[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
FAK localization to focal adhesions is essential for its activation and function. Localization of FAK is mediated through the C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain. Recent structural analyses have revealed two paxillin-binding sites in the FAT domain of FAK. To define the role of paxillin binding to each site on FAK, point mutations have been engineered to specifically disrupt paxillin binding to each docking site on the FAT domain of FAK individually or in combination.
These mutants have been characterized and reveal an important role for paxillin binding in FAK subcellular localization and signaling. One paxillin-binding site (comprised of α-helices 1 and 4 of the FAT domain) plays a more prominent role in localization than the other. Mutation of either paxillin-binding site has similar effects on FAK activation and downstream signaling. However, the sites aren't strictly redundant as each mutant exhibits phosphorylation/signaling defects distinct from wild type FAK and a mutant completely defective for paxillin binding.
The studies demonstrate that the two paxillin-binding sites of FAK are not redundant and that both sites are required for FAK function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, mediates integrin-based cell signaling by transferring signals regulating cell migration, adhesion, and survival from the extracellular matrix to the cytoplasm. Following autophosphorylation at tyrosine 397, FAK binds the Src homology 2 domains of Src and phosphoinositide 3-kinase, among several other possible binding partners. To further investigate the role of phosphorylated FAK in cell migration in situ, peptides comprising residues 391-406 of human FAK with caged phosphotyrosine 397 were synthesized. Although the caged phosphopeptides were stable to phosphatase activity, the free phosphopeptides showed a half-life of approximately 10-15 min in cell lysates. Migrating NBT-II cells (a rat bladder tumor cell line) were microinjected with the caged FAK peptide and locally photoactivated using a focused laser beam. The photoactivation of caged FAK peptide in 8-microm diameter spots over the cell body led to the temporary arrest of the leading edge migration within approximately 1 min of irradiation. In contrast, cell body migration was not inhibited. Microinjection of a non-caged phosphorylated tyrosine 397 FAK peptide into migrating NBT-II cells also led to lamellar arrest; however, this approach lacks the temporal control afforded by the caged phosphopeptides. Photoactivation of related phosphotyrosine peptides with altered sequences did not result in transient lamellar arrest. We hypothesize that the phosphorylated FAK peptide competes with the endogenous FAK for binding to FAK effectors including, but not limited to, Src and phosphoinositide 3-kinase, causing spatiotemporal misregulation and subsequent lamellar arrest.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2005; 280(23):22091-101. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is regulated by integrins. Upon activation, FAK generates signals that modulate crucial cell functions, including cell proliferation, migration, and survival. The C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT) sequence mediates localization of FAK to discrete regions in the cell called focal adhesions. Several binding partners for the FAT domain of FAK have been identified, including paxillin. We have determined the solution structure of the avian FAT domain in complex with a peptide mimicking the LD2 motif of paxillin by NMR spectroscopy. The FAT domain retains a similar fold to that found in the unliganded form when complexed to the paxillin-derived LD2 peptide, an antiparallel four-helix bundle. However, noticeable conformational changes were observed upon the LD2 peptide binding, especially the position of helix 4. Multiple lines of evidence, including the results obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry, intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects, mutagenesis, and protection from paramagnetic line broadening, support the existence of two distinct paxillin-binding sites on the opposite faces of the FAT domain. The structure of the FAT domain-LD2 complex was modeled using the program HADDOCK based on our solution structure of the LD2-bound FAT domain and mutagenesis data. Our model of the FAT domain-LD2 complex provides insight into the molecular basis of FAK-paxillin binding interactions, which will aid in understanding the role of paxillin in FAK targeting and signaling.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2004; 279(9):8441-51. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomineralization of the ferritin iron core involves a complex series of events in which H(2)O(2) is produced during iron oxidation by O(2) at a dinuclear centre, the 'ferroxidase site', located on the H-subunit of mammalian proteins. Rapid-freeze quench Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to probe the early events of iron oxidation and mineralization in recombinant human ferritin containing 24 H-subunits. The spectra reveal that a mu-1,2-peroxodiFe(III) intermediate (species P) with Mössbauer parameters delta (isomer shift)=0.58 mm/s and DeltaE(Q) (quadrupole splitting)=1.07 mm/s at 4.2 K is formed within 50 ms of mixing Fe(II) with the apoprotein. This intermediate accounts for almost all of the iron in the sample at 160 ms. It subsequently decays within 10 s to form a mu-oxodiFe(III)-protein complex (species D), which partially vacates the ferroxidase sites of the protein to generate Fe(III) clusters (species C) at a reaction time of 10 min. The intermediate peroxodiFe(III) complex does not decay under O(2)-limiting conditions, an observation suggesting inhibition of decay by unreacted Fe(II), or a possible role for O(2) in ferritin biomineralization in addition to that of direct oxidation of iron(II).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The process of yolk protein (YP) uptake by developing oocytes in Drosophila melanogaster has been investigated by immunofluorescent localization of the endocytosis proteins, clathrin, α-adaptin and the putative yolk protein receptor (YP receptor). Data suggests that YPs from the follicle cells are trafficked into the oocyte during early stages of vitellogenesis, and that hemolymph YPs are sequestered by nurse cells adjacent to the developing oocyte during late stages of vitellogenesis. Yolk proteins were immunolocalized to both follicle cells and nurse cells during these processes. Diapausing female Drosophila melanogaster undergo a pre-vitellogenic arrest of ovarian development associated with the absence of ovarian α-adaptin, clathrin and putative YP receptor. Diapause termination by transfer of whole animals from 11°C to 25°C, or by 20-hydroxyecdysone injection, results in the appearance of immunopositive material in the nurse cells for all three proteins between 12 h and 16 h post upshift and within four days of injection. Immunopositive material was not noted in the follicle cells during diapause termination. In vitro warming of diapausing ovaries, or incubation in the presence of 1 μM 20-hydroxyecdysone failed to initiate early vitellogenic development suggesting that diapause termination requires factor(s) external to the ovary. Western blotting analysis of extracts of 24 h post-eclosion wild type and ap56f females identified putative yolk protein receptor with a molecular weight of 208 kDa and clathrin with a molecular weight of 178 kDa.
Journal of insect physiology 08/2001; · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The juvenile hormones (JHs) have long been believed to be key elements of the regulation of vitellogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. This essential role for JH was challenged in Richard et al. (Journal of Insect Physiology 44 (1998)) in a novel model of the endocrine control of vitellogenesis. Further evidence supporting this proposed model and for understanding yolk protein (YP) production and uptake in JH-deficient conditions is presented here. Pre-vitellogenic diapause in the Canton-S strain was terminated within 4 days by the injection of 0.1 ng 20-hydroxyecdsyone; the application of 1 μg JH III failed to elicit a response suggesting once more that ecdysteroids may be the more important agent. Nevertheless, this dose of JH III did reverse the delay associated with the onset of reproductive development of the JH-deficient mutant ap56f in a manner consistent with the proposed role for JH of stimulating early YP synthesis by ovarian follicle cells. Similarly, JH III application to ap4 females also stimulated a degree of ovarian development. A high affinity JH III binding factor () in whole body extracts was quantified by equilibrium dialysis. Binding levels were greater in Canton-S females than in ap56f females though in ap56f binding could be stimulated within 18 h of eclosion by the application of 1 μg JH III. Ovaries from ap56f and Canton-S failed to produce any JH-like compounds. These data are discussed in the context of our model for the endocrine control of vitellogenesis in Drosophila.