[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter concentrates on experimental techniques currently used to investigate nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest.
After a brief introduction, I shall present the basic quantities and equations governing thermonuclear reaction rates in stellar
plasma. The various astrophysical scenarios, from hydrostatic to advanced burning stages up to/and including explosive mechanisms,
as well as some key reactions, are briefly presented. I will concentrate on the experimental approaches to study nuclear reactions
involved in both quiescent and explosive stellar burning. Particular emphasis is given to the use of radioactive ion beams
and their importance for characterizing explosive nucleosynthesis in novae and X-ray bursts. A few recent examples will be
shown in more detail to illustrate these techniques. Some key open questions will be discussed in the context of future facilities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear astrophysics has revealed as one of the most exciting areas of interdisciplinary research, in the crossroads of nuclear physics, astrophysics and astronomy. As a driving force for the development of the very first Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) Facilities, it remains a fundamental research area in many European laboratories and is one of the key research topics in future RIB Facilities in Europe. Coupled to these innovative experimental efforts are substantial communities of theorists, astrophysicists and observational astronomers. Input from all of these sectors is necessary to achieve realistic modeling of stellar environments, the ultimate aim being a thorough understanding of the abundance and evolution of the elements and of the processes of energy generation in the Universe. Within the EURONS project (2005-2008), the CARINA network intends to provide coher-ence to the research activities in nuclear astrophysics in Europe. The main objetives and ac-tivities of this network are presented here.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Explosive stellar environments such as novae and X-ray bursts are currently among the most exciting topics in nuclear astrophysics. Reactions on unstable nuclei play a crucial role in energy generation and nucleosynthesis due to the high temperatures and short reaction time scales in these events, but substantial uncertainties exist in nuclear reaction rates on unstable nuclei resulting from limited experimental data. In recent years some remarkable developments in radioactive ion beam production and experimental techniques have allowed many key reaction rates to be experimentally determined with reasonable accuracy for the first time. In this paper we review experimental methods that have recently been exploited to study reactions important in explosive binaries, highlight some key examples of recent results, and outline remaining experimental challenges.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We use the R-matrix theory to fit low-energy data on nuclear reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Special attention is paid to the rate uncertainties which are evaluated on statistical grounds. We provide S factors and reaction rates in tabular and graphical formats.
Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 09/2004; · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From the observations of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the WMAP satellite has provided a determination of the baryonic density of the Universe, \Omega_b.h^2, with an unprecedented precision. This imposes a careful reanalysis of the standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (SBBN) calculations. We have updated our previous calculations using thermonuclear reaction rates provided by a new analysis of experimental nuclear data constrained by $R$-matrix theory. Combining these BBN results with the \Omega_b.h^2 value from WMAP, we deduce the light element (4He, D, 3He and 7Li) primordial abundances and compare them with spectroscopic observations. There is a very good agreement with deuterium observed in cosmological clouds, which strengthens the confidence on the estimated baryonic density of the Universe. However, there is an important discrepancy between the deduced 7Li abundance and the one observed in halo stars of our Galaxy, supposed, until now, to represent the primordial abundance of this isotope. The origin of this discrepancy, observational, nuclear or more fundamental remains to be clarified. The possible role of the up to now neglected 7Be(d,p)2\alpha and 7Be(d,\alpha)5Li reactions is considered. Comment: Invited contribution to the Origin of Matter and Evolution of the Galaxies (OMEG03) conference, RIKEN, Japan. Proceedings to appear in World Scientific