[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To measure and value the impact of combined etanercept (ETN) and methotrexate (MTX) therapy on work productivity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 52 weeks.
MTX- and biological-naïve patients with RA (symptom onset ≤12 months; Disease Activity Score based on a 28-joint count (DAS28) >3.2) received open-label ETN50/MTX for 52 weeks. The Valuation of Lost Productivity (VOLP) questionnaire, measuring paid and unpaid work productivity impacts, was completed approximately every 13 weeks. Bootstrapping methods were used to test changes in VOLP outcomes over time. One-year productivity impacts were compared between responders (DAS28 ≤3.2) at week 13 and non-responders using zero-inflated models for time loss and two-part models for total costs of lost productivity.
196 patients were employed at baseline and had ≥1 follow-up with VOLP. Compared with baseline, at week 52, patients gained 33.4 h per 3 months in paid work and 4.2 h per week in unpaid work. Total monetary productivity gains were €1322 per 3 months. Over the 1-year period, responders gained paid (231 h) and unpaid work loss (122 h) compared with non-responders, which amounted to a gain of €3670 for responders.
This is the first clinical trial to measure and value the impact of biological treatment on all the labour input components that affect overall productivity. Combination therapy with ETN50/MTX was associated with a significant productivity gain for patients with early RA who were still observed at week 52. Over the 1-year treatment period, responders at week 13 suffered significantly less productivity loss than non-responders suggesting this gain was related to treatment response.
Trial registration number:
ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00913458.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We assessed the effects of reduction and withdrawal of treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had a remission while receiving etanercept-plus-methotrexate therapy.
Patients with early active disease who had not previously received methotrexate or biologic therapy received 50 mg of etanercept plus methotrexate weekly for 52 weeks (open-label phase). We then randomly assigned patients who had qualifying responses at weeks 39 and 52 to receive 25 mg of etanercept plus methotrexate (combination-therapy group), methotrexate alone, or placebo for 39 weeks (double-blind phase). Patients who had qualifying responses at week 39 of the double-blind phase had all treatment withdrawn at that time and were followed to week 65 (treatment-withdrawal phase). The primary end point was the proportion of patients with sustained remission in the double-blind phase.
Of 306 patients enrolled, 193 underwent randomization in the double-blind phase; 131 qualified for the treatment-withdrawal phase. More patients in the combination-therapy group than in the methotrexate-alone group or the placebo group met the criterion for the primary end point (40 of 63 [63%] vs. 26 of 65 [40%] and 15 of 65 [23%], respectively; P=0.009 for combination therapy vs. methotrexate alone; P<0.001 for combination therapy vs. placebo). At 65 weeks, 28 patients (44%) who had received combination therapy, 19 (29%) who had received methotrexate alone, and 15 (23%) who had received placebo were in remission (P=0.10 for combination therapy vs. methotrexate alone; P=0.02 for combination therapy vs. placebo; P=0.55 for methotrexate alone vs. placebo). No significant between-group differences were observed in radiographic progression of disease. Serious adverse events were reported in 3 patients (5%) in the combination-therapy group, 2 (3%) in the methotrexate-alone group, and 2 (3%) in the placebo group.
In patients with early rheumatoid arthritis who had a remission while receiving full-dose etanercept-plus-methotrexate therapy, continuing combination therapy at a reduced dose resulted in better disease control than switching to methotrexate alone or placebo, but no significant difference was observed in radiographic progression. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00913458.).
New England Journal of Medicine 11/2014; 371(19):1781-92. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1316133 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Disease Activity Score in 28 joints calculated with C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) is used instead of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) to assess rheumatoid arthritis disease activity; however, values for remission and low disease activity (LDA) for DAS28-CRP have not been validated. American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) guidelines suggest remission should be calculated by Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) rather than DAS28-ESR. We examined values of remission and LDA of DAS28-CRP that correspond to the respective cut-off points for DAS28-ESR and SDAI from five clinical trials.
Methods DAS28-CRP cut-offs that best correspond to DAS28-ESR remission <2.6 and LDA ≤3.2 were obtained by cumulative distribution plots, receiver operating curves and maximum concordance and averaged for each approach, treatment group and study. Level of agreement between DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR remission and LDA cut-offs was compared against each other and versus SDAI remission ≤3.3 and LDA ≤11.
Results Percentage of patients who achieved remission and LDA by DAS28-ESR cut-offs was greater for DAS28-CRP versus DAS28-ESR regardless of patient population or treatment group. Discordance between CRP and ESR cut-offs ranged from 4%–26% and 8%–23% for remission and LDA, respectively, and 19%–40% and 6%–11% for DAS28-CRP versus SDAI, respectively. Estimated (range) remission and LDA thresholds were 2.4 (2.2–2.6) and 2.9 (2.6–3.3), 1.9 (1.6–2.2) and 3.1 (3.1–3.3) and 2.2 (1.1–2.9) and 3.6 (3.4–4.0) for DAS28-CRP versus DAS28-ESR, DAS28-CRP versus SDAI and DAS28-ESR versus SDAI, respectively.
Conclusions DAS28-CRP underestimates disease activity when using cut-off points validated for DAS28-ESR; therefore, DAS28-ESR cut-off values should not be applied to DAS28-CRP. Although DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR cut-offs for LDA ≤3.2 correspond to SDAI LDA, neither corresponds well to SDAI remission.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 08/2014; 74(6). DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204920 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) impair quality of life, including reduction in employment or job duties. The PRESTA (Psoriasis Randomized Etanercept STudy in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis) study, a randomized, double-blind, two-dose trial, examined the efficacy of etanercept treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and PsA and the main results have been presented previously. This analysis examined employment status, job duties and sick days, pre-defined endpoints in PRESTA, among this patient population.
Participants (N = 752) were randomized to receive etanercept 50 mg twice weekly (BIW; n = 379) or 50 mg once weekly (QW; n = 373) for 12 weeks by subcutaneous injection. All participants then received open-label etanercept 50 mg QW for 12 additional weeks, while remaining blinded to the randomization. A pharmacoeconomic questionnaire was administered at baseline, week 12 and week 24 of treatment. The questionnaire included employment status and changing job responsibilities and sick time taken due to psoriasis or PsA. The statistical methods included analysis of covariance, t-test, Fisher’s exact test and McNemar’s test. Last-observation-carried-forward imputation was used for missing data.
Employment was at least maintained from baseline to week 24 in both dose groups (56% [BIW/QW] and 60% [QW/QW] at baseline, 61% and 60%, respectively, at week 24). Among employed participants, the proportion of patients whose job responsibilities changed due to PsA decreased significantly from baseline to week 24 (17–23% to 5–8%; p < 0.01). Similar results were seen with job responsibility changes due to psoriasis (11–14% to 4%; p < 0.01). The number of monthly sick days also decreased from baseline to week 24 (2.4 days for both treatment groups to 0.7 (BIW/QW) and 1.1 (QW/QW); p ≤ 0.03 for each). No significant differences between the treatment groups were observed for any economic endpoint at any time point.
For patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and PsA, etanercept treatment resulted in reducing job responsibility changes due to disease and in reducing sick time. Effective treatment of psoriasis and PsA may reduce missed work days.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous global studies examined etanercept (ETN) + methotrexate (MTX) for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but included few subjects from Latin America.
The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of ETN + MTX versus a standard-of-care disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) + MTX in Latin American subjects with moderate to severe active RA despite MTX therapy.
This open-label, active-comparator study (NCT00848354) randomized subjects 2:1 to ETN 50 mg/wk + MTX or investigator-selected DMARD (sulfasalazine or hydroxychloroquine) + MTX (ETN + MTX, n = 281; DMARD + MTX, n = 142). The primary end point was the proportion achieving American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 50 at week 24. Secondary end points included ACR20/70, disease activity score (DAS) 28 measures, and mean change in modified total Sharp score. Patient-reported outcomes were the Health Assessment Questionnaire, 36-item Short-Form, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment: RA (WPAI:RA), and Caregiver Burden and Resource Utilization. Statistical analyses were stratified by country; χ test and analysis of covariance were used. Adverse events were monitored.
More subjects achieved ACR50 at week 24 with ETN + MTX versus DMARD + MTX (62% vs 23%, respectively), in addition to secondary end points (P < 0.0001 for all); mean change in modified total Sharp score was lower for the ETN + MTX group (0.4 vs 1.4, respectively; P = 0.0270). Improvements in patient-reported outcomes favored ETN + MTX for Health Assessment Questionnaire, 36-item Short-Form, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for depression, WPAI:RA, and Caregiver Burden and Resource Utilization emergency department visits for RA (P < 0.01). Overall, adverse events were similar between the groups (69% vs 68%,); serious adverse events were also similar (4% vs 1%). The rate of overall infections was higher with ETN + MTX (38%) than DMARD + MTX (22%, P ≤ 0.001).
Consistent with published global data among RA patients with inadequate response to MTX, adding ETN to MTX demonstrated better efficacy than adding one other conventional DMARD to MTX. No new safety issues were observed. ETN + MTX provided favorable benefit-risk profile among RA patients from LA region.
Journal of clinical rheumatology: practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases 12/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1097/RHU.0000000000000055 · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To assess cardiometabolic biomarkers in patients with psoriasis before and after etanercept treatment.
Patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis were randomized to etanercept 50 mg once or twice weekly, double-blinded. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment (n = 273).
At baseline, 42% of patients had metabolic syndrome. Etanercept was not associated with any clinically relevant adverse effects on cardiometabolic biomarkers. In the once-weekly subgroup, significant mean percentage changes from baseline (p < 0.05) were observed for the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI; -2.2%), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 (3.2%), Apo B:Apo A1 ratio (-3.5%), leptin (8.6%) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (-65.5%); and in the twice-weekly subgroup for plasma insulin (15.9%), QUICKI (-2.7%), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 2.9%), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 (2.8%), Apo B:Apo A1 (-4.6%) and hsCRP (-74.4%).
Metabolic syndrome was common in these patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Etanercept treatment may provide some potentially favorable modulation of insulin sensitivity, HDL-C, Apo A1 and Apo B:Apo A1 ratio.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) three-factor posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria was conducted to determine fit for this patient population. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of alternate symptom structures was planned to identify symptoms that cluster in this population. The response of symptom factors to treatment with venlafaxine extended release (ER) was explored.
Baseline 17-item Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-SX17) data were pooled from patients enrolled in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The CFA was conducted using maximum likelihood and weighted, least-squares factor extraction methods. The EFA was performed using a polychoric correlation covariance matrix and Pearson correlation matrix.
Data from a pooled population of 685 patients (venlafaxine ER: n = 339; placebo: n = 346) were analyzed. CFA rejected the DSM-IV three-factor structure. The EFA identified a different three-factor structure as the best fit: factor 1 included reexperiencing symptoms, factor 2 included symptoms of altered mood and cognition, whereas factor 3 comprised avoidance and arousal symptoms. All DSM-IV symptom factors and all factors in the identified three-factor model responded positively to venlafaxine ER treatment.
Data are consistent with literature failing to confirm the three-factor structure of DSM-IV PTSD, and they support the DSM-5 inclusion of a symptom cluster addressing altered mood and cognition in PTSD. The efficacy of venlafaxine ER in reducing a range of symptom clusters in PTSD is consistent with its multiple mechanisms of action.
Brain and Behavior 11/2013; 3(6):738-46. DOI:10.1002/brb3.183 · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The authors tested the Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation (PASE) to assess usefulness for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) screening before and after anti-TNF treatment in a clinical trial setting.
Participants of the PRISTINE trial (NCT0066305) were randomized to etanercept 50 mg once weekly or twice weekly. PASE was administered at baseline and 12 weeks of treatment. Scores were compared by a paired sample t-test. Logistic regression and receiver operating curves were used to compare disease assessments against the PASE scores.
Participants (N = 273, once weekly, N = 137; twice weekly, N = 136) had a mean age of 44 years; 70% were male; mean PASI was 21. At baseline, 31% had a self-reported history of physician-diagnosed PsA (mean duration, 8 years); ∼25% had a PASE total score ≥47, indicating active PsA. At week 12, 14% had scores ≥47 (p =. 0143). PASE scores correlated with subject global assessment of joint pain.
The PASE was used in a randomized controlled clinical trial in a moderate to severe psoriasis population with a high prevalence of PsA. The findings also support the use of PASE as a tool to measure treatment response for PsA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Clinical remission and low disease activity are essential treatment targets in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Although moderately active rheumatoid arthritis is common, treatment effects in moderate disease have not been well studied. Additionally, optimum use of biologics needs further investigation, including the use of induction, maintenance, and withdrawal treatment strategies. The aim of the PRESERVE trial was to assess whether low disease activity would be sustained with reduced doses or withdrawal of etanercept in patients with moderately active disease. METHODS: In a randomised controlled trial, patients aged between 18 and 70 years with moderately active rheumatoid arthritis (disease activity score in 28 joints [DAS28] >3·2 and ≤5·1) despite treatment with methotrexate were enrolled at 80 centres in Europe, Latin America, Asia, and Australia between March 6, 2008, and Sept 9, 2009. To be eligible, patients had to have been receiving 15-25 mg of methotrexate every week for at least 8 weeks. In an open-label period of 36 weeks, all patients were given 50 mg etanercept plus methotrexate every week. To be eligible for a subsequent double-blind period of 52 weeks, participants had to have achieved sustained low disease activity. These patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by an interactive voice-response system to one of three treatment groups: 50 mg etanercept plus methotrexate, 25 mg etanercept plus methotrexate, or placebo plus methotrexate. Patients were stratified in blocks of three by DAS28 response (low disease activity or remission) at week 36. Patients, investigators, data analysts, and study staff were all masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with low disease activity at week 88 in the groups given 50 mg etanercept or placebo in the double-blind period. A conditional primary endpoint was the proportion of patients receiving 25 mg etanercept who achieved low disease activity. Modified intention-to-treat populations were used for analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00565409. FINDINGS: 604 (72·4%) of 834 enrolled patients were eligible for the double-blind period, of whom 202 were assigned to 50 mg etanercept plus methotrexate, 202 to 25 mg etanercept plus methotrexate, and 200 to placebo plus methotrexate. At week 88, 166 (82·6%) of 201 patients who had received at least one dose of 50 mg etanercept and one or more DAS28 evaluations had low disease activity, compared with 84 (42·6%) of 197 who had received placebo (mean difference 40·8%, 95% CI 32·5-49·1%; p<0·0001). Additionally, 159 (79·1%) of 201 patients given 25 mg etanercept had low disease activity at week 88 (mean difference from placebo 35·9%, 27·0-44·8%; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Conventional or reduced doses of etanercept with methotrexate in patients with moderately active rheumatoid arthritis more effectively maintain low disease activity than does methotrexate alone after withdrawal of etanercept. FUNDING: Pfizer.
The Lancet 01/2013; 381(9870). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61811-X · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) is a new composite clinical tool combining subjective and objective measures. Using data from the randomized double-blind Ankylosing Spondylitis Study Comparing Enbrel with Sulfasalazine Dosed Weekly (ASCEND) trial, we tested ASDAS validity and assessed its capacity to discriminate between treatment effects and change-from-baseline improvements.
These post hoc analyses were conducted in patients who received etanercept (50 mg/week) or SSZ (≤ 3 g/day) for 16 weeks. The ASDAS was tested for its capacity to discriminate between those who achieved and did not achieve Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) partial remission and ASAS20. Week 16 adjusted treatment differences and effect sizes of improvement from baseline of 42 outcomes were calculated.
Means for ASDAS were less than half in patients with ASAS partial remission compared with patients without partial remission across the entire study population (1.2 vs 2.6; P<0.0001). Patients who achieved ASAS20 had greater mean changes from baseline in ASDAS than those who did not (-1.8 vs -0.3; P<0.0001). ASDAS was consistently shown to have one of the highest discriminatory capacities compared with other measurements (including subjective measurements) regardless of normal vs high CRP, presence or absence of peripheral arthritis and high vs very high ASDAS at baseline. As a dichotomous variable using different thresholds for improvement and disease severity, ASDAS had slightly better discriminatory capacity than all corresponding ASAS measures.
ASDAS is a validated and highly discriminatory tool for the detection of significant differences between treatments for AS as well as for detecting a significant improvement from baseline with etanercept and SSZ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this post hoc analysis was to test the benefits of treating very early rheumatoid arthritis (VERA; ≤4 months) using COMET trial data. Treatment response in VERA and early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA; >4 months to 2 years) with combination etanercept+methotrexate (ETN+MTX) or MTX monotherapy was compared.
Data assessed at week 52 for baseline disease duration effect included remission (disease activity score (DAS)28 <2.6, SDAI ≤3.3, Boolean), low disease activity (LDA; DAS28 <3.2), Boolean components of remission and radiographic non-progression. Subjects who discontinued because of lack of efficacy were included as non-responders.
Higher proportions of VERA subjects achieved LDA (79%) and DAS28 remission (70%) than ERA (62%, 48%, respectively, p<0.05) with ETN+MTX. Such high responses with MTX monotherapy were not observed (VERA, LDA=47%, DAS28 remission=35%; ERA, 47% and 32% respectively, p>0.70 for each). Regardless of disease duration, no radiographic progression was seen in 80% of subjects with ETN+MTX. In contrast, a higher proportion of VERA subjects showed no radiographic progression compared with ERA subjects treated with MTX (73.9% vs 50%, p=0.01).
Treatment of VERA with ETN+MTX provides qualitatively improved clinical outcomes not seen with MTX monotherapy, supporting the pivotal role of TNF inhibition in early disease.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 03/2012; 71(6):989-92. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-201066 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the performances of the Modified Composite Psoriatic Disease Activity Index (mCPDAI) and the Disease Activity index for PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) in an interventional study of etanercept in psoriatic arthritis.
The components of the CPDAI and DAPSA were extracted using PRESTA (Psoriasis Randomized Etanercept STudy in subjects with psoriatic Arthritis) study data. Data for four of the five domains of the CPDAI-thus an mCPDAI-were available: joints, skin, dactylitis and enthesitis (spinal involvement was not assessed). Domains in the calculation of DAPSA were subjected to global assessment of pain, swollen and tender joint counts, and C reactive protein.
were randomised to etanercept 50 mg weekly (n=373) or 50 mg twice weekly (n=379) for 12 weeks; all subjects then received etanercept 50 mg weekly for 12 weeks. The performance of the scores at baseline and on weeks 12 and 24 was compared between the two treatment regimens.
The mCPDAI and DAPSA could distinguish response to treatment comparing baseline and 12-week or 24-week values (p<0.0001). The mCPDAI, not DAPSA, could distinguish response between the two treatment groups at 12 weeks (p=0.0492), but not at 24 weeks. All domains evaluated contributed to the data variability of the mCPDAI; the most significant were dactylitis (r=0.64) and enthesitis (r=0.60).
In psoriatic arthritis with severe skin involvement, the mCPDAI was able to distinguish treatment response between the two etanercept doses. DAPSA, while demonstrating improvement in both groups over time, was unable to distinguish response between the different doses of etanercept. Further studies are needed to confirm the sensitivity of both indexes.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 03/2012; 71(3):358-62. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200093 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of two etanercept dose regimens for psoriasis treatment. Methods: Subjects were ≥18 years old with stable moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Subjects were randomised to etanercept 50 mg once weekly (QW) or 50 mg twice weekly (BIW) double-blind for 12 weeks, followed by 50 mg QW open label in all subjects through week 24. Only mild topical corticosteroids were permitted on scalp, axillae and groin for first 12 weeks; topical medications (corticosteroids of all potencies, vitamin D analogues and combination products) were allowed as needed for second 12 weeks at physicians' discretion, consistent with "real-world" therapeutic practice. An independent ethics committee reviewed and approved the study protocol. Results: At week 24, 59.9% and 78.2% in the QW/QW and BIW/QW groups achieved PASI 75 improvement. Mean percentage PASI improvement in these groups was 58.5% and 74.1% at week 12 and 70.7% and 81.3% at week 24. Although permitted from weeks 12 to 24, topical agents were used in only 27.7% and 22.6% in the QW/QW and BIW/QW groups by week 24. Conclusion: Both etanercept regimens were efficacious in moderate-to-severe psoriasis, although the BIW/QW regimen consistently provided higher response rates than the QW/QW regimen. More potent topical medications were used electively in <25% of subjects in each group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, is characterized by periods of remission and relapse of lesions. Etanercept is approved for treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis (25 mg twice weekly or 50 mg weekly). This review of three clinical trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of long-term, continuous (≥≥48 weeks) etanercept therapy in 1887 subjects with moderate-to-severe psoriasis (total exposure: 2458.0 subject-years). Efficacy end points across the three studies included: percent subjects achieving improvement of ≥≥75% from baseline in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index; mean percentage improvement from baseline of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index; mean Physician''s Global Assessment psoriasis score; and Dermatology Life Quality Index total score (mean percentage improvement from baseline). Safety was also assessed. This article summarizes the sustained efficacy of long-term continuous etanercept therapy, which was generally consistent across the three trials. There were no new or unexpected safety signals with up to 144 weeks of continuous etanercept therapy. Long-term continuous etanercept therapy may be an option for some psoriasis patients.
Expert Review of Dermatology 07/2011; 6(4):361-373. DOI:10.1586/edm.11.33
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate how continuation of and alterations to initial year 1 combination etanercept-methotrexate (MTX) therapy and MTX monotherapy regimens affect long-term remission and radiographic progression in early, active rheumatoid arthritis.
Subjects were randomized at baseline for the entire 2-year period; those who completed 1 year of treatment with combination or MTX monotherapy entered year 2. The original combination group either continued combination therapy (the EM/EM group; n = 111) or received etanercept monotherapy (the EM/E group; n = 111) in year 2; the original MTX monotherapy group either received combination therapy (the M/EM group; n = 90) or continued monotherapy (the M/M group; n = 99) in year 2. Efficacy end points included remission (a Disease Activity Score in 28 joints [DAS28] <2.6) and radiographic nonprogression (change in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde score < or = 0.5) at year 2. A last observation carried forward analysis from the modified intention-to-treat population (n = 398) and a post hoc nonresponder imputation (NRI) analysis (n = 528) were performed for remission.
At year 2, DAS28 remission was achieved by 62/108, 54/108, 51/88, and 33/94 subjects in the EM/EM, EM/E, M/EM, and M/M groups, respectively (P < 0.01 for the EM/EM and M/EM groups versus the M/M group). This effect was corroborated by a more conservative post hoc 2-year NRI analysis, with remission observed in 59/131, 50/134, 48/133, and 29/130 of the same respective groups (P < 0.05 for each of the EM/EM, EM/E, and M/EM groups versus the M/M group). The proportions of subjects achieving radiographic nonprogression (n = 360) were 89/99, 74/99, 59/79, and 56/83 in the EM/EM (P < 0.01 versus each of the other groups), EM/E, M/EM, and M/M groups, respectively. No new safety signals or between-group differences in serious adverse events were seen.
Early sustained combination etanercept-MTX therapy was consistently superior to MTX monotherapy. Combination therapy resulted in important clinical and radiographic benefits over 2 study years, without significant additional safety risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy over 12 weeks of two different etanercept regimens in treating the skin manifestations of psoriasis in patients who also have psoriatic arthritis and to evaluate efficacy and safety over an additional 12 weeks of open label etanercept treatment. Design Randomised double blind multicentre outpatient study.
98 outpatient facilities in Europe, Latin America, and the Asia Pacific region. Participants 752 patients with both psoriasis (evaluated by dermatologists) and psoriatic arthritis (evaluated by rheumatologists).
During the blinded portion of the study, participants were randomised to receive etanercept 50 mg twice weekly (n=379) or 50 mg once weekly (n=373) for 12 weeks by subcutaneous injection. All participants then received open label etanercept 50 mg once weekly for 12 additional weeks, while remaining blinded to the regimen.
The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of participants achieving "clear" or "almost clear" on the physician's global assessment of psoriasis at week 12. Secondary efficacy analyses included psoriasis area and severity index, American College of Rheumatology responses, psoriatic arthritis response criteria, and improvement in joint and tendon disease manifestations.
At week 12, 46% (176/379) of participants receiving etanercept 50 mg twice weekly achieved a physician's global assessment of psoriasis of "clear" or "almost clear" compared with 32% (119/373) in the group treated with 50 mg once weekly (P<0.001). In contrast, an equally high percentage of participants in both groups achieved psoriatic arthritis response criteria (77% (284/371) in the twice weekly/once weekly group versus 76% (282/371) in the once weekly/once weekly group). Participants treated with 50 mg twice weekly/once weekly had greater mean reductions from baseline in the psoriasis area and severity index at week 12 compared with those who received 50 mg once weekly/once weekly (71% v 62%, P<0.001), with less difference at week 24 (78% v 74%, P<0.110). Joint and tendon disease manifestations improved from baseline in both groups to a similar extent. No new safety signals were seen in either etanercept treatment group, and no significant difference in the safety profiles was observed.
In participants with active psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, initial treatment of the psoriasis with etanercept 50 mg twice weekly may allow for more rapid clearance of skin lesions than with 50 mg once weekly. A regimen of 50 mg once weekly seems to be appropriate for treatment of joint and tendon rheumatic symptoms. The choice of regimen should be determined by the clinical needs of the individual patient.
Clinical trials NCT00245960.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuous and paused etanercept regimens in psoriasis patients. Methods: Patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis were randomized to receive continuous etanercept 25 mg twice weekly or paused etanercept for 54 weeks. The paused group received etanercept 50 mg twice weekly for no more than 12 weeks until reaching a Physician Global Assessment (PGA) of 2 or less (mild or better), when treatment was paused; upon relapse (PGA ≥ 3), etanercept was resumed at 25 mg twice weekly until a PGA of 2 or less was regained. The primary efficacy end point was mean PGA over 54 weeks, which was compared between the continuous and paused groups. Secondary efficacy end points included changes from baseline in mean PGA score, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and patient satisfaction with current psoriasis treatment. Results: Among 711 patients evaluable for efficacy, the mean PGA score averaged over 54 weeks (primary end point) was significantly lower in the continuous etanercept therapy group than in the paused etanercept therapy group (1.98 vs 2.51, respectively; p < 0.001). Mean PGA was significantly reduced from baseline (3.6, both groups) to week 54 in the continuous (1.9) and paused groups (2.4; p < 0.01, within-group comparisons). Mean PASI was significantly decreased from baseline (21.9 and 22.8, respectively) to week 54 with continuous (7.1) and paused therapy (9.5; p < 0.01, within-group comparisons). PASI improved by 68 and 59% from baseline to week 54 in patients receiving continuous and paused etanercept, respectively. Patient satisfaction rates improved from 20.2 and 22.5% in continuous and paused groups, respectively, at baseline to 83.5 and 83.0% at week 12; 83.3 and 78.3% at week 24; and 81.3 and 72.6% at week 54, respectively. Overall, 7.5% (54 out of 720) of patients had serious adverse events (6.4 and 8.5%, continuous and paused groups, respectively); four patients (two per group) had serious infections. No cases of tuberculosis or demyelinating diseases were observed. Conclusion: Both continuous and paused etanercept therapies improved PGA and PASI scores and patient satisfaction rates; patients receiving continuous etanercept therapy showed a greater level of improvement, although those who paused and resumed active treatment generally recaptured response and experienced sustained benefit.
Expert Review of Dermatology 11/2008; 3(6):657-665. DOI:10.1586/17469818.104.22.1687
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Remission and radiographic non-progression are goals in the treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the combination of methotrexate and etanercept in active early rheumatoid arthritis (COMET) trial is to compare remission and radiographic non-progression in patients treated with methotrexate monotherapy or with methotrexate plus etanercept.
542 outpatients who were methotrexate-naive and had had early moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis for 3-24 months were randomly assigned to receive either methotrexate alone titrated up from 7.5 mg a week to a maximum of 20 mg a week by week 8 or methotrexate (same titration) plus etanercept 50 mg a week. Coprimary endpoints at 52 weeks were remission measured with the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and radiographic non-progression measured with modified total Sharp score. Treatment was allocated with a computerised randomisation and enrolment system, which masked both participants and carers. Analysis was done by modified intention to treat with last observation carried forward for missing data. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00195494).
274 participants were randomly assigned to receive combined treatment and 268 methotrexate alone. 132 of 265 (50%, 95% CI 44-56%) patients who took combined treatment and were available for assessment achieved clinical remission compared with 73 of 263 (28%, 23-33%) taking methotrexate alone (effect difference 22.05%, 95%CI 13.96-30.15%, p<0.0001). 487 evaluable patients had severe disease (DAS28>5.1). 196 of 246 (80%, 75-85%) and 135 of 230 (59%, 53-65%), respectively, achieved radiographic non-progression (20.98%, 12.97-29.09%, p<0.0001). Serious adverse events were similar between groups.
Both clinical remission and radiographic non-progression are achievable goals in patients with early severe rheumatoid arthritis within 1 year of combined treatment with etanercept plus methotrexate.
The Lancet 08/2008; 372(9636):375-82. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61000-4 · 45.22 Impact Factor