Jianguo Liu

Changzhou University, Wujin, Jiangsu Sheng, China

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Publications (23)32.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem.
    Bioresource Technology 04/2014; 163C:74-81. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem.
    Bioresource Technology 01/2014; 163:74–81. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to understand the differences among rice cultivars and genotypes in lead (Pb) uptake and translocation, and their relationship with Pb accumulation in rice grains, pot soil experiments were carried out with six rice cultivars of diverse types under different soil Pb levels. The results showed that the differences among rice cultivars in Pb concentrations varied largely with plant organs, and the magnitudes of the differences were larger in ears and grains than in shoots and roots. Pb concentrations in ears and grains differed significantly (p<0.05) between rice types, and were in the order: Hybrid Indica>Indica>Japonica. Grain Pb concentrations were correlated significantly (p<0.05) with shoot Pb concentrations, and highly significantly (p<0.01) with ear Pb concentrations, but generally not with root Pb concentrations. The differences among rice cultivars in translocation factors (TF) of Pb from shoots to ears/grains were generally larger than the TF of Pb from roots to shoots. The differences among rice types in TF of Pb from shoots to ears/grains were generally significant (p<0.01 or 0.05), and the TF were in the order Hybrid Indica>Indica>Japonica. But the differences between rice types in the TF of Pb from roots to shoots were mostly insignificant (p>0.05). In general, grain Pb concentrations were correlated significantly (p<0.01 or 0.05) with the TF of Pb from shoots to ears/grains, but insignificantly (p>0.05) with the TF of Pb from roots to shoots. So the Pb in shoots, but not in roots, may be the main sources of Pb transferred to the grains. Pb concentrations in rice grains are likely to be determined mainly by the translocations of Pb from shoots to the grains, and little by the transport from roots to shoots. Pb concentration in ears of heading can be used as an index of Pb level in the grains.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 01/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationships between lead (Pb) uptake and iron/manganese plaque formation on rice roots were investigated with three cultivars. The results showed that the rice cultivars with indica consanguinity were more sensitive to soil Pb stress than the cultivar with japonica consanguinity. Pb concentrations and distribution ratios in root tissues were in the order: Shanyou 63 > Yangdao 6 > Wuyunjing 7, but Pb and Fe concentrations and distribution ratios in the plaques showed a reverse order. Mn concentrations and distribution ratios in the plaques of Wuyunjing 7 were significantly higher (P < 0.01 or 0.05) than those of Shanyou 63 and Yangdao 6. The results indicate that iron/manganese plaque on rice root can provide a barrier to soil Pb stress. The plaque will increase sequestration of Pb on rice root surface and in the rhizosphere, providing a means of external exclusion of soil Pb to some extent.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 02/2011; 74(5):1304-9. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the environmental quality of agriculture in Changzhou, agricultural soils in 451 sampling points of six areas in Changzhou were sampled and tested for heavy metal concentrations. Single and compositive pollution indexes were used for the evaluation of the soils. The main results are listed below: (1) the soils were slightly polluted generally, and the compositive pollution index for Changzhou was less than 0.7, a safe grade. But the compositive pollution index for surburb area was 0.934, reaching a cautionary grade (0.7-1.0). (2) The levels of heavy metal pollution were higher in the areas near city zones, because of dense population and concentrated industries. (3) The major heavy metal pollutants are mercury (Hg), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr).
    Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, (iCBBE) 2011 5th International Conference on; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the variations between rice cultivars in cadmium (Cd) uptake and distribution, pot soil experiments were conducted with two rice cultivars of different genotypes at different soil Cd levels, i.e. 0 (the control), 10, 50 mg kg -1 . The results showed that Cd concentrations and accumulations in the plants of Shanyou 63 (genotype indica) were generally higher than those of Wuyunjing 7 (genotype japonica), but the magnitudes of the differences between two rice cultivars differed greatly with soil Cd levels, plant organs and plant growth stages. Among different soil Cd levels, the magnitudes of the differences were the largest under soil Cd treatment of 10 mg kg -1 . Concerning different parts of rice plants, the magnitudes of the differences were the highest in the grains. Most of Cd absorbed by rice plants accumulated in roots (From about 75% to about 94%), and only a very small portion of Cd was transferred into grains (less than 1%). The differences between the rice cultivars in Cd distribution were also the largest under soil Cd treatment of 10 mg kg -1 , and in the grains. The results showed that the rice cultivar Shanyou 63 had higher abilities to absorb Cd from Cd-contaminated soil and transferred a larger proportion to aboveground parts and grain than the cultivar Wuyunjing 7, especially in relatively low levels of soil Cd contamination (for example, 10 mg kg -1 ). The results indicate that Cd concentration
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: To attempt to understand the differences between rice genotypes in lead (Pb) tolerance, pot soil experiments were conducted with two rice genotypes at different soil Pb levels, i.e. 0 (the control), 800, 2000 mg kg-1. The results showed that the soil Pb concentration of 800 mg kg-1 is moderately toxic to rice, with 10%-30% decreases in plant biomasses. The soil Pb concentration of 2000 mg kg-1 is a soil Pb level that will severely inhibit rice growth, with 20%-50% decreases in plant biomasses and significant reductions in grain yields (P shoot > grain, so rice root is more sensitive to soil Pb stress than shoot and grain. The toxicity of Pb on rice growth lessened as plant aged, so some adaptations and growth compensations to soil Pb stress may occur in rice plants along with plant growth and development.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used to examine the environmental impact of the rice production system in Taihu region, China. The LCA considered the entire system required to produce 1 t of rice. The analysis included raw material extraction and transportation, agrochemical production and transportation, and arable farming in the field. The result shows that the significance of environmental impacts, followed by aquatic eutrophication, water depletion, global warming, acidification, and energy depletion. As such, reducing nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensity and increasing utilization efficiency are the key points to control the life cycle environmental impacts of rice, which would decrease resource consumption and emissions not only directly in the arable farming subsystem but also indirectly in the upstream production stage. Strengthening water management, especially in the early growth stage, and reduction of paddy field water discharge are also significant measures with which to minimize N and phosphorus (P) runoff losses and control acidification potential (AP) and aquatic eutrophication potential (AEP), so as to reduce life cycle environmental impacts of the rice production system.
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology - INT J SUSTAIN DEV WORLD ECOL. 01/2010; 17(2):157-161.
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    ABSTRACT: To understand certain mechanisms causing variations between rice cultivars with regard to cadmium uptake and tolerance, pot soil experiments were conducted with two rice cultivars of different genotypes under different soil Cd levels. The relationships between plant Cd uptake and iron/manganese (Fe/Mn) plaque formation on roots were investigated. The results showed that rice cultivars differed markedly in Cd uptake and tolerance. Under soil Cd treatments, Cd concentrations and accumulations in the cultivar Shanyou 63 (the genotype indica) were significantly higher than those in the cultivar Wuyunjing 7 (the genotype japonica) (P < 0.01, or P < 0.05), and Shanyou 63 was more sensitive to Cd toxicity than Wuyunjing 7. The differences between the rice cultivars were the largest at relatively low soil Cd level (i.e., 10 mg/kg). Fe concentrations in dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate root extracts of Shanyou 63 were generally lower than that of Wuyunjing 7, and the difference was the most significant under the treatment of 10 mg Cd/kg soil. The results indicated that the formation of iron plaque on rice roots could act as a barrier to soil Cd toxicity, and may be a "buffer" or a "reservoir" which could reduce Cd uptake into rice roots. And the plaque may contribute, to some extent, to the genotypic differences of rice cultivars in Cd uptake and tolerance.
    Journal of Environmental Sciences 01/2010; 22(7):1067-72. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the differences between rice genotypes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance, pot soil experiments were conducted with two rice genotypes at different soil Cd levels, i.e. 0 (the control), 10, 50 mg kg-1. The results showed that the two rice genotypes were tolerant to the soil Cd level of 10 mg kg-1, but the soil Cd concentration of 50 mg kg-1 was an effective soil Cd level that inhibited rice growth and reduced rice grain yield. The genotype Indica was more sensitive to soil Cd stress than the genotype Japonica, especially in root growth. Rice roots were more sensitive to soil Cd stress than shoots and grains. So the response of root to Cd stress may serve as a potential indicator of rice cultivars and genotypes in Cd tolerance. The toxicity of Cd on rice growth had accumulative effects in earlier stages of rice growth as the prolonging of Cd stress on rice plants, but some adaptations and growth compensations to Cd stress may occur in rice plants at later growth stages.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Shallow groundwater was sampled from 45 monitoring points in Suzhou area along Kuihe River, China, and organic pollutants including volatile organic compounds, semi-volatile organic compounds and organophosphorus pesticide in the water were tested with GC/MS, HPLC and GC/ECD. Seven organic pollutants were detected among 82 tested substances. In the detected pollutants, Phenanthrene, Naphthalene and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate were widely detected, but Dichloromethane and Malathion were only detected in partial sampling points. The concentrations of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in four sampling points were higher than the Limits for Drinking Water issued by USA. Analysis indicate that the organic pollution of shallow groundwater in Suzhou area is related to the pollution of Kuihe River, the use of chemical pesticides in agriculture, and the point-source pollution from industries.
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: To attempt to understand certain mechanisms causing the variations between rice genotypes with regard to Pb uptake and accumulation, pot soil experiments were conducted with two rice genotypes at different levels of Pb, i.e., 34.05 (the control), 800, 2000 mg Pb kg-1 soil. The two rice genotypes differ significantly with regard to Pb uptake and accumulation. Root secretions of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) for each treatment were measured with ion chromatograph. The results showed that LMWOA concentrations in the soil planted with the genotype of indica (cv. Shan you 63, a higher Pb accumulator) were all higher than those in the soil planted with the genotype of japonica (cv. Wu yun jing 7, a lower Pb accumulator) at different soil Pb levels, although the magnitudes of the differences varied for individual LMWOA and depend on soil Pb concentrations. For all six LMWOA, there were significant differences at P < 0.05 or < 0.01 levels for soils treated with 800 and 2000 mg kg-1 Pb. The magnitude of the differences was greater under soil Pb treatments, especially at relatively low level (for example, 800 mg Pb kg-1 soil), than in the control. Acetic acid and formic acid constituted more than 97% of the total concentration of the six LMWOA, while citric acid constituted only about 0.1%. The rice genotype with higher concentrations of LMWOA in soil accumulated more Pb in the plants. The results indicate that LMWOA secretion by rice root, especially in Pb-contaminated soils, is likely to be one of the mechanisms determining the plant Pb uptake properties of rice genotypes.
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: In order to understand the mechanisms of the variation among rice genotypes and cultivars in Pb uptake and accumulations, pot soil experiments were conducted with six rice cultivars that varied greatly in Pb uptake. The results showed that root oxidation abilities of the rice plants differed with genotypes and cultivars, and those of the cultivars with indica consanguinity were significantly higher than those of the cultivars with japonica consanguinity. The differences among the rice genotypes and cultivars in plant Pb uptake and accumulation abilities followed the similar trends to the differences in root oxidation abilities. Root oxidation abilities of the rice cultivars correlated positively and significantly (P < 0.01 or 0.05) with their Pb concentrations and Pb quantity accumulations in rice plants. The results indicate that the oxidation ability of rice root is one of the main mechanisms that dominate Pb uptake and accumulation of the rice plant.
    01/2009;
  • Jiakuan Xu, Y. Wang, Jianguo Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Three years of pot soil experiments showed that copper (Cu) could be toxic to rice root depending on its concentrations. Root development began to be inhibited at the soil Cu concentration of 100 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. About half of root dry weights lost at the soil Cu concentration of 300 - 500 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. Root growth nearly stopped at the soil Cu concentration of 800 - 1000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. There were interactions between rice growth stages and soil Cu concentrations on Cu toxicity to rice root. The soil Cu level of 400 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> inhibited total root length per plant and average length of root system significantly (P<0.05), and the inhibiting effects increased with the time of soil Cu stress. However the differences between two rice cultivars (Shanyou 63 and Wuxiangjing 14) were small respecting reducing rates of root length under soil Cu stress. Soil Cu treatment increased cell layers and the thickness of cell wall in epidermis at root bases and root tips. The thickness of epidermis was 75% more at root base, and 27% more at root tip, for soil Cu treatment than for the control Under soil Cu treatment, the cells of cortex were larger and distorted, and the vessels were distorted and lessened, compared to the control.
    Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 2008. ICBBE 2008. The 2nd International Conference on; 06/2008
  • Jianguo Liu, Wanchen Shao, Jiakuan Xu
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    ABSTRACT: Variations among 19 wetland plant species in the tolerance and uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn from wastewater were investigated. The results showed that there were obvious differences among the plant species in metal tolerance. In metal polluted water, plant biomass was significantly reduced for three species, but was significantly increased for three other species. The variation among 19 plant species in plant biomass was 37.7 times for the control, and 45.3 times for metal treatment. The variation among the plant species was 61.6 times for metal quantity accumulations, but only 8.6 times for metal concentrations. Plant metal accumulations correlated positively and significantly with plant biomass (r = 0.6114, P
    01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1) was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%. Generally, there were tens differences among the 19 plant species in the concentrations and quantity accumulations of the heavy metals in aboveground part, underground part and whole plants. The distribution ratios into aboveground parts for the metals absorbed by plants varied also largely from about 30% to about 90%. All the plants accumulated, in one harvest, 19.85% of Cd, 22.55% of Pb and 23.75% of Zn that were added into the wastewater. Four plant species, e.g. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Zizania latifolia, Echinochloa crus-galli and Polygonum hydropiper, accumulated high amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn. Monochoria vaginalis was capable for accumulating Cd and Pb, Isachne globosa for Cd and Zn, and Digitaria sanguinalis and Fimbristylis miliacea for Zn. The results indicated that the plants, in constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals, can play important roles for removal of heavy metals through phytoextraction. Selection of plant species for use in constructed wetland will influence considerably removal efficiency and the function duration of the wetland.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 09/2007; 147(3):947-53. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To attempt to understand certain mechanisms causing the variations between rice cultivars with regard to Cd uptake and accumulation, pot soil experiments were conducted with two rice cultivars at different levels of Cd, i.e., 0 (the control), 10, 50 mg Cd kg(-1 )soil. The two rice cultivars differ significantly with regard to Cd uptake and accumulation. Root secretions of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) for each treatment were measured with ion chromatography. The results showed that LMWOA concentrations in the soil planted with Shan you 63 (a high soil Cd accumulator) were all higher than those in the soil planted with Wu yun jing 7 (low soil Cd accumulator) at different soil Cd levels, although the magnitudes of the differences varied for individual LMWOA and depend on soil Cd concentrations. For all six LMWOA, there were significant differences at P < 0.05 or < 0.01 levels for soils treated with 10 and 50 mg kg(-1) Cd. The magnitude of the differences was greater under soil Cd treatments, especially at relatively low levels (for example, 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil), than in the control. Acetic acid and formic acid constituted more than 96% of the total concentration of the six LMWOA, while citric acid constituted only about 0.1%. The rice cultivar with higher concentrations of LMWOA in soil accumulated more Cd in the plants. The results indicate that LMWOA secretion by rice root, especially in Cd-contaminated soils, is likely to be one of the mechanisms determining the plant Cd uptake properties of rice cultivars.
    Environmental Geochemistry and Health 07/2007; 29(3):189-95. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The variations among six rice cultivars in cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation were investigated with pot soil experiments. The results showed that only a very small portion (0.73%) of Cd absorbed by rice plant was transferred into grain. With regard to plant total Cd uptake, Cd concentrations and quantity accumulations in roots, stems and leaves, the differences among the cultivars (between the largest one and the smallest one) were less than one time. But for Cd concentrations and Cd quantity accumulations in the grains, the differences were more than five and eight times, respectively. With respect to Cd distribution portions in plant organs, the diversities among the cultivars were also small in roots, stems and leaves, but much larger in grains. Grain Cd concentrations correlated positively and significantly (P<0.01) with Cd quantity accumulations in plant, Cd distribution ratios to aboveground parts, and especially with Cd distribution ratios from aboveground parts to the grain. The results indicated that Cd concentration in rice grain was governed somewhat by plant Cd uptake and the transport of Cd from root to shoot, and in a greater extent, by the transport of Cd from shoot to grain. Cd was not distributed evenly in different products after rice grain processing. The average Cd concentration in cortex (embryo) was five times more than that in chaff and polished rice. With regard to Cd quantity accumulation in the products, near 40% in cortex (embryo), 45% in polished rice and 15% in chaff averagely.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 05/2007; 143(1-2):443-7. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pot soil experiments showed that there were great variations among six rice cultivars in their tolerance to soil Cd stress, with respect to tillering, plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation and grain yield. Some cultivars were highly tolerant of Cd and showed little toxicity under high levels of soil Cd stress (100 mg kg−1), while others were much more sensitive. Roots were not necessarily more sensitive than above-ground parts, but the diversities among rice cultivars with regard to the relative changes in dry matter accumulation under soil Cd stress were greater in roots than those observed in straw and grain. The toxicity effects of Cd on rice growth and development lessened as plants grew and matured, indicating that rice plants show adaptation and growth compensation in response to soil Cd stress during prolonged exposure. The relative change in the number of grains per panicle showed a strong positive correlation with relative change in grain yield and, of the four grain yield components measured (panicles per pot; grains per panicle; filled grain percentage; weight per grain), it appeared to be the one most influenced by Cd stress. Thus the reduction of grains per panicle is the main cause of grain yield loss under soil Cd stress. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 03/2007; 87(6):1088 - 1095. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A pot trial was conducted with 52 rice cultivars of different types collected from different origins. The results showed that there were great differences in Cd concentrations in straw, brown rice and grain chaff among the rice cultivars grown in a soil containing a Cd concentration of 100 mg kg-1; the Cd concentrations in brown rice ranged from 0.22 to 2.86 mg kg-1. The great genotypic differences in Cd concentrations indicated that it is possible to lower the Cd content of rice through cultivar selection and breeding. Significant differences were found in the Cd concentrations of the rice types of Indica consanguinity and those of Japonica consanguinity, but not between their origins. There were significant correlations between straw and brown rice in Cd concentration and in the total amount of Cd accumulated. The distribution ratios of the Cd accumulated in brown rice to the total Cd accumulation in the above-ground rice plant varied greatly from 12.9 to 137.8 g kg-1, and there was significant correlation between the distribution ratios and Cd concentrations in brown rice. These indicated that Cd concentration in rice grain is governed by the transport of Cd from root to shoot and also from shoot to grain. Cd concentrations in brown rice also correlated significantly with some important agronomic traits, as well as with nitrogen concentrations, one of the most important criteria for rice quality. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 01/2005; 85(1):147-153. · 1.76 Impact Factor