R J Hamilton

The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States

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Publications (26)80.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze regions of uptake in normal structures on postprostatectomy radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) images by evaluating differences in the overlap volumes of prostate fossa clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) using correlative computed tomography (CT) images. The electronic records of 13 patients who received external beam radiotherapy postprostatectomy and who underwent a vessel-based RIS/CT registration were reviewed. For each patient, the RIS-defined CTV (CTV(RIS)) was compared (in terms of the overlap volume with the surrounding bladder, rectum, pubic symphysis, and penile bulb) with the CT-defined CTV(pre) before this registration and also with CTV(post) (the final target volume used for treatment). Similar analyses were done for PTV(RIS), PTV(pre), and PTV(post) defined in each case to be the corresponding CTV + 1-cm margin. CTV(RIS) overlapped significantly more with the bladder, rectum, and symphysis, but not with the penile bulb, than did either the CTV(pre) or CTV(post). However, the corresponding PTV analyses revealed no significant differences between any of the overlap volumes of any of the PTVs with the bladder, rectum, and penile bulb, but did reveal a significant difference between the PTV(RIS) and PTV(post) overlap volumes with the symphysis compared with PTV(pre) overlap volumes with the symphysis. On RIS images, there appear to be areas of uptake in the bladder, rectum, and pubic symphysis but not the penile bulb; however, the dosimetric consequences of this uptake for radiation treatment planning are minimal on the bladder, rectum, and penile bulb, but require segmentation for dose reduction to the pubic symphysis.
    Clinical Nuclear Medicine 04/2006; 31(3):139-44. · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/2005; 63.
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    ABSTRACT: Our goal was to evaluate the role of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) directed against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in influencing postprostatectomy radiotherapy (RT) toxicity and biochemical control. The records of 107 postprostatectomy RT patients were reviewed. The group for whom no RIS scan was obtained (group A, n = 54) was identified as was the group for whom a RIS scan was obtained (group B, n = 53). Group B was further subdivided into those who had a RIS and CT-scan correlation to aid in treatment planning (subgroup B1, n = 40) versus those who did not (subgroup B2, n = 13). Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were reviewed for each of these groups and subgroups and compared. Biochemical failures (defined as 2 successive PSA rises after a nadir of >or=0.2 ng/mL) were identified to generate biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) curves for each of the groups and subgroups. No significant differences in late toxicity were observed between any group or subgroup. However, acute GI toxicity was higher in group B versus group A (P = 0.026), and acute GU toxicity was higher in subgroup B2 versus subgroup B1 (P = 0.050). Overall, most toxicity was grade 1 or 2; only one case of grade 3 toxicity and no cases of grade 4 or 5 toxicity were observed. Three-year BFFS was higher for group B versus group A (80.7% vs. 75.5%) and for subgroup B1 versus subgroup B2 (84.5% vs. 71.6%). On multivariate analysis of pretreatment (age, race), surgical/staging (stage, grade, margin status, extracapsular extension, lymph node status, seminal vesicle invasion, post-radical retropubic prostatectomy [RRP] prostate-specific antigen [PSA] nadir, maximum post-RRP PSA, and RRP-to-RT interval), and treatment (hormone therapy, RT dose, RT technique, RIS scan, and RIS/CT correlation) factors on BFFS, the only covariate reaching significance was RIS/CT correlation (P = 0.042). A small BFFS advantage was observed in patients for whom RIS was used to guide RT decision making and treatment planning; however, this advantage only reached significance in this study for those for whom the RIS/CT correlation was used to guide target definition. The improved PSA control using RIS was achieved with a small increase in acute toxicity but with no observed change in late toxicity. These findings can serve as the basis for prospective studies in this area of investigation.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2004; 45(8):1315-22. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) directed against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in influencing postradical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) radiotherapy (RT) decision making. The records of consecutive patients who underwent RRP, who were referred for consideration of RT, and for whom an RIS scan was obtained were reviewed. The RT decisions, with regard to (a) the decision to offer RT and (b) the general volume to be treated [prostate fossa (PF) only versus PF + pelvis (P)] before knowledge of the RIS findings were charted. The RIS findings, with regard to uptake in the PF, uptake in the P, or extrapelvic (EP) uptake were tabulated. Then, the RT treatment decisions based on the RIS knowledge were evaluated and compared with the pre-RIS RT treatment decisions. Of the 54 patients originally referred for post-RRP RT, the initial decision was to recommend RT to the PF only in 52 cases and to PF+P in 2 cases. The RIS findings were as follows: PF only, 43 patients; PF+P, 8 patients; PF+EP, 2 patients; PF+P+EP, 1 patient. After knowledge of these RIS results, the decision to offer RT was withdrawn in 4 of 54 patients (7.4%; P = 0.046). Furthermore, RIS changed the general treatment volume (PF only to PF+P) in 6 of 54 patients (11.1%; P = 0.015). In total, RIS altered the RT decision in 10 of 54 patients (18.5%; P = 0.0067). Three-year biochemical failure-free survival (with failure defined as 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen [PSA] rises above 0.2 ng/mL after PSA nadir) was 78%; no patient, disease, or treatment factor reached statistical significance on univariate or multivariate analysis. RIS was found to influence post-RRP RT decision making for the identification of patients not likely to benefit from RT and for guiding general target volume definition.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2004; 45(4):571-8. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quality of life is an important consideration in the treatment of early prostate cancer. Laboratory and clinical data suggest that higher radiation doses delivered to the bulb of penis and proximal penile structures correlates with higher rates of post-radiation impotence. The goal of this investigation was to determine if intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) spares dose to the penile bulb while maintaining coverage of the prostate. 10 consecutive patients with clinically organ confined prostate cancer were planned with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or IMRT to give a dose of 74 Gy without specifically constraining the plans to spare the penile bulb. All 10 patients were ultimately treated with IMRT. Dose-volume histograms were evaluated and the doses to prostate, rectum, bladder and penile bulb were compared. IMRT reduced the mean penile bulb doses compared with 3D-CRT (33.2 Gy vs 48.9 Gy, p<0.001), the percentage of penile bulb receiving over 40 Gy (37.7% vs 67.2%, p<0.001) and the dose received by >95% of penile bulb (5.3 Gy vs 11.7 Gy, p=0.003). Maximum penile bulb doses were higher with IMRT (81.2 Gy vs 73.1 Gy, p<0.001) although the volume of this high dose region was small. Both methods resulted in similar coverage of the prostate. The volume of rectum receiving 70 Gy was significantly reduced with IMRT (18.4% vs 21.9%, p=0.003) but the volumes of bladder receiving 70 Gy were similar (p=0.3). IMRT may potentially reduce long term sexual morbidity by reducing the dose to the majority of the penile bulb.
    British Journal of Radiology 02/2004; 77(914):129-36. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) directed against prostate-specific membrane antigen in modifying postprostatectomy prostate fossa clinical target volume (CTV) definition. The records of 25 postprostatectomy patients who received external-beam radiotherapy after prostatectomy and who underwent vessel-based RIS/planning CT registration were reviewed. For each patient, the CTV that would have been treated (CTV(pre)) before this registration was compared with that defined after the registration (CTV(post)). In addition, using a standard dose of 66 Gy in 2-Gy fractions, the corresponding bladder and rectum dose volume histograms were compared using 2 endpoints: volume receiving > or =60 Gy (V60) and area under the curve (AUC). The mean CTV(pre) vs. CTV(post) volumes were 24.4 vs. 35.0 cm(3), respectively (P = 0.032). The V60 results for CTV(pre) and CTV(post) were 32.7 vs. 41.0 cm(3), respectively, for the rectum (P = 0.168) and 33.9 vs. 46.6 cm(3), respectively, for the bladder (P = 0.015). The AUC results for CTV(pre) and CTV(post) were 4,027 vs. 4,516 Gy x cm(3), respectively, for the rectum (P = 0.396) and 4,782 vs. 5,561, respectively, for the bladder (P = 0.119). No Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3, 4, or 5 (acute or late, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary) toxicity was observed. Two-year biochemical failure-free survival (with failure defined as 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen rises above 0.2ng/mL) was 87% for the cohort. Incorporating RIS uptake resulted in significant modifications in CTV definition. The consequences of these modifications on the rectum V60 or AUC or on the bladder AUC were not significant, although the bladder V60 did increase. However, observed toxicity was low, with acceptable short-term biochemical control, suggesting that treatment to the modified CTV was tolerable.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2004; 45(2):238-46. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Volume rendering is a visualization technique that has important applications in diagnostic radiology and in radiotherapy but has not achieved widespread use due, in part, to the lack of volumetric analysis tools for comparison of volume rendering to conventional visualization techniques. The volume rendering quantification algorithm (VRQA), a technique for three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of a structure identified on six principal volume-rendered views, is introduced and described, VRQA involves three major steps: 1) preprocessing of the partial surfaces constructed from each of six volume-rendered images; 2) merging these processed partial surfaces to define the boundaries of a volume; and 3) computation of the volume of the structure from this boundary information. After testing on phantoms, VRQA was applied to CT data of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM's). Because volumetric visualization of the cerebral AVM is relatively insensitive to operator dependencies, such as the choice of opacity transfer function, and because precise volumetric definition of the AVM is necessary for radiosurgical treatment planning, it is representative of a class of structures that is ideal for testing and calibration of VRQA, AVM volumes obtained using VRQA are intermediate to those obtained using axial contouring and those obtained using CT-correlated biplanar angiography (two routinely used visualization techniques for treatment planning for AVM's). Applications and potential expansions of VRQA are discussed.
    IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 02/2000; · 4.03 Impact Factor
  • IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging. 01/2000; 19:12-24.
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/2000; 48(3):358-359.
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    ABSTRACT: A technique was developed to reduce the size and magnitude of the hot and cold spots in the abutting regions of photon and electron fields. The photon and electron fields were set up such that the photon field extended ∼2 cm into the electron field in the abutting region. The region of the photon beam that overlapped the electron field was modulated using a multileaf collimator, effectively broadening the photon penumbra to make it complimentary to the electron penumbra. The computer calculations were verified using film measurements for abutting a 6 MV photon beam with a 9 MeV electron beam. A uniform dose was achieved at a prespecified depth of 2 cm, and dose uniformity was improved at the specified depth and beyond compared with unmodulated photon beams. A slight increase in dose inhomogeneity was seen at shallower depths. The overall areas of the hot and cold spots were significantly reduced. The technique also reduced the sensitivity of dose homogeneity to setup errors such that the magnitudes of the hot and cold spots were about half of those produced with unmodulated photon beam when an overlap or gap of 4 mm was introduced. The technique was applied to the treatment of a head and neck cancer and a lymphoma involving the right pleura with markedly reduced dose inhomogeneity in the abutting regions. © 1999 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
    Medical Physics 10/1999; 26(11):2379-2384. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors outline a method for three-dimensional registration of pelvic CT and 111In-labeled monoclonal antibody capromab pendetide (111In MoAb 7E11.C5) images using 99mTc-labeled red blood cell SPECT data. This method of CT-SPECT registration relies on the identification of major blood vessels in the CT and 99mTc SPECT images. The vessels are segmented from the image datasets by outlining them on transverse planar slices using a mouse-based drawing tool. Stacking the transverse outlines provides a three-dimensional representation of the vascular structures. Registration is performed by matching the surfaces of the segmented volumes. Dual isotope acquisition of 111In and 99mTc activities provides precise SPECT-SPECT registration so that registration in three dimensions of the 111In MoAb and CT images is achieved by applying the same transformation obtained from the 99mTc SPECT-CT registration. This method provided accurate registration of pelvic structures and significantly improved interpretation of 111In MoAb 7E11.C5 exams. Furthermore, sites of involvement by prostate cancer suggested by the 111In MoAb examination could be interpreted with the bony and soft tissue (nodal) anatomy seen on CT. This method is a general clinical tool for the registration of pelvic CT and SPECT imaging data. There are immediate applications in conformal radiation therapy treatment planning for certain prostate cancer patients.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/1999; 40(2):347-51. · 5.77 Impact Factor
  • L Xing, R J Hamilton, C Pelizzari, G T Chen
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    ABSTRACT: An essential step towards optimizing and automating radiation therapy treatment planning is to develop an effective algorithm to find the optimal beam weights and wedge filters for a given set of beam directions and modalities. This problem is solved by introducing a variable transformation based on the universal and omni wedge principles. Instead of directly optimizing an objective function with respect to wedge angles and orientations, each field is first decomposed into a superposition of an open field and two orthogonal wedged fields. This transforms the problem of finding J beam weights, wedge angles, and orientations to that of optimizing a system with 3J beam weights (J open beams and 2J nominal wedged beams), where J is the total number of incident beam directions. An iterative algorithm based on a method originally developed for image reconstruction is used to find the 3J beam weights. The technique is applied to a few clinical cases. Treatment plans are improved compared to those obtained through the conventional manual trial and error planning process. In addition, planning time and effort are greatly reduced.
    Medical Physics 11/1998; 25(10):1858-65. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three types of iterative algorithms, algebraic inverse treatment planning (AITP), simultaneous iterative inverse treatment planning (SIITP), and iterative least-square inverse treatment planning (ILSITP), differentiated according to their updating sequences, were generalized to three dimension with true beam geometry and dose model. A rapid ray-tracing approach was developed to optimize the primary beam components. Instead of recalculating the dose matrix at each iteration, the dose distribution was generated by scaling up or down the dose matrix elements of the previous iteration. This significantly increased the calculation speed. The iterative algorithms started with an initial intensity profile for each beam, specified by a two-dimensional pixel beam map of M elements. The calculation volume was divided into N voxels, and the calculation was done by repeatedly comparing the calculated and desired doses and adjusting the values of the beam map elements to minimize an objective function. In AITP, the iteration is performed voxel by voxel. For each voxel, the dose discrepancy was evaluated and the contributing pencil beams were updated. In ILSITP and SIITP, the iteration proceeded pencil beam by pencil beam instead of voxel by voxel. In all cases, the iteration procedure was repeated until the best possible dose distribution was achieved. The algorithms were applied to two examples and the results showed that the iterative techniques were able to produce superior isodose distributions.
    Medical Physics 11/1998; 25(10):1845-9. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal field shape achieved using a multileaf collimator (MLC) often requires collimator rotation to minimize the adverse effects of the scalloped dose distribution the leaf steps produce. However, treatment machines are designed to deliver wedged fields parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the leaves. An analysis of cases from our clinic showed that for 25% of the wedged fields used to treat brain and lung tumors, the wedge direction and optimal MLC orientation differed by 20 degrees or more. The recently published omni wedge technique provides the capability of producing a wedged field with orientation independent of the orientation of the collimator. This paper presents a comparison of the three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions of the omni wedged field with distributions of wedged fields produced using both the universal and dynamic wedge techniques. All measurements were performed using film dosimetry techniques. The omni wedge generated fields closely matched the conventional wedged fields. Throughout 95% of the irradiated volume (excluding the penubra), the dose distribution of the omni wedged field ranged from +5.5 to -3.5 +/- 1.5% of that of the conventionally wedged fields. Calculation of the omni wedged field is as accurate as conventional wedged field calculation when using a 3D treatment planning systems. For two-dimensional treatment planning systems, where one must assume that the omni wedged field is identical to a conventional field, the calculated field and the delivered field differs by a small amount.
    Medical Physics 09/1998; 25(8):1419-23. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed and tested an interactive video system that utilizes image subtraction techniques to enable high precision patient repositioning using surface features. We report quantitative measurements of system performance characteristics. Video images can provide a high precision, low cost measure of patient position. Image subtraction techniques enable one to incorporate detailed information contained in the image of a carefully verified reference position into real-time images. We have developed a system using video cameras providing orthogonal images of the treatment setup. The images are acquired, processed and viewed using an inexpensive frame grabber and a PC. The subtraction images provide the interactive guidance needed to quickly and accurately place a patient in the same position for each treatment session. We describe the design and implementation of our system, and its quantitative performance, using images both to measure changes in position, and to achieve accurate setup reproducibility. Under clinical conditions (60 cm field of view, 3.6 m object distance), the position of static, high contrast objects could be measured with a resolution of 0.04 mm (rms) in each of two dimensions. The two-dimensional position could be reproduced using the real-time image display with a resolution of 0.15 mm (rms). Two-dimensional measurement resolution of the head of a patient undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer was 0.1 mm (rms), using a lateral view, measuring the variation in position of the nose and the ear over the course of a single radiation treatment. Three-dimensional repositioning accuracy of the head of a healthy volunteer using orthogonal camera views was less than 0.7 mm (systematic error) with an rms variation of 1.2 mm. Setup adjustments based on the video images were typically performed within a few minutes. The higher precision achieved using the system to measure objects than to reposition them suggests that the variability in repositioning is dominated by the ability of the therapist to make small, controlled changes in the position of the patient. Using affordable, off-the-shelf technology, we have developed a patient positioning system that achieves repositioning accuracy normally associated with fractionated stereotactic systems. The technique provides real-time guidance and can be used to easily and quickly correct patient setup before every treatment, thus significantly reducing overall random positioning error. This improved positioning capability provides the precision required to realize the potential gains of conformal radiotherapy.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/1997; 38(4):855-66. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Explore the use of functional imaging data in radiation treatment planning of brain lesions. Compare the treatment-planning process with and without the use of functional brain imaging for clinical cases where functional studies using either single photon emission computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are available. A method to register functional image data with planning image studies is needed for functional treatment planning. Functional volumes are not simply connected regions. One activation study may produce many isolated functional areas. After finding the functional volumes and registering the functional information with the planning imaging data, the tools used for conventional three-dimensional treatment planning are sufficient for functional treatment planning. However, the planning system must provide dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest that consist of isolated pieces. Treatment plans that spare functional brain while providing identical target coverage can be constructed for lesions situated near the functional volume. However, the dose to other areas of the brain may be increased. Functional imaging will make determination of dose response of eloquent areas of the brain possible when combined with volumetric dose information and neuropsychological evaluation prior to and after radiation therapy. Realizing the full potential of functional imaging studies will require improved delineation of activated volumes and determination of the uncertainties in functional volume delineation. Optimization of treatment plans by minimizing dose to volumes activated during functional imaging studies should be used cautiously, because the dose to "silent," but possibly eloquent, brain may be increased.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 02/1997; 37(1):181-8. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the repositioning accuracy of patient setup achieved with a noninvasive head fixation device for stereotactic radiotherapy. A custom head mask which attaches to our stereotactic radiosurgery head ring assembly is fabricated for each patient. The position and orientation of a patient in the stereotatic space at the time of treatment are determined from analyzing portal films containing images of radio-opaque spheres embedded in a custom mouthpiece. From analysis of 104 setups of 12 patients, we find that the average distance between the treated isocenter and its mean position is 1.8 mm, and that the standard deviations of the position of the treated isocenter in stereotactic coordinate space about its mean position are less than 1.4 mm in translation in any direction and less than 1 degree of rotation about any axis.
    Medical Physics 12/1996; 23(11):1909-17. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    B D Milliken, R J Hamilton, S J Rubin
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    ABSTRACT: A method to produce wedged fields at any orientation relative to the collimator is described. The wedged field is generated by combining two appropriately weighted orthogonal wedged field segments at fixed collimator and gantry positions. The method requires only that wedged fields can be produced in orthogonal directions without rotating the collimator, such as is commonly provided on most radiation therapy accelerators by sets of standard and rotated wedges. Expressions are derived relating the effective wedge angle and orientation to the weighting and wedge angles of the orthogonal wedged field segments. This technique will be important when using multileaf collimator field shaping for which collimator rotation is dictated by target or critical structure shape and orientation. The term omni wedge is introduced to describe this technique.
    Medical Physics 04/1996; 23(3):337-42. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the variability of patient positioning during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer treated with no immobilization or one of four immunobilization devices, and to determine the effects of patient body habitus and pelvic circumference on patient movement with each individual inmobilization technique. To see whether our immobilization techniques have improved day-to-day patient movement, a retrospective analysis was carried out. A total of 62 patients treated at one facility on a single machine with 3D-CRT via a four-field box technique (anterior-posterior and opposed laterals) in the supine position with either no immobilization or one of four immobilization devices. Five groups of patients were compared: (a) group 1-no immobilization; (b) group 2-alpha cradle from the waist to upper thigh; (c) group 3-alpha cradle from waist to below the knees; (d) group 4-styrofoam leg immobilizer (below knees); and (e) group 5-aquaplast cast encompassing the entire abdomen and pelvis to midthigh with alpha cradle immobilization to their lower legs and feet. Prior to starting radiotherapy, portal films of all four treatment fields were obtained 1 day before treatment. Subsequently, portal films were then obtained at least once a week. Portal films were compared with the simulation films and appropriate changes were made and verified on the next day prior to treatment. A deviation of greater than 0.5 cm or greater was considered to be clincally significant in our analysis. We studied the difference among the types of immobilization and no immobilization by looking at the frequency of movements (overall, and on each of the three axes) that a patient had during the course of his treatment. Using a logistic regression model, the probability of overall and individual directional movement for each group was obtained. In addition, the effects of patient body habitus and pelvic circumference on movement were analyzed. The maximum deviation was 2 cm and the median deviation was 1.2 cm. For each patient, the probability of movement ranged from 0 to 76%, with a mean of 39%. There was no significant difference seen in overall movement with any of the immobilzation devices compared to no immobilization, but there was less vertical (9 vs. 18%; p = 0.03) and AP (6 vs. 15%; p = 0.14) movement with the aquaplast than any other group. However, when examining the lateral direction, the aquaplast had significantly more movement (32 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). When accounting for body habitus and pelvic circumference, no immobilization device was effective in reducing movement in obese patients or in patients with pelvic circumference greater than 105 cm. The aquaplast group had a significantly increased amount of lateral movement with obesity (42 vs. 23%; p < 0.05), and with pelvic circumference >105 cm (33 vs. 29%; p < 0.05). There was no significant reduction in overall patient movement noted with any of the immobilization devices compared to no immobilization. The aquaplast group had reduced vertical and AP movement of greater than 0.5 cm. There was significantly more lateral movement with aquaplast appreciated in obese patients or patients with pelvic circumferences greater than 105 cm. The aquaplast immobilization appears to be useful in reducing movement in two very clinicaly important dimensions (AP and vertical). Despite our findings, other immobilization may still be useful especially in the treatment of nonobese patients. It is clear that the optimal immobilization technique and patient positioning are yet to be determined.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 02/1996; 34(1):213-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/1996; 36(1):203-203.

Publication Stats

449 Citations
80.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      • Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1999–2004
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Radiology (Chicago)
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1995–2004
    • University of Chicago
      • • Department of Radiation & Cellular Oncology
      • • Department of Radiology
      Chicago, IL, United States