Carrie A Young

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States

Are you Carrie A Young?

Claim your profile

Publications (4)17.51 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Olanzapine and other antipsychotics are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat behavioral disturbances associated with dementia, but they are often prescribed to these patients. Although antipsychotics may be efficacious in this population, elderly patients with dementia may be particularly vulnerable to adverse events. This article reviews the safety of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia. Data from 6 studies comparing olanzapine to placebo, risperidone, or conventional antipsychotics in elderly patients with dementia were analyzed for mortality, cerebrovascular adverse events (CVAEs), and other adverse events. These trials represent all Lilly olanzapine-comparator trials in this population. The data included integration of 5 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (olanzapine, N = 1184; placebo, N = 478; median age = 79 years; 1 study also compared olanzapine with risperidone, N = 196) and an open-label study comparing olanzapine (N = 150) with conventional antipsychotics (N = 143). Incidence of mortality was significantly higher in olanzapine- (3.5%) than in placebo-treated patients (1.5%; p = .024). There were no significant differences in the crude incidence of mortality between olanzapine- (2.9%) and risperidone- (2.0%) or olanzapine- (14.8%) and conventional antipsychotic-treated patients (16.1%; p = .871). Risk factors associated with mortality in olanzapine-treated patients included age >/= 80, concurrent benzodiazepine use, treatment-emergent sedation, or treatment-emergent pulmonary conditions. Incidence of CVAEs was approximately 3 times higher in olanzapine- (1.3%) than in placebo-treated patients (0.4%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of CVAEs between olanzapine- (2.5%) and risperidone- (2.0%; p = 1.0) or olanzapine- (3.4%) and conventional antipsychotic-treated patients (4.3%; p = .765). These findings should be considered if prescribers elect to treat behavioral disturbances associated with dementia in the elderly with olanzapine or other antipsychotics.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 06/2006; 67(6):933-45. · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia can reach 1 to 2 standard deviations below healthy controls. The comparative effect of typical and atypical antipsychotic medications on neurocognition is controversial, and based primarily on studies with small samples and large doses of typical comparator medications. The present study assessed neurocognitive efficacy. It was hypothesized that olanzapine treatment would improve neurocognitive deficits to a greater degree than either risperidone or haloperidol treatment. This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel study with neurocognition assessed at baseline, and 8, 24, and 52 weeks. Per protocol, the haloperidol arm was discontinued. Four hundred and fourteen inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were treated with oral olanzapine (n = 159), risperidone (n = 158), or haloperidol (n = 97). Individual domains (executive function, learning and memory, processing speed, attention/vigilance, verbal working memory, verbal fluency, motor function, and visuospatial ability) were transformed into composite scores and compared between treatment groups. At the 52-week endpoint, neurocognition significantly improved in each group (p < 0.01 for olanzapine and risperidone, p = 0.04 for haloperidol), with no significant differences between groups. Olanzapine- and risperidone-treated patients significantly (p < 0.05) improved on domains of executive function, learning/memory, processing speed, attention/vigilance, verbal working memory, and motor functions. Additionally, risperidone-treated patients improved on domains of visuospatial memory. Haloperidol-treated patients improved only on domains of learning/memory. However, patients able to remain in treatment for the entire 52 weeks benefited more from olanzapine or risperidone treatment than haloperidol treatment.
    Schizophrenia Research 01/2006; 81(1):1-15. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors compared efficacy of olanzapine versus placebo and risperidone as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Psychosis scale in patients with dementia-related psychosis. Patients with moderate-to-severe psychotic symptoms associated with dementia were recruited from outpatient or residential settings and randomly assigned to 10-week, double-blind, flexible-dose treatment with olanzapine (N=204; 2.5 mg-10 mg/day; mean: 5.2 mg/day), risperidone (N=196; 0.5 mg-2 mg/day; mean: 1.0 mg/day) or placebo (N=94). Most measures of neuropsychiatric functioning improved in all treatment groups, including the placebo group, and no significant treatment differences occurred. Overall discontinuation was lowest in the placebo group, and the olanzapine group had a significantly higher incidence of discontinuation due to adverse events (16.2%) relative to placebo (3.2%) and risperidone (8.7%) groups. Treatment-emergent extrapyramidal symptoms were more numerous for risperidone- than placebo- or olanzapine-treated patients. Abnormally high prolactin levels occurred in 78.0% of risperidone patients, compared with 16.7% for olanzapine and 5.0% for placebo. The incidence of weight gain greater than 7% from baseline was higher in the olanzapine group relative to risperidone, but neither active-treatment group showed a statistical difference from placebo (1.1%). No other statistically significant and clinically relevant differences were seen for any other vital sign, electrocardiographic measure, or laboratory hematology and chemistry, including glucose, except for cholesterol, which decreased from baseline to endpoint in both active-treatment groups. Patients' neuropsychiatric functioning improved with olanzapine, risperidone, and placebo treatment. There was a substantial response in the placebo group, and no significant differences emerged among treatments.
    American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 09/2005; 13(8):722-30. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psychotic symptoms and behavioral disturbances are a concern in the care of elderly patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of olanzapine versus placebo in patients with psychotic symptoms associated with AD in long-term or continuing-care settings. Patients (n = 652) with AD and delusions or hallucinations were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of double-blind treatment with placebo or fixed-dose olanzapine (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 mg/day). Mean age was 76.6+/-10.4 years. Repeated-measures analysis showed significant improvement from baseline in NPI/NH Psychosis Total scores (sum of Delusions, Hallucinations items-primary efficacy measure) in all five treatment groups (p<0.001), but no pairwise treatment differences were seen at the 10-week endpoint. However, under LOCF analysis, improvement in the 7.5 mg olanzapine group (-6.2 +/- 4.9) was significantly greater than with placebo (-5.0 +/- 6.1, p = 0.008), while endpoint CGI-C scores showed the greatest improvement in the Olz 2.5 olanzapine group (2.8 +/- 1.4, p = 0.030) relative to placebo (3.2 +/- 1.4). There were significant overall treatment-group differences in increased weight, anorexia, and urinary incontinence, with olanzapine showing numerically higher incidences. However, neither the incidence of any other individual events, including extrapyramidal symptoms, nor of total adverse events occurred with significantly higher frequency in any olanzapine group relative to placebo. No clinically relevant significant changes were seen across groups in cognition or any other vital sign or laboratory measure, including glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol. While 1.0 mg olanzapine did not show significant differences from placebo, the 2.5 mg dose was a reasonable starting dose. Olanzapine at 7.5 mg/day significantly decreased psychosis and overall behavioral disturbances (NPI/NH, BPRS) and was well tolerated.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 02/2004; 19(2):115-26. · 2.98 Impact Factor