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Publications (8)11.79 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current doses arising from external and internal pathways have been estimated for the residents of two villages, Muslumovo and Brodokalmak, alongside the Techa River, which was contaminated by radioactive releases from the Mayak production facility. The dose estimates are based on numerous environmental measurements supplemented by further human whole body measurements and studies on occupational and dietary habits of Slavic and Turkish ethnic groups. Estimated doses arise mainly from use of the contaminated floodplains alongside the Techa River. The current average annual effective dose attributable to Cs and Sr in the environment, under conditions where restrictions on some river-related activities are in place, may exceed the Russian national action level of 1 mSv only in the hypothetical critical group of herdsmen in Muslumovo. The dose to this critical group in Brodokalmak is assessed to be 3 times less than that in Muslumovo and 2 fold below the action level. The external and internal exposures give comparable contributions to the total dose in both settlements and population groups: 47% and 53% in Muslumovo and 40% and 60% in Brodokalmak, respectively. About one quarter to one half of the internal dose in adults arises from the intake of Sr. In order to avoid substantial increases in the dose received by Muslumovo residents, it is expedient to prolong the current policy of restriction of some river-related population activities in this village.
    Health Physics 03/2007; 92(2):134-47. DOI:10.1097/01.HP.0000237599.92479.09 · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vertical distributions of 137Cs have been determined in vegetation-soil cores obtained from 30 different locations around two underground nuclear explosion sites--"Crystal" (event year - 1974) and "Kraton-3" (event year - 1978) in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. In 2001-2002, background levels of 137Cs surface contamination densities on control forest plots varied from 0.73 to 0.97 kBq m(-2) with an average of 0.84+/-0.10 kBq m(-2) and a median of 0.82 kBq m(-2). 137Cs ground contamination densities at the "Crystal" site ranged from 1.3 to 64 kBq m(-2); the activity gradually decreased with distance from the borehole. For "Kraton-3", residual surface contamination density of radiocaesium varied drastically from 1.7 to 6900 kBq m(-2); maximal 137Cs depositions were found at a "decontaminated" plot. At all forest plots, radiocaesium activity decreased throughout the whole vertical soil profile. Vertical distributions of 137Cs in soil for the majority of the plots sampled (n=18) can be described using a simple exponential function. Despite the fact that more than 20 years have passed since the main fallout events, more than 80% of the total deposited activity was found in the first 5 cm of the vegetation-soil cores from most of the forested landscapes. The low annual temperatures, clay-rich soil type with neutral pH, and presence of thick lichen-moss carpet are the factors which may hinder 137Cs transport down the soil profile.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 02/2007; 92(3):123-43. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2006.10.001 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper a compartment model of the highly vulnerable Arctic terrestrial food chain "lichen-reindeer-man" is outlined. Based upon an analysis of measured (137)Cs and (90)Sr contents in lichen and reindeer meat from 1961 up to 2001, site specific model parameters for two regions in north-western Arctic Russia and for Kautokeino municipality in Arctic Norway have been determined. The dynamics of radionuclide activity concentrations in the "lichen-reindeer-man" food chain for all areas was satisfactorily described by a double exponential function with short-term and long-term effective ecological half-lives between 1-2 and 10-12 years, respectively, for both (137)Cs and (90)Sr. Using parameter values derived from the model, life-time internal effective doses due to consumption of reindeer meat by reindeer-breeders after an assumed single pulse deposit of 1 kBq m(-2) of (137)Cs were estimated to be 11.4 mSv (Kola Peninsula), 5 mSv (Nenets Autonomous Area), and 2 mSv (Kautokeino, Norway). Differences in vulnerability to radiocaesium deposition were due to differences in transfer between lichen and reindeer and in diet between the three regions.
    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 02/2004; 74(1-3):159-69. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.01.015 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to lack of measurements of activity concentrations in air, the assessment of the inhalation dose of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone after the Chernobyl accident is not possible from continuous filter measurements. Since the evaluation of the inhalation dose in each settlement of the zone is of great interest for epidemiological purposes, an approach was chosen that utilizes the available data on ground deposition of 137Cs, a recently performed best estimate of the radionuclide vector and its spatial distribution as well as the radionuclide dependent deposition velocity. The derived inhalation dose values in the 30-km zone range between 3 mSv to 150 mSv effective dose for adults depending on the distance to the reactor site and the day of evacuation. For 1-y-old infants the values range between 10 to 700 mSv. In Chernobyl town, an effective inhalation dose of 25 mSv until evacuation day was assessed. Thyroid doses due to inhalation ranged from 0.02 to 1 Sv for adults, for 1-y-old infants from 0.02 to 6 Sv. The inhalation dose in each settlement of the 30-km zone is approximately 8-13 times higher than the external exposure in each settlement if evacuation of the settlement occurred at an early stage. For settlements with evacuation at a later stage (day 10 or later) the inhalation dose was about 50-70% higher than the external dose. The dominant contribution to the effective inhalation dose comes from 131I (about 40%) and tellurium and rubidium isotopes (about 20-30%). Despite high zirconium and cerium ground depositions, zirconium and cerium isotopes contribute rather little to the inhalation dose which is mainly due to the great particle sizes to which they are attached. The relative contribution of short-lived radionuclides is, despite higher activities than at greater distances, less than 5%.
    Health Physics 03/2002; 82(2):157-72. · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • Gerhard Pröhl · Konrad Mück · Ilya Likhtarev · Lina Kovgan · Vladislav Golikov
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    ABSTRACT: As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, about 50,000 people were evacuated from the settlements in the 30-km zone around the reactor in the period 3-11 d after the accident. As no countermeasures were implemented in the early phase, people continued to consume milk and some leafy vegetables. In this paper, average effective ingestion doses are modeled for evacuees. Input data for the assessment are the 137Cs activity per unit area, the ratios of the radionuclides relative to 137Cs, the mean day of evacuation, and intake rates for milk and green vegetables. The transfer of radionuclides from deposition to humans is estimated by modeling radionuclide interception by vegetation, weathering, and the time-dependent transfer of radionuclides to milk taking into account site-specific agricultural practices. Depending on the evacuation day and site, the estimated ingestion doses for the settlements are in the range of 20 to 1,300 mSv and 3 to 180 mSv for infants and adults, respectively. 131I is by far the most important isotope, the ingestion dose due to 133I is more than one order of magnitude lower. The most exposed organ is the thyroid, inducing more than 80% and 50% of the ingestion dose for infants and adults. The ingestion doses are compared to the doses due to inhalation and external exposure. The internal dose exceeds the external by a factor of about 2-10 for adults and 2-40 for 1-y-old infants depending on site and evacuation day. The thyroid doses assessed for the evacuees are consistent with results achieved in studies performed in areas outside the 30-km zone.
    Health Physics 03/2002; 82(2):173-81. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The radionuclide vector in the release plume from the destroyed unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was assessed. Emphasis was laid on radionuclides relevant for the internal dose, including those with short half-lives, and on the radionuclide vector in the 30-km zone where practically no data in air or foodstuff are available. An evaluation of data was performed by comparing core analysis data and actual measurements of air filters and deposition data. The derived nuclide vector is consistent with most measurements and core analysis data. The ratios of the various radionuclides with regard to the guide isotope 137Cs vary both with direction of release and with increasing distance from the power plant. The variation and its causes are discussed, and a credible, consistent model for the vector at arbitrary distances from the nuclear power plant, in particular with regard to non-volatile radionuclides, is given. In that way the observed large discrepancies of the radionuclide vector determined by Russian and Ukrainian researchers, and those measured in Central and Northern European are explained by the fact that 90Sr, 95Zr, 140Ba, and 144Ce, which showed a much higher ratio to 137Cs close to the reactor than at 1,000 km distance, were attached to particle sizes of 8 microm and thus quicker deposited than the volatile radionuclides which were attached to 1 microm particulates on average. Also, the 131I to 137Cs ratio changes with distance by almost one order of magnitude which is explained by the higher deposition velocity of iodine.
    Health Physics 03/2002; 82(2):141-56. DOI:10.1097/00004032-200202000-00002 · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • Ilya Likhtarev · Lina Kovgan · Vladislav Golikov · Johann Zeger
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    ABSTRACT: Due to lack of measurements of activity concentrations in air, the assessment of the inhalation dose of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone after the Chernobyl accident is not possible from continuous filter measurements. Since the evaluation of the inhalation dose in each settlement of the zone is of great interest for epidemiological purposes, an approach was chosen that utilizes the available data on ground deposition of 137Cs, a recently performed best estimate of the radionuclide vector and its spatial distribution as well as the radionuclide dependent deposition velocity. The derived inhalation dose values in the 30-km zone range between 3 mSv to 150 mSv effective dose for adults depending on the distance to the reactor site and the day of evacuation. For 1-y-old infants the values range between 10 to 700 mSv. In Chernobyl town, an effective inhalation dose of 25 mSv until evacuation day was assessed. Thyroid doses due to inhalation ranged from 0.02 to 1 Sv for adults, for 1-y-old infants from 0.02 to 6 Sv. The inhalation dose in each settlement of the 30-km zone is approximately 8–13 times higher than the external exposure in each settlement if evacuation of the settlement occurred at an early stage. For settlements with evacuation at a later stage (day 10 or later) the inhalation dose was about 50–70% higher than the external dose. The dominant contribution to the effective inhalation dose comes from 131I (about 40%) and tellurium and rubidium isotopes (about 20–30%). Despite high zirconium and cerium ground depositions, zirconium and cerium isotopes contribute rather little to the inhalation dose which is mainly due to the great particle sizes to which they are attached. The relative contribution of short-lived radionuclides is, despite higher activities than at greater distances, less than 5%.
    Health Physics 02/2002; 82(2):157-172. DOI:10.1097/00004032-200202000-00003 · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • Ilya Likhtarev · Lina Kovgan · Vladislav Golikov
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    ABSTRACT: As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, about 50,000 people were evacuated from the settlements in the 30-km zone around the reactor in the period 3–11 d after the accident. As no countermeasures were implemented in the early phase, people continued to consume milk and some leafy vegetables. In this paper, average effective ingestion doses are modeled for evacuees. Input data for the assessment are the 137Cs activity per unit area, the ratios of the radionuclides relative to 137Cs, the mean day of evacuation, and intake rates for milk and green vegetables. The transfer of radionuclides from deposition to humans is estimated by modeling radionuclide interception by vegetation, weathering, and the time-dependent transfer of radionuclides to milk taking into account site-specific agricultural practices. Depending on the evacuation day and site, the estimated ingestion doses for the settlements are in the range of 20 to 1,300 mSv and 3 to 180 mSv for infants and adults, respectively. 131I is by far the most important isotope, the ingestion dose due to 133I is more than one order of magnitude lower. The most exposed organ is the thyroid, inducing more than 80% and 50% of the ingestion dose for infants and adults. The ingestion doses are compared to the doses due to inhalation and external exposure. The internal dose exceeds the external by a factor of about 2–10 for adults and 2–40 for 1-y-old infants depending on site and evacuation day. The thyroid doses assessed for the evacuees are consistent with results achieved in studies performed in areas outside the 30-km zone.
    Health Physics 02/2002; 82(2):173-181. DOI:10.1097/00004032-200202000-00004 · 0.77 Impact Factor