Philippe Hennig

Institut de France, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (10)38.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Quinone reductase 2 (QR2, E.C. 1.10.99.2) is implicated in cell reactive oxygen species production. The catalytic activity of this enzyme is inhibited by 1 microM of melatonin. QR2 was identified as the third melatonin binding site (MT3). It is of major importance to understand the exact roles of melatonin and QR2 in oxidative stress. A fascinating possibility that melatonin could serve as a co-substrate or substrate of QR2 was hypothesized recently. In the current investigation, nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the QR2 catalytic reaction were performed, the results led us to conclude that, whatever the conditions, melatonin is not cleaved off to form N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynurenine by a catalytically active QR2, very strongly indicating that melatonin is neither a substrate nor a co-substrate of this enzyme. Further studies are needed in order to better understand the relationship between MT3/QR2, melatonin and redox status of the cells, in order to better explain the anti-oxidant activities of melatonin at pharmacological concentrations (>1 microM).
    Journal of Pineal Research 10/2008; 45(4):524-31. · 7.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin is synthesized by an enzymatic pathway, in which arylalkylamine (serotonin) N-acetyltransferase catalyzes the rate-limiting step. A previous study reported the discovery of bromoacetyltryptamine (BAT), a new type of inhibitor of this enzyme. This compound is the precursor of a potent bifunctional inhibitor (analogue of the transition state), capable of interfering with both the substrate and the cosubstrate binding sites. This inhibitor is biosynthesized by the enzyme itself in the presence of free coenzyme A. In the present report, we describe the potency of new N-halogenoacetyl derivatives leading to a strong in situ inhibition of serotonin N-acetyltransferase. The new concept behind the mechanism of action of these precursors was studied by following the biosynthesis of the inhibitor from tritiated-BAT in a living cell. The fate of tritiated-phenylethylamine (PEA), a natural substrate of the enzyme, in the presence or absence of [(3)H]BAT was also followed, leading to their incorporation into the reaction product or the inhibitor (N-acetyl[(3)H]PEA and coenzyme A-S[(3)H]acetyltryptamine, respectively). The biosynthesis of this bifunctional inhibitor derived from BAT was also followed by nuclear magnetic resonance during its catalytic production by the pure enzyme. In a similar manner we studied the production of another inhibitor generated from N-[2-(7-hydroxynaphth-1-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide. New derivatives were also screened for their capacity to inhibit a purified enzyme, in addition to enzyme overexpressed in a cellular model. Some of these compounds proved to be extremely potent, with IC(50)s of approximately 30 nM. As these compounds, by definition, closely resemble the natural substrates of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, we also show that they are potent ligands at the melatonin receptors. Nevertheless, these inhibitors form a series of pharmacological tools that could be used to understand more closely the inhibition of pineal melatonin production in vivo.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 02/2004; 271(2):418-28. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of a series of cyclopentane carboxylic acid matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors are described. Potent and specific MMP-2, -3, -9, -13 inhibitors were obtained by regio- and stereoselective substitutions at positions 2 and 5 on the cyclopentane ring. Compounds 2a and 2e are active in the mouse B16-F10 metastasis model and display very good pharmacokinetic parameters.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2003; 46(18):3840-52. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases are zinc metalloenzymes involved in remodelling of the extracellular matrix. We compared the anti-invasive properties of a zinc ejector matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor with those of reference compounds (hydroxamic acid-based BB-94 and Ro-31-9790) which form inactive ternary complexes with the enzymes and the catalytic zinc. We show that the compound undecadenedioic acid bis-{[2-(3H-imidazol-4-yl)-ethyl]-amide} (S 30372) is active against gelatinases, chelates zinc and exhibits enzymatic features compatible with the potential to extract zinc from gelatinases. We then used five invasive cell lines in the Matrigel invasion chamber assay (NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, Lewis lung carcinoma cells, EJ138 and J82 bladder carcinoma and HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells). With the exception of J82 cells which were unaffected by the three inhibitors, all remaining cells were substantially more sensitive to S 30372 in terms of maximal inhibition of invasion attained. This suggests that matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors with zinc chelating/ejecting properties may be more efficient in preventing tumor progression.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 07/1998; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report here on the synthesis and pharmacological properties of a new series of small linear and cyclic peptides derived from the five C-terminal amino acid residues of second-generation bradykinin receptor antagonists. Variations of the two first residues of the pentapeptide (Thi-Ser-D-Tic-Oic-Arg) were shown to modulate the biological activities of the analogs on bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contractions in rabbit jugular vein (RJV), a tissue preparation specific of the B2 bradykinin receptor. Several analogs showed pA2 values around 7 on this tissue preparation, and one cyclic compound, c[-Gly-Thi-D-Tic-Oic-Arg-], 24, in which Thi-Ser was replaced by Gly-Thi, displayed a pA2 of 7.4 on RJV. On the basis of these results, three cyclic molecules and their linear counterparts (compounds 22-24 and 4-6, respectively) were tested on human umbilical vein, a tissue specific of the human B2 receptor. The pKB values obtained for these compounds on these tissue preparations were equivalent to those obtained for the decapeptide NPC 567 (4.8 < pA2 < 5.1). NMR and molecular modeling studies performed on compound 24 clearly demonstrated a type II' beta-turn structure. This analog may serve as a new lead for the design of nonpeptide ligands of the bradykinin B2 receptor subtype.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/1996; 39(10):2095-101. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The conformation in dimethylsulfoxide of the somatostatin derivative angiopeptin and of three disulfide-free analogs was estimated by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at room temperature. The resulting 3D molecular graphics were compared and shown to reflect the observed differences in the inhibition of restenosis after rat aorta balloon injury by these octapeptide inhibitors. Angiopeptin and its active analog 2 displayed a relatively rigid conformation of the cyclic hexapeptide backbone due to the presence of two well-defined hydrogen bonds, further stabilized by a third hydrogen bond outside the ring. No such constraints were detected for the two biologically inactive analogs, which, compared to 2, had a two-atom longer or shorter hexapeptide ring. The well-defined structure of compound 2 may serve as an improved pharmacophore for this new class of drugs.
    Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 03/1996; 10(1):83-6. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Combinatorial peptide libraries are a new source of compounds from which a large number of pharmacological leads will emerge in the next few years. A large body of literature shows that this approach is of considerable interest in many areas of biological sciences for the search of enzyme substrates and inhibitors, of receptor agonists or antagonists, or of antigen sequences. Nevertheless, the analytical investigation of such complex mixtures as libraries which contain up to millions of individual molecules is still poorly documented. In this work, we present analytical solutions for their characterization. NMR and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can provide an in deep description of any type of combinatorial libraries, while MS and high-performance capillary electrophoresis can bring a rapid and overall information at the routine level, sufficient to ensure a first assessment of their composition. MS in the fast atom bombardment mode was used to describe the libraries O1X2X3X4X5 or O1X2X3X4 (Oi and Xi are fixed and random residue in position i, respectively). Advantage was taken of the high proton affinity of arginine and of its induction of charge remote fragmentation to interpret the MS spectra of whole libraries and neutral losses (MS/MS) in the model sublibraries ArgGlyX3X4 and NipValX3X4 (Nip,4-nitrophenylalanine). Two-dimensional NMR allowed the incorporation of the individual residues during synthesis to be tested in 24 sublibraries O1X2X3X4. While from the pharmacological point of view, impressive discoveries made with combinatorial peptide libraries have already been reported, our results show that they should be complemented by appropriate analytical tools, crucial for the proper characterization and exploitation of these libraries.
    Analytical Biochemistry 03/1996; 234(2):126-41. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The four diastereoisomers of cyclothiazide have been separated by chromatography. The most potent fraction was split further into two enantiomers by chiral HPLC. The most active isomer is five times more potent than cyclothiazide in potentiating AMPA transmission in rat cortex mRNA injected Xenopus oocytes.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 08/1994; 4(16):1957-1960. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhodium acetate-catalysed decomposition of 1-diazo-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)butan-2-one 8 leads, after rearrangement under acidic conditions, to 5-methoxy-2-tetralone 13 and not to 8-methoxy-2tetralone 10 as reported.
    Journal of the Chemical Society Perkin Transactions 1 01/1993; · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flavonoids form an important family of compounds widely present in plants and therefore in food, sometimes as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. Although the excretion routes of flavonoids in animals has been explored, little is known about the details of their conjugation in the xenobiotic metabolism pathway. In this study, we investigate the metabolism of diosmetin as a model compound in the rat, particularly its level in blood after treatment (100 mg/kg, po) and the presence of its glucuronide(s) in both blood and urine. We demonstrate that after po treatment of the rat, a rapid glucuronidation takes place and that diosmetin circulates as glucuronides, whereas no free diosmetin is present in blood and urine. The glucuronides formed are present in the blood plasma at a high level (approximately 10 micrograms/ml), for at least 6 hr after the treatment and the conjugates are excreted in urine. We have detected four different glucuronides in blood and characterized the two major ones after purification by a combination of MS, NMR, and UV spectroscopy: diosmetin-7,3'-diglucuronide and diosmetin-3'-glucuronide. A brief characterization of the in vitro glucuronidation of some flavonoid compounds using liver microsomal preparations suggests that this important class of natural compounds might be conjugated by a specific isoform of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Thus, this work brings evidence that diosmetin is rapidly glucuronoconjugated in the rat and provides an explanation for the low po bioavailability of the unchanged compound that can be generalized to this important class of natural compounds.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 21(6):1157-66. · 3.36 Impact Factor