K. Perraut

University of Grenoble, Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France

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Publications (113)232.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Stellar activity causes difficulties in the characterization of transiting exoplanets. Studies have been performed to quantify its impact on infrared interferometry, but not in the visible domain, which however allows reaching better angular resolution and is also the one mostly used for spectroscopic and photometric measurements. We use a textbook case to make a complete analysis of the impact of an exoplanet and a spot on interferometric observables and relate it to current instruments capabilities, taking into account realistic achievable precisions. We have built a numerical code called COMETS using analytical formulae to perform a simple comparison of exoplanets and spots' signals. We explore instrumental specificities needed to detect them, like the baseline length required, the accuracy and SNR. We also discuss the impact of exoplanets and spot's parameters on squared visibility and phase. We find that the main improvement to bring is the sensitivity of instruments. The accuracy on squared visibilities has to be improved by a factor 10 to detect an exoplanet of 0.1 mas, leading to $<0.5%$ precision, along with phase measurements of ~$5^{\deg}$ accuracy beyond the first null of visibility. For a 0.05 mas exoplanet, accuracies of ~$0.1%$ and ~$1^{\deg}$ from the first null are required on squared visibilities and phases, respectively. Magnetic spots can mimic these signals, leading to false exoplanet characterization. Phases measurements from the 3rd lobe is needed to disentangle between a spot and an exoplanet if they have the same radius. Increasing interferometers sensitivity, more objects will become common between interferometric targets and photometric ones. Furthermore, new missions like PLATO, CHEOPS or TESS will provide bright exoplanets host stars. Measurements will thus overlap and provide a better characterization of stellar activity and exoplanets.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: [..abridged.] We determined the fundamental properties of HD 140283 by obtaining new interferometric and spectroscopic measurements and combining them with photometry from the literature. The interferometric measurements were obtained using the visible interferometer VEGA on the CHARA array and we determined a 1D limb-darkened angular diameter of 0.353 +/- 0.013 milliarcseconds. Using photometry from the literature we derived the bolometric flux with two solutions: a zero-reddening one of Fbol = 3.890 +/- 0.066 1E-8 erg/s/cm2 and a solution with a maximum of Av = 0.1 mag, Fbol= 4.220 +/- 0.067 1E-8 erg/s/cm2. The interferometric Teff is thus 5534 +/- 103 K or 5647 +/- 105 K and its radius is R = 2.21 +/- 0.08 Rsol. Spectroscopic measurements of HD140283 were obtained using HARPS, NARVAL, and UVES and a 1D LTE analysis of H-alpha line wings yields Teff(Halpha) = 5626 +/- 75 K. Using fine-tuned stellar models including diffusion of elements we then determined the mass M and age t of HD140283. Once the metallicity has been fixed, the age of the star depends on M, initial helium abundance Yi and mixing-length parameter alpha, only two of which are independent. We need to adjust alpha to much lower values than the solar one (~2) in order to fit the observations, and if Av = 0.0 mag then 0.5 < alpha < 1. We give an equation to estimate t from M, Yi (alpha) and Av. Establishing a reference alpha = 1.00 and adopting Yi = 0.245 we derive a mass and age of HD140283: M = 0.780 +/- 0.010 Msol and t = 13.7 +/- 0.7 Gyr (Av = 0.0) or M = 0.805 +/- 0.010 Msol and t = 12.2 +/- 0.6 Gyr (Av=0.1 mag). Our stellar models yield an initial metallicity of [Z/X]i = -1.70 and logg = 3.65 +/- 0.03. Asteroseismic observations are critical for overcoming limitations in our results.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: HD 50138 is a B[e] star surrounded by a large amount of circumstellar gas and dust. Its spectrum shows characteristics which may indicate either a pre- or a post-main-sequence system. Mapping the kinematics of the gas in the inner few au of the system contributes to a better understanding of its physical nature. We present the first high spatial and spectral resolution interferometric observations of the Br-gamma line of HD~50138, obtained with VLTI/AMBER. The line emission originates from a region more compact (up to 3 au) than the continuum-emitting region. Blue- and red-shifted emission originates from the two different hemispheres of an elongated structure perpendicular to the polarization angle. The velocity of the emitting medium decreases radially. An overall offset along the NW direction between the line- and continuum-emitting regions is observed. We compare the data with a geometric model of a thin Keplerian disk and a spherical halo on top of a Gaussian continuum. Most of the data are well reproduced by this model, except for the variability, the global offset and the visibility at the systemic velocity. The evolutionary state of the system is discussed; most diagnostics are ambiguous and may point either to a post-main-sequence or a pre-main-sequence nature.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to improve the SBC relation for early-type stars in the $-1 \leq V-K \leq 0$ color domain, using optical interferometry. Observations of eight B- and A-type stars were secured with the VEGA/CHARA instrument in the visible. The derived uniform disc angular diameters were converted into limb darkened angular diameters and included in a larger sample of twenty four stars, already observed by interferometry, in order to derive a revised empirical relation for O, B, A spectral type stars with a V-K color index ranging from -1 to 0. We also take the opportunity to check the consistency of the SBC relation up to $V-K \simeq 4$ using 100 additional measurements. We determined the uniform disc angular diameter for the eight following stars: $\gamma$ Ori, $\zeta$ Per, $8$ Cyg, $\iota$ Her, $\lambda$ Aql, $\zeta$ Peg, $\gamma$ Lyr and $\delta$ Cyg with V-K color ranging from -0.70 to 0.02 and typical precision of about $1.5\%$. Using our total sample of 132 stars with $V-K$ colors index ranging from about $-1$ to $4$, we provide a revised SBC relation. For late-type stars ($0 \leq V-K \leq 4$), the results are consistent with previous studies. For early-type stars ($-1 \leq V-K \leq 0$), our new VEGA/CHARA measurements combined with a careful selection of the stars (rejecting stars with environment or stars with a strong variability), allows us to reach an unprecedented precision of about 0.16 magnitude or $\simeq 7\%$ in term of angular diameter.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The structure of the inner disk of Herbig Be stars is not well understood. The continuum disks of several Herbig Be stars have inner radii that are smaller than predicted by models of irradiated disks with optically thin holes. Aims: We study the size of the inner disk of the Herbig B[e] star HD 85567 and compare the model radii with the radius suggested by the size-luminosity relation. Methods: The object was observed with the AMBER instrument of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. We obtained K-band visibilities and closure phases. These measurements are interpreted with geometric models and temperature-gradient models. Results: Using several types of geometric star-disk and star-disk-halo models, we derived inner ring-fit radii in the K band that are in the range of 0.8 - 1.6 AU. Additional temperature-gradient modeling resulted in an extended disk with an inner radius of $0.67^{+0.51}_{-0.21}$ AU, a high inner temperature of $2200^{+750}_{-350}$ K, and a disk inclination of $53^{+15}_{-11}$$^\circ$. Conclusions: The derived geometric ring-fit radii are approximately 3 - 5 times smaller than that predicted by the size-luminosity relation. The small geometric and temperature-gradient radii suggest optically thick gaseous material that absorbs stellar radiation inside the dust disk.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2014; 569. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present in this paper the design and characterisation of a new sub-system of the VLTI 2nd generation instrument GRAVITY: the Calibration Unit. The Calibration Unit provides all functions to test and calibrate the beam combiner instrument: it creates two artificial stars on four beams, and dispose of four delay lines with an internal metrology. It also includes artificial stars for the tip-tilt and pupil guiding systems, as well as four metrology pick-up diodes, for tests and calibration of the corresponding sub-systems. The calibration unit also hosts the reference targets to align GRAVITY to the VLTI, and the safety shutters to avoid the metrology light to propagate in the VLTI-lab. We present the results of the characterisation and validtion of these differrent sub-units.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: GRAVITY is the second generation VLT Interferometer (VLTI) instrument for high-precision narrow-angle astrometry and phase-referenced interferometric imaging. The laser metrology system of GRAVITY is at the heart of its astrometric mode, which must measure the distance of 2 stars with a precision of 10 micro-arcseconds. This means the metrology has to measure the optical path difference between the two beam combiners of GRAVITY to a level of 5 nm. The metrology design presents some non-common paths that have consequently to be stable at a level of 1 nm. Otherwise they would impact the performance of GRAVITY. The various tests we made in the past on the prototype give us hints on the components responsible for this error, and on their respective contribution to the total error. It is however difficult to assess their exact origin from only OPD measurements, and therefore, to propose a solution to this problem. In this paper, we present the results of a semi-empirical modeling of the fibered metrology system, relying on theoretical basis, as well as on characterisations of key components. The modeling of the metrology system regarding various effects, e.g., temperature, waveguide heating or mechanical stress, will help us to understand how the metrology behave. The goals of this modeling are to 1) model the test set-ups and reproduce the measurements (as a validation of the modeling), 2) determine the origin of the non-common path errors, and 3) propose modifications to the current metrology design to reach the required 1nm stability.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The GRAVITY acquisition camera has four 9x9 Shack-Hartmann sensors operating in the near-infrared. It measures the slow variations of a quasi-distorted wavefront of four telescope beams simultaneously, by imaging the Galactic Center field. The Shack-Hartmann lenslet images of the Galactic Center are generated. Since the lenslet array images are filled with the crowded Galactic Center stellar field, an extended object, the local shifts of the distorted wavefront have to be estimated with a correlation algorithm. In this paper we report on the accuracy of six existing centroid algorithms for the Galactic Center stellar field. We show the VLTI tunnel atmospheric turbulence phases are reconstructed back with a precision of 100 nm at 2 s integration. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
    SPIE 9148, Adaptive Optics Systems IV, Montréal, Quebec, Canada; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The acquisition camera for the GRAVITY/VLTI instrument implements four functions: a) field imager: science field imaging, tip-tilt; b) pupil tracker: telescope pupil lateral and longitudinal positions; c) pupil imager: telescope pupil imaging and d) aberration sensor: The VLTI beam higher order aberrations measurement. We present the dedicated algorithms that simulate the GRAVITY acquisition camera detector measurements considering the realistic imaging conditions, complemented by the pipeline used to extract the data. The data reduction procedure was tested with real aberrations at the VLTI lab and reconstructed back accurately. The acquisition camera software undertakes the measurements simultaneously for all four AT/UTs in 1 s. The measured parameters are updated in the instrument online database. The data reduction software uses the ESO Common Library for Image Processing (CLIP), integrated in to the ESO VLT software environment.
    SPIE 9146, Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV, Montréal, Quebec, Canada; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The GRAVITY Acquisition Camera was designed to monitor and evaluate the optical beam properties of the four ESO/VLT telescopes simultaneously. The data is used as part of the GRAVITY beam stabilization strategy. Internally the Acquisition Camera has four channels each with: several relay mirrors, imaging lens, H-band filter, a single custom made silica bulk optics (i.e. Beam Analyzer) and an IR detector (HAWAII2-RG). The camera operates in vacuum with operational temperature of: 240k for the folding optics and enclosure, 100K for the Beam Analyzer optics and 80K for the detector. The beam analysis is carried out by the Beam Analyzer, which is a compact assembly of fused silica prisms and lenses that are glued together into a single optical block. The beam analyzer handles the four telescope beams and splits the light from the field mode into the pupil imager, the aberration sensor and the pupil tracker modes. The complex optical alignment and focusing was carried out first at room temperature with visible light, using an optical theodolite/alignment telescope, cross hairs, beam splitter mirrors and optical path compensator. The alignment was validated at cryogenic temperatures. High Strehl ratios were achieved at the first cooldown. In the paper we present the Acquisition Camera as manufactured, focusing key sub-systems and key technical challenges, the room temperature (with visible light) alignment and first IR images acquired in cryogenic operation.
    SPIE 9146, Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV, Montréal, Quebec, Canada; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Pionier is a guest instrument, the first four-telescope recombiner at ESO's VLTI. We discuss salient design features and illustrate selected scientific results from the first 2 1/2 years of operation.
    03/2014;
  • M. S. Cunha, K. Perraut
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    ABSTRACT: Chemically peculiar stars are stage to a wide variety of physical phenomena, including diffusion, convection, magnetism and pulsation. Progress in the understanding of these objects, through the study of their oscillations, can help us to characterize these physical phenomena and better understand the way they are coupled in stars. A number of chemically peculiar A-type stars, known as rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars, have been known to exhibit high frequency oscillations since the early 80s. Despite this, the mechanism responsible for driving these oscillations is not fully understood. Currently, the most widely accepted theory states that oscillations in this class of pulsators are excited by the opacity mechanism acting on the hydrogen ionization region, in an envelope where convection has been suppressed by a strong magnetic field. Nevertheless, this theory fails to correctly predict some of the observations for this class of pulsators. In this paper we briefly review the current status of understanding of the driving of pulsations in roAp stars. In particular, we shall emphasize the comparison between predictions of nonadiabatic models of roAp stars with observations of a subset of pulsators of this class for which stringent data on global parameters are available.
    EAS Publications Series 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Owing to the strong magnetic field and related abnormal surface layers existing in rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars, systematic errors are likely to be present when determining their effective temperatures, which potentially compromises asteroseismic studies of this class of pulsators. Aims: Using the unique angular resolution provided by long-baseline visible interferometry, our goal is to determine accurate angular diameters of a number of roAp targets, so as to derive unbiased effective temperatures (Teff) and provide a Teff calibration for these stars. Methods: We obtained long-baseline interferometric observations of 10 Aql with the visible spectrograph VEGA at the combined focus of the CHARA array. We derived the limb-darkened diameter of this roAp star from our visibility measurements. Based on photometric and spectroscopic data available in the literature, we estimated the star's bolometric flux and used it, in combination with its parallax and angular diameter, to determine the star's luminosity and effective temperature. Results: We determined a limb-darkened angular diameter of 0.275 ± 0.009 mas and deduced a linear radius of R = 2.32 ± 0.09 R⊙. For the bolometric flux we considered two datasets, leading to an effective temperature of Teff = 7800 ± 170 K and a luminosity of L/L⊙ = 18 ± 1 or Teff = 8000 ± 210 K and L/L⊙ = 19 ± 2. Finally we used these fundamental parameters together with the large frequency separation determined by asteroseismic observations to constrain the mass and the age of 10 Aql, using the CESAM stellar evolution code. Assuming a solar chemical composition and ignoring all kinds of diffusion and settling of elements, we obtained a mass M/M⊙ ~ 1.92 and an age of ~780 Gy or a mass M/M⊙ ~ 1.95 and an age of ~740 Gy, depending on the derived value of the bolometric flux. Conclusions: For the first time, thanks to the unique capabilities of VEGA, we managed to determine an accurate angular diameter for a star smaller than 0.3 mas and to derive its fundamental parameters. In particular, by only combining our interferometric data and the bolometric flux, we derived an effective temperature that can be compared to those derived from atmosphere models. Such fundamental parameters can help for testing the mechanism responsible for the excitation of the oscillations observed in the magnetic pulsating stars. Based on observations made with the VEGA/CHARA spectro-interferometer.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapidly oscillating Ap stars are unique objects in the potential they offer to study the interplay between a number of important physical phenomena, in particular, pulsations, magnetic fields, diffusion, and convection. Nevertheless, the simple understanding of how the observed pulsations are excited in these stars is still in progress. In this work we perform a test to what is possibly the most widely accepted excitation theory for this class of stellar pulsators. The test is based on the study of a subset of members of this class for which stringent data on the fundamental parameters are available thanks to interferometry. For three out of the four stars considered in this study, we find that linear, non-adiabatic models with envelope convection suppressed around the magnetic poles can reproduce well the frequency region where oscillations are observed. For the fourth star in our sample no agreement is found, indicating that a new excitation mechanism must be considered. For the three stars whose observed frequencies can be explained by the excitation models under discussion, we derive the minimum angular extent of the region where convection must be suppressed. Finally, we find that the frequency regions where modes are expected to be excited in these models is very sensitive to the stellar radius. This opens the interesting possibility of determining this quantity and related ones, such as the effective temperature or luminosity, from comparison between model predictions and observations, in other targets for which these parameters are not well determined.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; 436(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. When a given observational quantity depends on several stellar physical parameters, it is generally very difficult to obtain observational constraints for each of them individually. Therefore, we studied under which conditions constraints for some individual parameters can be achieved for fast rotators, knowing that their geometry is modified by the rapid rotation which causes a non-uniform surface brightness distribution. Aims: We aim to study the sensitivity of interferometric observables on the position angle of the rotation axis (PA) of a rapidly rotating star, and whether other physical parameters can influence the determination of PA, and also the influence of the surface differential rotation on the determination of the β exponent in the gravity darkening law that enters the interpretation of interferometric observations, using α Cep as a test star. Methods: We used differential phases obtained from observations carried out in the Hα absorption line of α Cep with the VEGA/CHARA interferometer at high spectral resolution, R = 30 000 to study the kinematics in the atmosphere of the star. Results: We studied the influence of the gravity darkening effect (GDE) on the determination of the PA of the rotation axis of α Cep and determined its value, PA = -157-10°+17°. We conclude that the GDE has a weak influence on the dispersed phases. We showed that the surface differential rotation can have a rather strong influence on the determination of the gravity darkening exponent. A new method of determining the inclination angle of the stellar rotational axis is suggested. We conclude that differential phases obtained with spectro-interferometry carried out on the Hα line can in principle lead to an estimate of the stellar inclination angle i. However, to determine both i and the differential rotation parameter α, lines free from the Stark effect and that have collision-dominated source functions are to be preferred.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Young close binaries clear central cavities in their surrounding circumbinary disk from which the stars can still accrete material. This process takes place within the very first astronomical units, and is still not well constrained as the observational evidence has been gathered, until now, only by means of spectroscopy. The young object HD200775 (MWC361) is a massive spectroscopic binary (separation of ~15.9mas, ~5.0~AU), with uncertain classification (early/late Be), that shows a strong and variable Halpha emission. We aim to study the mechanisms that produce the Halpha line at the AU-scale. Combining the radial velocity measurements and astrometric data available in the literature, we determined new orbital parameters. With the VEGA instrument on the CHARA array, we spatially and spectrally resolved the Halpha emission of HD200775, at low and medium spectral resolutions (R~1600 and 5000) over a full orbital period (~3.6 years). We observe that the Halpha equivalent width varies with the orbital phase, and increases close to periastron, as expected from theoretical models that predict an increase of the mass transfer from the circumbinary disk to the primary disk. In addition, using spectral visibilities and differential phases, we find marginal variations of the typical extent of the Halpha emission (at 1 to 2-sigma level) and location (at 1 to 5-sigma level). The spatial extent of the Halpha emission, as probed by a Gaussian FWHM, is minimum at the ascending node (0.67+/-0.20 mas, i.e., 0.22+/-0.06 AU), and more than doubles at periastron. In addition, the Gaussian photocenter is slightly displaced in the direction opposite to the secondary, ruling out the scenario in which all or most of the Halpha emission is due to accretion onto the secondary. These findings, together with the wide Halpha line profile, may be due to a non-spherical wind enhanced at periastron.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: We study the inner sub-AU region of the circumstellar environment of the UX Ori-type star KK Oph with near-infrared VLTI/AMBER interferometry. We are particularly interested in the inclination of the star-disk system, and we use this information to test the current standard picture for UX Ori stars. Methods: We recorded spectrally dispersed (R ~ 35) interferograms in the near-infrared H and K bands with the VLTI/AMBER instrument. The derived visibilities, closure phases, and the spectral energy distribution of KK Oph were compared with two-dimensional geometric and radiative transfer models (RADMC). Results: We obtained visibilities at four different position angles. Using two-dimensional geometric models, we derive an axis ratio ~3.0 corresponding to an inclination of ~70°. A fitted inclined ring model leads to a ring radius of 2.8 ± 0.2 mas, corresponding to 0.44 ± 0.03 AU at a distance of 160 pc, which is larger than the dust sublimation radius of ~0.1 AU predicted for a dust sublimation temperature of 1500 K. Our derived two-dimensional RADMC model consists of a circumstellar disk with an inclination angle of ~70° and an additional dust envelope. Conclusions: The finding of an ~70° inclined disk around KK Oph is consistent with the prediction that UX Ori objects are seen under large inclination angles, and orbiting clouds in the line of sight cause the observed variability. Furthermore, our results suggest that the orbit of the companion KK Oph B and the disk plane are coplanar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program ID: 083.D-0224(C) and 088.C-0575(A).
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2013; 551:A21. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: aa5408-06
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    ABSTRACT: VEGA/CHARA is a visible spectro-interferometer installed on the CHARA Array at Mount Wilson Observatory. Combining high spectral resolution (6,000 or 30,000) and high angular resolution (0.3 mas), VEGA/CHARA opens a wide class of astrophysical topics in the stellar physics domain. Circumstellar environments and fundamental parameters with a high precision could be studied. We will present a review of recent results and discuss the programs currently engaged in the field of pulsating stars and more generally for the fundamental stellar parameters. Details could be found at http://www-n.oca.eu/vega/en/publications/index.htm.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed observations of three exoplanet host stars using the VEGA interferometer, located on the CHARA array (Mount Wilson, CA): 14 And, υ And and 42 Dra. The data collected allow to estimate accurate fundamental parameters and exoplanets masses, which bring new reference values. Contrary to them, the fourth star we observed, θ Cygni, shows unexplained variabilities when we apply a model of limb-darkened diameter. This star is already suspected to have a quasi-periodic radial velocity of ˜ 150 days, detected by SOPHIE/ELODIE on the OHP, that no known stellar variations mode can explain. Kepler observations also revealed solar-like oscillations, and γ Dor pulsations have also been suspected for this star. We propose a binary model that could explain these variabilities. The best solution decreases the χ_{reduced}^{2} for half of VEGA data and corresponds to a companion with 15% of flux, and a distance to the primary star ρ included between 17.6 and 26.9 mas. For the CHARA/CLASSIC data, the best solution gives a flux ratio of ˜ 7 % and a ρ of ˜ 25 mas that decreases the χ_{reduced}^{2} by a factor 2.
    12/2012;

Publication Stats

646 Citations
232.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Grenoble
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2011
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut de recherche en astrophysique et planétologie (IRAP)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 2005–2010
    • University Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2008
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, MA, United States