[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impairment of hypoglycemic counterregulation in intensively treated type 1 diabetes has been attributed to deficits in counterregulatory hormone secretion. However, because the liver plays a critical part in recovery of plasma glucose, abnormalities in hepatic glycogen metabolism per se could also play an important role. We quantified the contribution of net hepatic glycogenolysis during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in 10 nondiabetic subjects and 7 type 1 diabetic subjects (HbA1c 6.5 +/- 0.2%) using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, during 2 h of either hyperinsulinemic euglycemia (plasma glucose 92 +/- 4 mg/dl) or hypoglycemia (plasma glucose 58 +/- 3 mg/dl). In nondiabetic subjects, hypoglycemia was associated with a brisk counterregulatory hormone response (plasma epinephrine 246 +/- 38 vs. 2,785 +/- 601 pmol/l during hypoglycemia, plasma norepinephrine 1.9 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.3 nmol/l, and glucagon 38 +/- 7 vs. 92 +/- 17 pg/ml, respectively, P < 0.001 in all), and a relative increase in endogenous glucose production (EGP 0.83 +/- 0.14 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) during euglycemia yet approximately 50% higher with hypoglycemia [1.30 +/- 0.20 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)], P < 0.001). Net hepatic glycogen content declined progressively during hypoglycemia to 22 +/- 3% below baseline (P < 0.024). By the final 30 min of hypoglycemia, hepatic glycogen fell from 301 +/- 14 to 234 +/- 10 mmol/l (P < 0.001) and accounted for approximately 100% of EGP. In marked contrast, after an overnight fast, hepatic glycogen concentration in type 1 diabetic subjects (215 +/- 23 mmol/l) was significantly lower than in nondiabetic subjects (316 +/- 19 mmol/l, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia was significantly reduced with small increments in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine (126 +/- 22 vs. 448 +/- 16 pmol/l in hypoglycemia and 0.9 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.3 nmol/l, respectively, P < 0.05 for both) and no increase in plasma glucagon. EGP decreased during hypoglycemia with no recovery (1.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) compared with euglycemia, P = NS), and hepatic glycogen concentration did not change significantly with hypoglycemia. We conclude that glycogenolysis accounts for the majority of EGP during the first 90 min of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic subjects. In intensively treated type 1 diabetes, despite some activation of counterregulation, hypoglycemia failed to stimulate hepatic glycogen breakdown or activation of EGP, factors that may contribute to the defective counterregulation seen in such patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advances in chemotherapy and surgical technique, patients with pancreatic cancer often succumb to local recurrence or metastatic spread. The need for new therapeutic strategies for this disease coupled with a better understanding of basic immunology have led to the development of novel anti-tumor vaccines. This review focuses on the historical development of tumor vaccines emphasizing the identification of potential pancreatic tumor antigens. The role of both B-cell and T-cell responses in tumor rejection will be reviewed. Methods for antigen presentation, including peptides, recombinant viral and bacterial vectors, dendritic cells, and whole cell approaches will be discussed. The use of immune adjuvants and improved methods of vaccine delivery will also be explored. The full potential for the immunotherapy of pancreatic cancer awaits the results of early phase clinical trials. The development of pancreatic cancer vaccines represents a useful paradigm for the translation of basic research into the clinical arena.
Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America 03/2002; 16(1):159-97, viii. DOI:10.1016/S0889-8588(01)00002-8 · 2.30 Impact Factor