Russell J. Hamilton

The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States

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Publications (42)131.85 Total impact

  • Brachytherapy 03/2014; 13:S101. DOI:10.1016/j.brachy.2014.02.384
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    ABSTRACT: High energy X-rays have been used for cancer therapy since their discovery in 1895. Major radiobiological discoveries and technological advances in radiation physics have greatly increased the accuracy of radiation. The recent integration of radiation therapy and imaging systems provides radiation oncologists with sophisticated dose delivery capability allowing continued improvements in the control of loco-regional and metastatic disease while decreasing toxicity. Key technical aspects of current radiation therapy are described with examples extending to several clinical areas.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2011; 103(6):627-38. DOI:10.1002/jso.21837
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is a major reason for death of men in the world. A very effective method which is increasingly being used for treatment of this cancer is brachytherapy. For being most effective and having less side effects a good treatment planning is needed for choosing the source plant positions and in case of HDR brachytherapy for choosing the dwelling times. In the recent Treatment Planning (TP) commercial packages, the boundaries of prostate and its adjacent critical organs are defined by the physicist and the dwelling position is calculated by such methods as simulated annealing. In the TP method investigated in this research, a program is developed that uses patient CT DICOM file to model the exact phantom for MCNP5 calculations. Choosing the source seeds positions, the isodose surfaces and the dose gained by other critical organs as well as the whole body could be calculated accurately as the modeled phantom is the closest simulation to the patients’ specific anatomy. The result of the MCNP5 calculations is used to train an artificial neural network (ANN), with the DICOM data and the source seeds positions as input and the dose distributions as the output. Using this ANN an optimization is performed to find the best source positions that satisfy the TG-43 protocol. The main advantage of this method is its accuracy and speed in calculations which gives the opportunity to correct the plan as the seeds placement is deviated from the pre operation planned position through the planting process.
    Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications and Monte Carlo 2010 (SNA + MC2010), Hitotsubashi Memorial Hall, Tokyo, Japan; 10/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Current gated radiation therapy starts with simulation 4DCT images of a patient with lung cancer. We propose a method to confirm the phase of 4DCT for planning and setup position at the time of treatment. An intensity-based rigid algorithm was developed in this work to register an orthogonal set of on-board projection X-ray images with each phase of the 4DCT. Multiple DRRs for one of ten 4DCT phases are first generated and the correlation coefficient (CC) between the projection X-ray image and each DRR is computed. The maximum value of CC for the phase is found via a simulated annealing optimization process. The whole process repeats for all ten phases. The 4DCT phase that has the highest CC is identified as the breathing phase of the X-ray. The phase verification process is validated by a moving phantom study. Thus, the method may be used to independently confirm the correspondence between the gating phase at the times of 4DCT simulation and radiotherapy delivery. When the intended X-ray phase and actual gating phase are consistent, the registration of the DRRs and the projection images may also yield the values of patient shifts for treatment setup. This method could serve as the 4D analog of the conventional setup film as it provides both verification of the specific phase at the time of treatment and isocenter positioning shifts for treatment delivery.
    Physica Medica 10/2009; 26(3):117-25. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmp.2009.09.001
  • K Hadad, B Ganapol, RJ Hamilton, CJ Watchman, Y Xu
    American Nuclear Society Annual MeetingAmerican Nuclear Society Annual Meeting; 01/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory gating and tumor tracking for dynamic multileaf collimator delivery require accurate and real-time localization of the lung tumor position during treatment. Deriving tumor position from external surrogates such as abdominal surface motion may have large uncertainties due to the intra- and interfraction variations of the correlation between the external surrogates and internal tumor motion. Implanted fiducial markers can be used to track tumors fluoroscopically in real time with sufficient accuracy. However, it may not be a practical procedure when implanting fiducials bronchoscopically. In this work, a method is presented to track the lung tumor mass or relevant anatomic features projected in fluoroscopic images without implanted fiducial markers based on an optical flow algorithm. The algorithm generates the centroid position of the tracked target and ignores shape changes of the tumor mass shadow. The tracking starts with a segmented tumor projection in an initial image frame. Then, the optical flow between this and all incoming frames acquired during treatment delivery is computed as initial estimations of tumor centroid displacements. The tumor contour in the initial frame is transferred to the incoming frames based on the average of the motion vectors, and its positions in the incoming frames are determined by fine-tuning the contour positions using a template matching algorithm with a small search range. The tracking results were validated by comparing with clinician determined contours on each frame. The position difference in 95% of the frames was found to be less than 1.4 pixels (approximately 0.7 mm) in the best case and 2.8 pixels (approximately 1.4 mm) in the worst case for the five patients studied.
    Medical Physics 01/2009; 35(12):5351-9. DOI:10.1118/1.3002323
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of implanted gold marker registration compared with bony fusion alignment for patient positioning using the Novalis Body system. Eighteen treatment fractions of stereotactic spinal radiotherapy were analyzed for three patients who each had three implanted gold seeds placed near their spinal lesions before radiotherapy. At each treatment session, the registration was first performed using bony fusion and then verified by another bony fusion, followed by registration with implanted markers. The software reported the calculated shifts for both methods. In addition, the actual three-dimensional coordinate positions of the markers were read using PTDReader software. Implanted marker positions were analyzed for variations in individual maker coordinate displacement, interseed distances, and area transcribed by them. Measured positional differences between the two fusion methods were applied to actual treatment plans to assess the resulting dosimetric differences in the treatment plans. Both fusion algorithms were shown to localize the patient well, within 1.5 mm, but the implanted marker fusion consistently related less deviation from the planned isocenter, by approximately 0.5 mm, than did the bony fusion. Exceptions to this localization occurred when the average interseed distances were less than 3.0 cm and resulted in the two registration methods being equivalent. Implanted spine markers were also shown to have less than 0.7 mm deviation from the planned marker coordinates, indicating no migration of the seeds. Dose distributions were found to be highly dependant on differences in fusion method, with spinal cord doses up to 350% greater with bony fusion than with implanted markers. Implanted markers used with the Novalis Body system have been shown to be more effective in patient positioning than the bony fusion method in the thoracic spine.
    Neurosurgery 06/2008; 62(5 Suppl):A62-8; discussion A68. DOI:10.1227/01.neu.0000325938.08605.eb
  • C. J. Watchman, R. J. Hamilton
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 11/2007; 69(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.07.2293
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    ABSTRACT: A dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) can be used to track a moving target during radiotherapy. One of the major benefits for DMLC tumor tracking is that, in addition to the compensation for tumor translational motion, DMLC can also change the aperture shape to conform to a deforming tumor projection in the beam's eye view. This paper presents a method that can track a deforming lung tumor in fluoroscopic video using active shape models (ASM) (Cootes et al 1995 Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 61 38-59). The method was evaluated by comparing tracking results against tumor projection contours manually edited by an expert observer. The evaluation shows the feasibility of using this method for precise tracking of lung tumors with deformation, which is important for DMLC-based real-time tumor tracking.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 10/2007; 52(17):5277-93. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/52/17/012
  • Qianyi Xu, Russell J Hamilton
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a novel respiratory detection method based on diaphragm motion measurements using a 2D ultrasound unit. The proposed method extracts a respiratory signal from an automated analysis of the internal diaphragm motion during breathing. The respiratory signal may be used for gating. Ultrasound studies of diaphragm breathing motion were performed on four volunteers. The ultrasound video stream was captured and transferred to a personal computer and decomposed into individual image frames. After straightforward image analysis, region of interest selection, and filtering, the mutual information (MI) and correlation coefficients (CCs) between a selected reference frame and all other frames were computed. The resulting MI and CC values were discovered to produce a signal corresponding to the respiratory cycle in both phase and magnitude. We also studied the diaphragm motion of two volunteers during repeated deep inspiration breath holds (DIBH) and found a slight relaxation motion of the diaphragm during the DIBH, suggesting that the residual motion may be important for treatments delivered at this breathing phase. Applying the proposed respiratory detection method to these ultrasound studies, we found that the MI and CC values demonstrate the relaxation behavior, indicatingthat our method may be used to determine the radiation triggering time for a DIBH technique.
    Medical Physics 05/2006; 33(4):916-21. DOI:10.1118/1.2178451
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze regions of uptake in normal structures on postprostatectomy radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) images by evaluating differences in the overlap volumes of prostate fossa clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) using correlative computed tomography (CT) images. The electronic records of 13 patients who received external beam radiotherapy postprostatectomy and who underwent a vessel-based RIS/CT registration were reviewed. For each patient, the RIS-defined CTV (CTV(RIS)) was compared (in terms of the overlap volume with the surrounding bladder, rectum, pubic symphysis, and penile bulb) with the CT-defined CTV(pre) before this registration and also with CTV(post) (the final target volume used for treatment). Similar analyses were done for PTV(RIS), PTV(pre), and PTV(post) defined in each case to be the corresponding CTV + 1-cm margin. CTV(RIS) overlapped significantly more with the bladder, rectum, and symphysis, but not with the penile bulb, than did either the CTV(pre) or CTV(post). However, the corresponding PTV analyses revealed no significant differences between any of the overlap volumes of any of the PTVs with the bladder, rectum, and penile bulb, but did reveal a significant difference between the PTV(RIS) and PTV(post) overlap volumes with the symphysis compared with PTV(pre) overlap volumes with the symphysis. On RIS images, there appear to be areas of uptake in the bladder, rectum, and pubic symphysis but not the penile bulb; however, the dosimetric consequences of this uptake for radiation treatment planning are minimal on the bladder, rectum, and penile bulb, but require segmentation for dose reduction to the pubic symphysis.
    Clinical Nuclear Medicine 04/2006; 31(3):139-44. DOI:10.1097/01.rlu.0000200461.93250.a5
  • A. C. Turner, C. J. Watchman, R. J. Hamilton
    48th Annual Meeting of the; 01/2006
  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 10/2005; 63. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.07.869
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    Benjamin Armbruster, Russell J Hamilton, Arthur K Kuehl
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    ABSTRACT: There are three ways to determine the spectrum of a clinical photon beam: direct measurement, modelling the source and reconstruction from ion-chamber measurements. We focus on reconstruction because the necessary equipment is readily available and it provides independent confirmation of source models for a given machine. Reconstruction methods involve measuring the dose in an ion chamber after the beam passes through an attenuator. We gain information about the spectrum from measurements using attenuators of differing compositions and thicknesses since materials have energy dependent attenuation. Unlike the procedures used in other papers, we do not discretize or parametrize the spectrum. With either of these two approximations, reconstruction is a least squares problem. The forward problem of going from a spectrum to a series of dose measurements is a linear operator, with the composition and thickness of the attenuators as parameters. Hence the singular value decomposition (SVD) characterizes this operator. The right singular vectors form a basis for the spectrum, and, at first approximation, only those corresponding to singular values above a threshold are measurable. A more rigorous error analysis shows with what confidence different components of the spectrum can be measured. We illustrate this theory with simulations and an example utilizing six sets of dose measurements with water and lead as attenuators.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 12/2004; 49(22):5087-99. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/49/22/005
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    ABSTRACT: Our goal was to evaluate the role of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) directed against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in influencing postprostatectomy radiotherapy (RT) toxicity and biochemical control. The records of 107 postprostatectomy RT patients were reviewed. The group for whom no RIS scan was obtained (group A, n = 54) was identified as was the group for whom a RIS scan was obtained (group B, n = 53). Group B was further subdivided into those who had a RIS and CT-scan correlation to aid in treatment planning (subgroup B1, n = 40) versus those who did not (subgroup B2, n = 13). Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were reviewed for each of these groups and subgroups and compared. Biochemical failures (defined as 2 successive PSA rises after a nadir of >or=0.2 ng/mL) were identified to generate biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) curves for each of the groups and subgroups. No significant differences in late toxicity were observed between any group or subgroup. However, acute GI toxicity was higher in group B versus group A (P = 0.026), and acute GU toxicity was higher in subgroup B2 versus subgroup B1 (P = 0.050). Overall, most toxicity was grade 1 or 2; only one case of grade 3 toxicity and no cases of grade 4 or 5 toxicity were observed. Three-year BFFS was higher for group B versus group A (80.7% vs. 75.5%) and for subgroup B1 versus subgroup B2 (84.5% vs. 71.6%). On multivariate analysis of pretreatment (age, race), surgical/staging (stage, grade, margin status, extracapsular extension, lymph node status, seminal vesicle invasion, post-radical retropubic prostatectomy [RRP] prostate-specific antigen [PSA] nadir, maximum post-RRP PSA, and RRP-to-RT interval), and treatment (hormone therapy, RT dose, RT technique, RIS scan, and RIS/CT correlation) factors on BFFS, the only covariate reaching significance was RIS/CT correlation (P = 0.042). A small BFFS advantage was observed in patients for whom RIS was used to guide RT decision making and treatment planning; however, this advantage only reached significance in this study for those for whom the RIS/CT correlation was used to guide target definition. The improved PSA control using RIS was achieved with a small increase in acute toxicity but with no observed change in late toxicity. These findings can serve as the basis for prospective studies in this area of investigation.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2004; 45(8):1315-22.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) directed against prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in influencing postradical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) radiotherapy (RT) decision making. The records of consecutive patients who underwent RRP, who were referred for consideration of RT, and for whom an RIS scan was obtained were reviewed. The RT decisions, with regard to (a) the decision to offer RT and (b) the general volume to be treated [prostate fossa (PF) only versus PF + pelvis (P)] before knowledge of the RIS findings were charted. The RIS findings, with regard to uptake in the PF, uptake in the P, or extrapelvic (EP) uptake were tabulated. Then, the RT treatment decisions based on the RIS knowledge were evaluated and compared with the pre-RIS RT treatment decisions. Of the 54 patients originally referred for post-RRP RT, the initial decision was to recommend RT to the PF only in 52 cases and to PF+P in 2 cases. The RIS findings were as follows: PF only, 43 patients; PF+P, 8 patients; PF+EP, 2 patients; PF+P+EP, 1 patient. After knowledge of these RIS results, the decision to offer RT was withdrawn in 4 of 54 patients (7.4%; P = 0.046). Furthermore, RIS changed the general treatment volume (PF only to PF+P) in 6 of 54 patients (11.1%; P = 0.015). In total, RIS altered the RT decision in 10 of 54 patients (18.5%; P = 0.0067). Three-year biochemical failure-free survival (with failure defined as 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen [PSA] rises above 0.2 ng/mL after PSA nadir) was 78%; no patient, disease, or treatment factor reached statistical significance on univariate or multivariate analysis. RIS was found to influence post-RRP RT decision making for the identification of patients not likely to benefit from RT and for guiding general target volume definition.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2004; 45(4):571-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Quality of life is an important consideration in the treatment of early prostate cancer. Laboratory and clinical data suggest that higher radiation doses delivered to the bulb of penis and proximal penile structures correlates with higher rates of post-radiation impotence. The goal of this investigation was to determine if intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) spares dose to the penile bulb while maintaining coverage of the prostate. 10 consecutive patients with clinically organ confined prostate cancer were planned with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or IMRT to give a dose of 74 Gy without specifically constraining the plans to spare the penile bulb. All 10 patients were ultimately treated with IMRT. Dose-volume histograms were evaluated and the doses to prostate, rectum, bladder and penile bulb were compared. IMRT reduced the mean penile bulb doses compared with 3D-CRT (33.2 Gy vs 48.9 Gy, p<0.001), the percentage of penile bulb receiving over 40 Gy (37.7% vs 67.2%, p<0.001) and the dose received by >95% of penile bulb (5.3 Gy vs 11.7 Gy, p=0.003). Maximum penile bulb doses were higher with IMRT (81.2 Gy vs 73.1 Gy, p<0.001) although the volume of this high dose region was small. Both methods resulted in similar coverage of the prostate. The volume of rectum receiving 70 Gy was significantly reduced with IMRT (18.4% vs 21.9%, p=0.003) but the volumes of bladder receiving 70 Gy were similar (p=0.3). IMRT may potentially reduce long term sexual morbidity by reducing the dose to the majority of the penile bulb.
    British Journal of Radiology 02/2004; 77(914):129-36. DOI:10.1259/bjr/37893924
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) directed against prostate-specific membrane antigen in modifying postprostatectomy prostate fossa clinical target volume (CTV) definition. The records of 25 postprostatectomy patients who received external-beam radiotherapy after prostatectomy and who underwent vessel-based RIS/planning CT registration were reviewed. For each patient, the CTV that would have been treated (CTV(pre)) before this registration was compared with that defined after the registration (CTV(post)). In addition, using a standard dose of 66 Gy in 2-Gy fractions, the corresponding bladder and rectum dose volume histograms were compared using 2 endpoints: volume receiving > or =60 Gy (V60) and area under the curve (AUC). The mean CTV(pre) vs. CTV(post) volumes were 24.4 vs. 35.0 cm(3), respectively (P = 0.032). The V60 results for CTV(pre) and CTV(post) were 32.7 vs. 41.0 cm(3), respectively, for the rectum (P = 0.168) and 33.9 vs. 46.6 cm(3), respectively, for the bladder (P = 0.015). The AUC results for CTV(pre) and CTV(post) were 4,027 vs. 4,516 Gy x cm(3), respectively, for the rectum (P = 0.396) and 4,782 vs. 5,561, respectively, for the bladder (P = 0.119). No Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3, 4, or 5 (acute or late, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary) toxicity was observed. Two-year biochemical failure-free survival (with failure defined as 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen rises above 0.2ng/mL) was 87% for the cohort. Incorporating RIS uptake resulted in significant modifications in CTV definition. The consequences of these modifications on the rectum V60 or AUC or on the bladder AUC were not significant, although the bladder V60 did increase. However, observed toxicity was low, with acceptable short-term biochemical control, suggesting that treatment to the modified CTV was tolerable.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2004; 45(2):238-46.
  • The Cancer Journal 01/2003; 9(6). DOI:10.1097/00130404-200311000-00104
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the treatment protocol, in terms of dose fractions and interfraction intervals, which minimizes normal tissue complication probability in the spinal cord for a given total treatment dose and treatment time. We generalize the concept of incomplete repair in the linear-quadratic model, allowing for arbitrary dose fractions and interfraction intervals. This is incorporated into a previously presented model of normal tissue complication probability for the spinal cord. Equations are derived for both mono-exponential and bi-exponential repair schemes, regarding each dose fraction and interfraction interval as an independent parameter, subject to the constraints of fixed total treatment dose and treatment time. When the interfraction intervals are fixed and equal, an exact analytical solution is found. The general problem is nonlinear and is solved numerically using simulated annealing. For constant interfraction intervals and varying dose fractions, we find that optimal normal tissue complication probability is obtained by two large and equal doses at the start and conclusion of the treatment, with the rest of the doses equal to one another and smaller than the two dose spikes. A similar result is obtained for bi-exponential repair. For the general case where the interfraction intervals are discrete and also vary, the pattern of two large dose spikes is maintained, while the interfraction intervals oscillate between the smallest two values. As the minimum interfraction interval is reduced, the normal tissue complication probability decreases, indicating that the global minimum is achieved in the continuum limit, where the dose delivered by the "middle" fractions is given continuously at a low dose rate. Furthermore, for bi-exponential repair, it is seen that as the slow component of repair becomes increasingly dominant as the magnitude of the dose spikes decreases. Continuous low-dose-rate irradiation with dose spikes at the start and end of treatment yields the lowest normal tissue complication probability in the spinal cord, given a fixed total dose and total treatment time, for both mono-exponential and bi-exponential repair. The magnitudes of the dose spikes can be calculated analytically, and are in close agreement with the numerical results.
    Radiation Research 05/2001; 155(4):593-602. DOI:10.1667/0033-7587(2001)155[0593:AMFONT]2.0.CO;2

Publication Stats

589 Citations
131.85 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2011
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1995–2004
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1998
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1996–1998
    • University of Chicago
      • • Department of Radiation & Cellular Oncology
      • • Department of Radiology
      Chicago, IL, United States
    • Cook County Hospital
      • Division of Urology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States