aecial hosts. In addition to differences in host range, teliospores were wider and bigger in cross sectional area, and nuclear DNA content of pycniospores was 1.3–1.6 times greater in Group II than in Group I. The results suggest that Groups I and II have evolved separately for an extended period and are now morphologically distinct and genetically isolated from each other. Furthermore, differences in both telial and aecial host species, in teliospore dimensions, and in amount of nuclear DNA indicate that subgroups within Group II are beginning to show genetic divergence. Key words: aecial hosts, Aegilops, Anchusa, Echium, Hordeum, leaf rust, Lycopsis, Puccinia recondita, Puccinia triticina, Secale, Thalictrum, Triticum.
    Canadian Journal of Botany 02/2011; 75(12):2082-2096. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear DNA amount, determined by the flow cytometry method, in diploids, natural and synthetic allopolyploids, and natural and synthetic autopolyploids of the tribe Triticeae (Poaceae) is reviewed here and discussed. In contrast to the very small and nonsignificant variation in nuclear DNA amount that was found at the intraspecific level, the variation at the interspecific level is very large. Evidently changes in genome size are either the cause or the result of speciation. Typical autopolyploids had the expected additive DNA amount of their diploid parents, whereas natural and synthetic cytologically diploidized autopolyploids and natural and synthetic allopolyploids had significantly less DNA than the sum of their parents. Thus, genome downsizing, occurring during or immediately after the formation of these polyploids, provides the physical basis for their cytological diploidization, that is, diploid-like meiotic behavior. Possible mechanisms that are involved in genome downsizing and the biological significance of this phenomenon are discussed.
    Journal of Botany. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear DNA amount (1C) was determined by flow cytometry in the autotetraploid cytotype of Hordeum bulbosum, in the cytologically diploidized autotetraploid cytotypes of Elymus elongatus, Hordeum murinum subsp. murinum and Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum, in Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum, in their progenitor diploid cytotypes, and in a newly synthesized autotetraploid line of E. elongatus. Several lines collected from different regions of the distribution area of every taxon, each represented by a number of plants, were analyzed in each taxon. The intracytotype variation in nuclear DNA amount of every diploid and autotetraploid cytotype was very small, indicating that no significant changes have occurred in DNA amount either after speciation or after autopolyploid formation. The autotetraploid cytotypes of H. bulbosum and the cytologically diploidized H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum had the expected additive amount of their diploid cytotypes. On the other hand, the cytologically diploidized autotetraploid cytotypes of E. elongatus and H. murinum subsp. murinum and H. murinum subsp. leporinum had considerably less nuclear DNA (10%-23%) than the expected additive value. Also, the newly synthesized autotetraploid line of E. elongatus showed similar reduction in DNA as its natural counterpart, indicating that the reduction in genome size occurred in the natural cytotype during autopolyploidization. It is suggested that the diploid-like meiotic behavior of these cytologically dipolidized autotetraploids is caused by the instantaneous elimination of a large number of DNA sequences, different sequences from different homologous pairs, leading to differentiation of the constituent genomes. The eliminated sequences are likely to include those that participate in homologous recognition and initiation of meiotic pairing. A gene system determining exclusive bivalent pairing by utilizing the differentiation between the two groups of homologues has been presumably superimposed on the DNA reduction process.
    Genome 04/2009; 52(3):275-85. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent molecular studies in the genera Aegilops and Triticum showed that allopolyploidization (interspecific or intergeneric hybridization followed by chromosome doubling) generated rapid elimination of low-copy or high-copy, non-coding and coding DNA sequences. The aims of this work were to determine the amount of nuclear DNA in allopolyploid species of the group and to see to what extent elimination of DNA sequences affected genome size. Nuclear DNA amount was determined by the flow cytometry method in 27 natural allopolyploid species (most of which were represented by several lines and each line by several plants) as well as 14 newly synthesized allopolyploids (each represented by several plants) and their parental plants. Very small intraspecific variation in DNA amount was found between lines of allopolyploid species collected from different habitats or between wild and domesticated forms of allopolyploid wheat. In contrast to the constancy in nuclear DNA amount at the intraspecific level, there are significant differences in genome size between the various allopolyploid species, at both the tetraploid and hexaploid levels. In most allopolyploids nuclear DNA amount was significantly less than the sum of DNA amounts of the parental species. Newly synthesized allopolyploids exhibited a similar decrease in nuclear DNA amount in the first generation, indicating that genome downsizing occurs during and (or) immediately after the formation of the allopolyploids and that there are no further changes in genome size during the life of the allopolyploids. Phylogenetic considerations of the origin of the B genome of allopolyploid wheat, based on nuclear DNA amount, are discussed.
    Genome 08/2008; 51(8):616-27. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aegilops sharonensis (Sharon goatgrass) is a wild relative of wheat and a rich source of genetic diversity for disease resistance. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic basis of leaf rust, stem rust, and powdery mildew resistance in A. sharonensis and also the allelic relationships between genes controlling resistance to each disease. Progeny from crosses between resistant and susceptible accessions were evaluated for their disease reaction at the seedling and/or adult plant stage to determine the number and action of genes conferring resistance. Two different genes conferring resistance to leaf rust races THBJ and BBBB were identified in accessions 1644 and 603. For stem rust, the same single gene was found to confer resistance to race TTTT in accessions 1644 and 2229. Resistance to stem rust race TPMK was conferred by two genes in accessions 1644 and 603. A contingency test revealed no association between genes conferring resistance to leaf rust race THBJ and stem rust race TTTT or between genes conferring resistance to stem rust race TTTT and powdery mildew isolate UM06-01, indicating that the respective resistance genes are not linked. Three accessions (1644, 2229, and 1193) were found to carry a single gene for resistance to powdery mildew. Allelism tests revealed that the resistance gene in accession 1644 is different from the respective single genes present in either 2229 or 1193. The simple inheritance of leaf rust, stem rust, and powdery mildew resistance in A. sharonensis should simplify the transfer of resistance to wheat in wide crosses.
    Phytopathology 04/2008; 98(3):353-8. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the intriguing issues concerning the dynamics of plant genomes is the occurrence of intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA amount. The aim of this work was to assess the ranges of intraspecific, interspecific, and intergeneric variation in nuclear DNA content of diploid species of the tribe Triticeae (Poaceae) and to examine the relation between life form or habitat and genome size. Altogether, 438 plants representing 272 lines that belong to 22 species were analyzed. Nuclear DNA content was estimated by flow cytometry. Very small intraspecific variation in DNA amount was found between lines of Triticeae diploid species collected from different habitats or between different morphs. In contrast to the constancy in nuclear DNA amount at the intraspecific level, there are significant differences in genome size between the various diploid species. Within the genus Aegilops, the 1C DNA amount ranged from 4.84 pg in A. caudata to 7.52 pg in A. sharonensis; among genera, the 1C DNA amount ranged from 4.18 pg in Heteranthelium piliferum to 9.45 pg in Secale montanum. No evidence was found for a smaller genome size in annual, self-pollinating species relative to perennial, cross-pollinating ones. Diploids that grow in the southern part of the group's distribution have larger genomes than those growing in other parts of the distribution. The contrast between the low variation at the intraspecific level and the high variation at the interspecific one suggests that changes in genome size originated in close temporal proximity to the speciation event, i.e., before, during, or immediately after it. The possible effects of sudden changes in genome size on speciation processes are discussed.
    Genome 12/2007; 50(11):1029-37. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic structure of natural populations of wild crop relatives has been the subject of many studies. Yet, most of them focused on the assessment of spatial genetic diversity, while information on long-term variation, affected by yearly changes, has been considered only in few cases. The present study aimed therefore, to estimate the spatio-temporal genetic variation in populations of wild emmer wheat, the progenitor of domesticated wheat, and to assess the contribution of spatial versus temporal factors to the maintenance of genetic variation in a population. Single spikes were collected in the years 1988 and 2002 from plants that grew in the same sampling points, from six different habitats in the Ammiad conservation site, Eastern Galilee, Israel. Seeds were planted in a nursery and DNA was extracted from each plant and analyzed by the AFLP method. Fourteen primer combinations yielded 1,545 bands of which 50.0 and 48.8% were polymorphic in the years 1988 and 2002, respectively. Genetic diversity was much larger within populations than between populations and the temporal genetic diversity was considerably smaller than the spatial one. Nevertheless, population genetic structure may vary to some degree in different years, mainly due to fluctuations in population size because of yearly rainfall variations. This may lead to predominance of different genotypes in different years. Clustering the plants by their genetic distances grouped them according to their habitats, indicating the existence of genotype-environment affinities. The significance of the results in relation to factors affecting the maintenance of polymorphism in natural populations is discussed.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 07/2007; 115(1):19-26. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis) is a wild relative of wheat that is native to Israel and Lebanon. The importance of A. sharonensis as a source of new resistance genes for wheat warrants additional research on the characterization of accessions for economically important genes. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate a collection of A. sharonensis accessions for resistance to seven important fungal diseases of wheat and assess the phenotypic diversity of the germplasm for disease reaction. The frequency of resistance in A. sharonensis was highest to powdery mildew (79 to 83%) and leaf rust (60 to 77%). Resistance to stem rust also was common, although the percentage of resistant accessions varied markedly depending on the pathogen race - - from 13% to race TTTT to 72% to race QCCJ. The frequency of resistance was intermediate to stripe rust (45%) and low to tan spot (15 to 29%) and spot blotch (0 to 34%). None of the A. sharonensis accessions was resistant to Fusarium head blight. Many of the accessions tested exhibited heterogeneous reactions (i.e., had both resistant and susceptible plants) to one or more of the diseases, suggesting that heterozygosity may be present at some resistance loci. Substantial variation was observed in the level of diversity to individual diseases because Shannon's Equitability index ranged from 0.116 (for Fusarium head blight) to 0.994 (for tan spot). A high level of diversity was found both between and within collection sites. Moreover, differences in the geographic distribution of resistant accessions were observed. For example, accessions from northern Israel generally were less diverse and less resistant to leaf rust and stripe rust than accessions from more southern locations. Four A. sharonensis accessions were highly resistant to most of the diseases evaluated and may provide a source of unique resistance genes for introgression into cultivated wheat.
    01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic variation in several Israeli and Turkish populations of wild emmer wheat, Triticumturgidum ssp. dicoccoides, the progenitor of most domesticated wheat. Single spikes were collected in 2002 from 60 plants that grew in six different habitats in Ammiad, northeastern Israel (8–12 plants from each habitat), and in 1998 from 56 plants that grew in seven different habitats in Diyarbakir, southeastern Turkey (8 plants from each habitat). Seeds were planted in a nursery and DNA was extracted from every plant and analyzed by the fluorescent-based amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method. Seven primer combinations produced 788 discernible loci of which 48.6% were polymorphic in Israel and 40.5% in Turkey. The genetic diversity estimates P (frequency of polymorphic loci) and He (gene diversity) were higher in Ammiad than in Diyarbakir (means of P=0.34 and He=0.13 in Ammiad vs. P=0.20 and He=0.08 in Diyarbakir). Ammiad populations contained more unique alleles than Diyarbakir populations. The relative genetic diversity estimates (θ) values were 0.188 in Ammiad and 0.407 in Diyarbakir, suggesting better differentiation of the populations in Turkey. Genetic distance was larger between Israeli and Turkish populations than between populations of each country. The data indicate that the Israeli and Turkish populations are considerably diverged and that the Israeli populations are more polymorphic than the Turkish ones, having a larger within-populations genetic variation than among-populations one. The significance of the results in relation to the differentiation pattern of wild emmer in the Near East is discussed.
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 01/2007; 54(7):1587-1598. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    K J Leonard, Y Anikster, J Manisterski
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Isolates of Puccinia coronata obtained from natural populations of Avena sterilis in Israel, winter oat (A. sativa) cultivars in Texas, and spring oat cultivars in the Northern Plains states of Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota were analyzed for significance of pairwise virulence associations. Isolates from all three regions were tested on 25 oat lines with single P. coronata (Pc) genes for crown rust resistance from A. sterilis and one line with a Pc gene from A. sativa. Isolates from Israel were tested also on 11 Iowa backcross lines with undesignated crown rust resistance genes from A. sterilis. Four associated virulence groups were identified from significant positive virulence associations that were consistent across all three regions. Group 38 included virulence to Pc-38, Pc-39, Pc-55, Pc-63, and Pc-71; group 45 included virulence to Pc-45, Pc-46, Pc-48, Pc-52, Pc-54, and Pc-57; group 58 included virulence to Pc-35, Pc-40, Pc-58, and Pc-59; and group 61 included virulence to Pc- 36, Pc-51, Pc-56, Pc-60, and Pc-61. Virulence to Pc-70 showed the strongest association to virulences in group 38 but also showed significant association with virulence to Pc-45, Pc-35, and Pc-58. Virulences in group 61 were consistently negatively associated with virulences in group 38 in each region. In Israel, virulences to five of the Iowa lines showed positive associations to virulences in group 61 and negative associations to virulences in groups 38 and 45. Close similarity of reactions of nearly all isolates to Pc-39, Pc-55, and Pc-71 suggest that these genes may be identical or nearly identical alleles.
    Phytopathology 02/2005; 95(1):53-61. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anikster, Y., Manisterski, J., Long, D. L., and Leonard, K. J. 2005. Leaf rust and stem rust resis- tance in Triticum dicoccoides populations in Israel. Plant Dis. 89:55-62. A total of 742 single plant accessions of Triticum dicoccoides were collected from 26 locations in Israel. All accessions were evaluated for leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in field plots at Tel Aviv, and subsets of 284 and 468 accessions were tested in the greenhouse in Tel Aviv and St. Paul, MN, respectively, for seedling resistance to leaf rust; 460 accessions were also tested for seedling resistance to stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in St. Paul. One accession was highly resistant to leaf rust in seedling tests in Tel Aviv, and 21 others had moderately sus- ceptible to moderately resistant seedling resistance. Four accessions were highly resistant to leaf rust in seedling tests in St. Paul, and 11 were resistant to at least one stem rust race. Adult resis- tance to leaf rust was more common than seedling resistance among the accessions; 21 acces- sions had less than 25% leaf rust severity in field plots compared with 80 to 90% severity for highly susceptible accessions. Most of the accessions with effective adult plant resistance came from two nearby locations in Upper Galilee, a region where populations of T. dicoccoides are most extensive and genetically diverse. These accessions may provide valuable new partial resis- tance genes for durable protection against leaf rust in cultivated wheat.
    01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: Anikster, Y., Manisterski, J., Long, D. L., and Leonard, K. J. 2005. Resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust, and stem rust in Aegilops spp. in Israel. Plant Dis. 89:303-308. In all, 1,323 single plant accessions of Aegilops bicornis, A. kotschyi, A. longissima, A. ovata, A. searsii, A. sharonensis, A. speltoides, and A. variabilis collected from 18 regions in Israel and 2 adjacent regions in Lebanon and Egypt were evaluated for leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (P. striiformis) resistance in field plots and for seedling resistance to leaf rust and stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) in greenhouse tests. Nearly all accessions of A. speltoides were highly resistant to leaf rust, stripe rust, and stem rust. A. longissima and A. ovata were highly resistant to stripe rust, whereas A. bicornis and A. kotschyi were highly susceptible. A. searsii was highly susceptible to stem rust, but 24 to 51% of accessions of A. bicornis, A. longissima, A. ovata, and A. variabilis were resistant to stem rust. Except for A. ovata and A. speltoides, more than 95% of the Aegilops accessions were susceptible to leaf rust caused by P. recondita alternat- ing on Anchusa spp. Only Aegilops ovata was susceptible to P. recondita from Echium spp. A. bicornis, A. koschyi, and A. searsii were highly susceptible as seedlings to common wheat leaf rust caused by P. triticina. Most accessions of A. variabilis and about half of the accessions of A. longissima had good seedling resistance to P. triticina. Few accessions of A. ovata showed seed- ling resistance to the P. triticina population in Israel, but 30% were resistant to U.S. isolates. In field tests, A. bicornis showed high susceptibility to common wheat leaf rust, but more than 90% of the accessions of the other Aegilops spp. developed little or no leaf rust on adult plants. The Aegilops spp. in Israel and adjoining countries provide a rich and varied source of rust resistance for wheat breeding.
    Plant Disease - PLANT DIS. 01/2005; 89(3):303-308.
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    Y Anikster, T Eilam, W R Bushnell, E Kosman
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    ABSTRACT: Digital image analysis was used to measure dimensions of spores produced by Puccinia coronata, P. graminis, P. hordei, P. recondita, P. striiformis and P. triticina. Included were teliospores, basidiospores, urediniospores and, except for P. striiformis, pycniospores and aeciospores. Length, width and projection area of spores were measured with NIH Image or Scion software. By using limits on size, spores were automatically selected and measured, except for teliospores, which required manual elimination of the pedicel and separation of images of adhering spores. Length and width were determined as the major and minor axes of the best fitting ellipse for each spore. This procedure gave values for length and width close to results obtained with an ocular micrometer. Projection area was determined as the number of pixels within spore boundaries multiplied by the area represented by each pixel, giving values that are not feasible to obtain accurately with an ocular micrometer. Of the species studied, spores of P. recondita had the largest dimensions, P. triticina had the smallest. The rank of the six species based on increasing width, length or projection area was almost the same, using each spore type except pycniospores. Generally, differences of 5% in a given spore dimension between two species were significant. Differences between species were greater with basidiospores and aeciospores than with other spore types. Teliospores were unique in that length and width were negatively correlated, resulting in less variation in area than in length or width. The results indicate that image analysis is useful for measuring spore dimensions, that projection area of spores is a useful added parameter for characterizing rust species and that dimensions of teliospores, basidiospores, aeciospores and urediniospores each are potentially useful for differentiating species.
    Mycologia 01/2005; 97(2):474-84. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT In the late 1990s, commercial garlic fields in California (CA) were devastated by an outbreak of rust caused by Puccinia allii. We compared collections of the pathogen from garlic (Allium sativum) and chives (A. schoenoprasum) in central CA and Oregon (OR) to collections from garlic and leek (A. porrum and A. ampeloprasum) in the Middle East. Teliospores from the CA and OR collections were smaller in length, width, and projected cross-sectional area compared with collections from the Middle East. CA and OR collections had a shortened life cycle, in which pycnia and aecia were not formed. Germinating teliospores produced a two-celled promycelium, resulting in two basidiospores, each initially with two nuclei, indicating that this rust was homothallic. In addition, the morphology of the substomatal vesicles was different between the CA-OR (fusiform) and the Middle Eastern (bulbous) collections. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region showed that the CA and OR rust collections formed a well-supported cluster distinct from the Middle Eastern and European samples. These results suggest that the rust on garlic and chives in CA and OR is a different species than the rust fungus on garlic and leek in the Middle East.
    Phytopathology 07/2004; 94(6):569-77. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The genetic relationships between isolates of Puccinia triticina virulent on wheat with the Lr26 resistance gene were studied. The diversity within and between isolates of P. triticina from Israel, Europe, and the United States was determined by virulence on near-isogenic Thatcher lines and by random amplified polymorphic DNA. According to the molecular markers, isolates that were virulent on Lr26 had diversity levels similar to those of Lr26 nonpathogenic isolates. Distances between subpopulations of isolates virulent and avirulent on Lr26 varied and were unrelated to the Lr26 virulence phenotype. Cluster analysis suggested four groups, three of which were closely associated with the geographical origin of the isolates-Israel, the United States, and Europe. All four groups included both Lr26 virulent and avirulent pathotypes. The results showed that Lr26 virulent rust pathotypes are as genetically dissimilar as the rest of the population. The cluster analysis showed that the rust population in Israel includes at least two different subpopulations, both of which contain Lr26 virulent and Lr26 avirulent isolates.
    Phytopathology 07/2004; 94(6):632-40. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    K J Leonard, Y Anikster, J Manisterski
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Crown rust (Puccinia coronata) in indigenous populations of Avena sterilis has been cited as an example of stability of wild pathosystems that consist of natural mixtures of resistance and virulence. This study confirmed that virulence/avirulence polymorphisms in P. coronata on A. sterilis in Israel are highly diverse and that super races do not dominate. Isolates of P. coronata from Israel in 1991 to 1996 were polymorphic for virulence to 35 of 36 differential oat lines with resistance genes from A. sterilis. On average, isolates of P. coronata were more highly virulent to differentials with Pc genes from A. sterilis accessions from Israel than to differentials with Pc genes from other countries. Isolates from Israel also were more virulent on average to 10 additional differentials with Pc genes derived from A. sativa than to differentials with Pc genes from A. sterilis. Frequencies of virulence were usually higher in collections of P. coronata from Israel than in collections from cultivated oat in the United States, even though several of the Pc genes in the differentials have been used extensively in American oat cultivars. Mean virulence complexity of P. coronata from eight regions of Israel was not correlated with the distribution of resistance among collections of A. sterilis from previous surveys in the same areas, probably because pathogen migration between regions within Israel is sufficient to obscure effects of selection locally.
    Phytopathology 06/2004; 94(5):505-14. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the importance of microenvironmental topographic parameters as predictors of emmer wheat genetic variation using three classes of single-locus (or at most several-loci) genetic markers (allozymes, glutenins, and qualitative traits) and two classes of markers of polygenic inheritance (phenological and morphological traits). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) detected a significant effect of spatially structured environmental variation on genetic differences between plants for allozymes, glutenins, and quantitative morphological and phenological traits. However, after removing a spatial component of variation in partial CCA and partial RDA, the relationship of the remaining environmental variation with these genetic markers could be explained by chance alone, allowing us to rule out microniche topographic specialization in emmer wheat. Topographic autocorrelation exhibited a certain degree of similarity with genetic marker autocorrelation, indicating similar scales of environmental heterogeneity and seed flow. The detected population genetic structure agrees with one expected under isolation by distance as a result of limited gene flow. A negative relationship of genetic similarity with the logarithm of distance between plants was detected for both molecular markers and quantitative traits, which differed in the strength but not the pattern of association.
    The American Naturalist 03/2004; 163(2):312-27. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • Y Anikster, I Wahl
    11/2003; 17:367-403.
  • Y. Anikster, T. Eilam, W.R. Bushnell
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    ABSTRACT: Pycnial nectar of one mating type is known to induce cap formation on pycniospores of opposite mating type within several species of Puccinia and Uromyces. To learn if caps are induced by nectar transfers between species, we used interspecific pairings involving six species of Puccinia and three of Uromyces. Overall, caps were induced in 14 pairings between different species involving all tested species, except Puccinia helianthi which has no intraspecific cap induction. Nectar (with pycniospores) exchanged in reciprocal transfers between individual pycnial clusters of two different species gave pycniospore caps in nine of 16 cluster pairings, comparable to rates within species. Spore-free nectar combined from five or more pycnial clusters of one species (to ensure that nectar of two mating types was present) usually induced caps in pycniospores from single pycnial clusters of a second species. This occurred in all tested pairings of species except pairings involving P. helianthi. In experiments with pycniospore-free nectar of one capping type specificity from P. recondita, caps were induced in about 50% of pycnial clusters of unknown capping type from P. triticina or P. hordei and only in pycnial clusters of one capping type from P. triticina or P. reichertii in experiments in which type within species was determined. Coupled with the fact that capping type specificity and mating types are coincident within species, the results indicate that mating type-specific induction of pycniospore caps by nectar extends across species boundaries. Although aecia were never produced in interspecific pairings, cap induction occurred as it does in intraspecific pairings where it precedes aecium formation in species exhibiting the capping phenomenon.
    Mycological Research 01/2000; 104(3):311-316. · 2.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

312 Citations
50.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1978–2013
    • Tel Aviv University
      • • Institute for Cereal Crops Improvement
      • • Faculty of Life Sciences
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 2007
    • Weizmann Institute of Science
      • Department of Plant Sciences
      Israel