[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By means of a conservative dosimetry model, the values of operational radiological criteria for patients released from hospital--residual activity in a body and dose rate near the patient's body--are substantiated based on the effective dose limit of 5 mSv for persons helping the patient or living with him and 1 mSv for other adults and children. Two sets of operative criteria for radionuclides (125)I, (131)I, (153)Sm and (188)Re used in Russia for radionuclide therapy were derived. Release criteria for (125)I well differ from such values in other countries because in this work absorption of (125)I low-energy photon radiation in the patient was taken into account. When a patient having undergone radionuclide therapy crosses the frontier of Russia, high-sensitivity devices for radiation control at the custom can detect the patient. A simplified radiological assessment of the patient was suggested aimed at provision of radiation safety for patient companions in transport.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last decade a number of models and approaches have been developed for the estimation of the exposure of non-human biota to ionising radiations. In some countries these are now being used in regulatory assessments. However, to date there has been no attempt to compare the outputs of the different models used. This paper presents the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS Biota Working Group which compares the predictions of a number of such models in model-model and model-data inter-comparisons.
Applied Radiation and Isotopes 06/2008; 66(11):1745-9. · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper presents the current international system for the protection of the public against environmental radioactivity. The protection system applies to all the three human exposure situations, i.e., planned, emergency and existing exposures. Radiation protection is a developing scientific and practical discipline and some of the areas in public radiation protection and protection of the environment that are in need of further elaboration are identified in the paper.
Applied Radiation and Isotopes 05/2008; 66(11):1546-9. · 1.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the >600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. An exception is a cohort of several hundred emergency workers who received high radiation doses and of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed to radioiodine at a young age and some increase of leukemia in the most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation. There was, however, an increase in psychological problems among the affected population, compounded by the social disruption that followed the break-up of the Soviet Union. Despite the unprecedented scale of the Chernobyl accident, its consequences on the health of people are far less severe than those of the atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Studying the consequences of the Chernobyl accident has made an invaluable scientific contribution to the development of nuclear safety, radioecology, radiation medicine and protection, and also the social sciences. The Chernobyl accident initiated the global nuclear and radiation safety regime.
Health Physics 12/2007; 93(5):383-409. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of approaches have been proposed to estimate the exposure of non-human biota to ionizing radiation. This paper reports an inter-comparison of the unweighted absorbed dose rates for the whole organism (compared as dose conversion coefficients, or DCCs) for both internal and external exposure, estimated by 11 of these approaches for selected organisms from the Reference Animals and Plants geometries as proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Inter-comparison results indicate that DCCs for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, whereas variation is greater for external exposure DCCs. Where variation among internal DCCs is greatest, it is generally due to different daughter products being included in the DCC of the parent. In the case of external exposures, particularly to low-energy beta-emitters, variations are most likely to be due to different media densities being assumed. On a radionuclide-by-radionuclide basis, the different approaches tend to compare least favourably for (3)H, (14)C and the alpha-emitters. This is consistent with models with different source/target geometry assumptions showing maximum variability in output for the types of radiation having the lowest range across matter. The intercomparison demonstrated that all participating approaches to biota dose calculation are reasonably comparable, despite a range of different assumptions being made.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several United Nations organizations sought to dispel the uncertainties and controversy that still exist concerning the effects of the Chernobyl accident. A Chernobyl Forum of international expertise was established to reach consensus on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident. This review is a synopsis of the subgroup that examined the radiological effects to nonhuman biota within the 30-km Exclusion Zone. The response of biota to Chernobyl irradiation was a complex interaction among radiation dose, dose rate, temporal and spatial variation, varying radiation sensitivities of the different taxons, and indirect effects from other events. The radiation-induced effects to plants and animals within the 30-km Exclusion Zone around Chernobyl can be framed in three broad time periods relative to the accident: an intense exposure period during the first 30 d following the accident of 26 April 1986; a second phase that extended through the first year of exposure during which time the short-lived radionuclides decayed and longer-lived radionuclides were transported to different components of the environment by physical, chemical and biological processes; and the third and continuing long-term phase of chronic exposure with dose rates<1% of the initial values. The doses accumulated, and the observed effects on plants, soil invertebrates, terrestrial vertebrates and fish are summarized for each time period. Physiological and genetic effects on biota, as well as the indirect effects on wildlife of removing humans from the Chernobyl area, are placed in context of what was known about radioecological effects prior to the accident.
Health Physics 12/2007; 93(5):427-40. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wide range of different countermeasures has been used to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The paper comprehensively brings together key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and critically evaluates the response to the accident with respect to agriculture. The extents of countermeasures implementation in various periods following the ChNPP accident are documented. Examples of best practices and drawbacks in remediation of affected areas are identified. Data on the effectiveness of agricultural countermeasures have been evaluated and the impact of countermeasures implementation to mitigate consequences of the accident has been assessed for the period 1986-2006. Implementation of agricultural countermeasures averted 30-40% of the internal collective dose that would have been received by the residents of affected regions without the use of countermeasures. The current situation in agriculture of areas subjected to contamination following the Chernobyl accident is described. Current and future needs for remediation, including a consideration of various strategies of rehabilitation of affected areas are presented.
Science of The Total Environment 10/2007; 383(1-3):1-24. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current doses arising from external and internal pathways have been estimated for the residents of two villages, Muslumovo and Brodokalmak, alongside the Techa River, which was contaminated by radioactive releases from the Mayak production facility. The dose estimates are based on numerous environmental measurements supplemented by further human whole body measurements and studies on occupational and dietary habits of Slavic and Turkish ethnic groups. Estimated doses arise mainly from use of the contaminated floodplains alongside the Techa River. The current average annual effective dose attributable to Cs and Sr in the environment, under conditions where restrictions on some river-related activities are in place, may exceed the Russian national action level of 1 mSv only in the hypothetical critical group of herdsmen in Muslumovo. The dose to this critical group in Brodokalmak is assessed to be 3 times less than that in Muslumovo and 2 fold below the action level. The external and internal exposures give comparable contributions to the total dose in both settlements and population groups: 47% and 53% in Muslumovo and 40% and 60% in Brodokalmak, respectively. About one quarter to one half of the internal dose in adults arises from the intake of Sr. In order to avoid substantial increases in the dose received by Muslumovo residents, it is expedient to prolong the current policy of restriction of some river-related population activities in this village.
Health Physics 03/2007; 92(2):134-47. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main pathways leading to exposure of members of the general public due to the Chernobyl accident were external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground and ingestion of contaminated terrestrial food products. The collective dose to the thyroid was nearly 1.5 million man Gy in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine with nearly half received by children and adolescents. The collective effective dose received in 1986-2005 by approximately five million residents living in the affected areas of the three countries was approximately 50,000 man Sv with approximately 40% from ingestion. That contribution might have been larger if countermeasures had not been applied. The main radionuclide contributing to both external and internal effective dose is 137Cs with smaller contributions of 134Cs and 90Sr and negligible contribution of transuranic elements. The major demonstrated radiation-caused health effect of the Chernobyl accident has been an elevated incidence of thyroid cancer in children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the affected land is now safe for life and economic activities. However, in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and in some limited areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine some restrictions on land-use should be retained for decades to come. Most of the 600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed at a young age and some increase of leukaemia and solid cancer in most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 02/2007; 96(1-3):6-12. · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience.
Journal of Radiological Protection 01/2007; 26(4):351-9. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large releases of fission products into the Techa River, in the Southern Urals, occurred in 1950 and 1951, during the early years of operation of the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), which produced plutonium for nuclear weapons. Increases of leukemia and of solid cancers with radiation dose have been noted in the population of about 30,000 people who lived in the settlements downstream of the site of the radioactive releases; that population has been studied for several decades by Russian scientists, notably in the framework of cooperation with American and European scientists. The radiation doses are currently estimated by means of the Techa River Dosimetry System-2000 (TRDS-2000). Recently, a scientist from Mayak PA has suggested in several publications that the doses calculated using TRDS-2000 might be underestimated substantially. A special international Workshop, held in Moscow on 8-10 December 2003, aimed to resolve some of the pressing issues related to the determination of the external and internal doses received by the Techa River population and to give recommendations on the further development of methodologies used for dose reconstruction. The authors of this article were selected by the organizers of the Workshop to draw the conclusions of the meeting. They express the view that, while the dose reconstruction system TRDS-2000 is basically sound, additional work is needed and the results of any epidemiological studies making use of TRDS-2000 should be qualified as preliminary, pending resolution of several issues. The most important of these issues is the re-evaluation of the activities released, using additional information that could be obtained with the help of Mayak experts. Other specific suggestions aiming to improve the dose reconstruction methodology for the Techa River cohort, i.e., continued measurements of accumulated dose in environmental samples and human tissues, validation of external dose estimates with thermoluminescence measurements of bricks and with electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of teeth, estimation of individual doses instead of group doses, detailed account of the contributions to dose of medical examinations and of other releases from the Mayak complex, and careful assessment of the uncertainties, were made by the meeting participants.
Health Physics 03/2006; 90(2):97-113. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of agrochemical properties of forest soils and growth conditions on 137Cs aggregated transfer factors from soil to different species of forest mushrooms have been analysed. Statistically significant correlations between 137Cs soil to mushroom aggregated transfer factors and agrochemical soil properties have been revealed. The experimental data show that 137Cs aggregated transfer factors depend on the mushroom's trophic group, biological family, genus and species. They also strongly depend on forest soil properties and their values can be estimated with the use of multiple regression equations constructed from agrochemical soil parameters which most closely correlate with the 137Cs transfer parameters for particular mushroom groups.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 02/2006; 89(3):199-211. · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1990, a joint Nordic-Russian project was initiated in order to make independent estimations of the effective dose to selected groups of inhabitants in a highly contaminated area around the city of Novozybkov in the western Bryansk region of Russia. The inhabitants were living in six villages with initial contamination levels of (137)Cs between 0.9 and 2.7 MBq m(-2). Some villages had been decontaminated, others not. Both school children and adults participated in the study. The external irradiation of 100-130 inhabitants was determined during 1 month in September-October each year from 1990 to 2000 (except 1999), using individual thermoluminescent dosemeters. The body burden of (137,134)Cs was determined by in vivo measurements in about 500 inhabitants annually from 1991 to 2000, and for a subgroup also with analysis of the (137)Cs concentration in urine. The mean effective dose (E) from external and internal irradiation due to (137,134)Cs deposition varied between 2.5 and 1.2 mSv per year between 1990 and 2000. The total mean E decreased, on average, by 9% per year, while the mean external dose decreased by 16% per year. The dose rate from internal radiation decreased more slowly than the dose rate from external radiation, and also showed an irregular time variation. The contribution from the internal dose to the total E was 30-50%, depending on the village. Predictions for the long-term changes in the effective dose to people living in the areas are presented. The cumulated E for the 70 years following the accident was estimated to be about 90 mSv with the assumption that both internal and external dose decrease by 2% per year after year 2000. The highest E during a life-time received by single individuals living in the area may amount to around 500 mSv considering the individual variations in E.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data collected for 10 years following the Chernobyl accident in 1986 have provided a unique opportunity to test the reliability of computer models for contamination of terrestrial and aquatic environments. The Iput River scenario was used by the Dose Reconstruction Working Group of the BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment Methods) programme. The test area was one of the most highly contaminated areas in Russia following the accident, with an average contamination density of 137Cs of 800,000 Bq m-2 and localized contamination up to 1,500,000 Bq m-2, and a variety of countermeasures that were implemented in the test area had to be considered in the modelling exercise. Difficulties encountered during the exercise included averaging of data to account for uneven contamination of the test area, simulating the downward migration and changes in bioavailability of 137Cs in soil, and modelling the effectiveness of countermeasures. The accuracy of model predictions is dependent at least in part on the experience and judgment of the participant in interpretation of input information, selection of parameter values, and treatment of uncertainties.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 02/2005; 84(2):225-44. · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, there have been a number of models and approaches proposed to estimate the exposure of non-human biota to ionising radiations. Some countries are now using these within their national regulatory frameworks for nuclear and other sites which may be releasing radioactivity to the environment. To date validation of these approaches has been limited and there has been little attempt to compare the outputs of the different models being applied. To address this gap, a new Biota Working Group (BWG) has been formed by the IAEA as part of the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) programme. The primary objective of the EMRAS BWG, as set by its participants, is: ‘to compare and validate models being used and developed by Member States for biota dose assessment (that may be used) as part of regulatory process of licensing and compliance monitoring of authorised releases of radionuclides in order to improve Member State’s capabilities for protection of the environment’. Initial exercises are directed at the comparison and validation of screening level models. In this paper, we will report on a recently conducted comparison of predicted activity concentrations in a range of non-human biota assuming a simple scenario. Unweighted internal and external dose conversion coefficients will also be compared for a selection of reference organism geometries, as currently being proposed by the ICRP, in environmentally relevant media. The models and approaches used encompass those being developed and applied in the USA, Canada, France, Belgium and the UK, as well as the outputs from international collaborative programmes. The results of this work will be discussed in the context of the longer term objectives of the EMRAS Biota Working Group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two field expeditions in 1996 studied 137Cs intake patterns and its content in the bodies of adult residents from the village Kozhany in the Bryansk region, Russia, located on the shore of a drainless peat lake in an area subjected to significant radioactive contamination after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The 137Cs contents in lake water and fish were two orders of magnitude greater than in local rivers and flow-through lakes, 10 years after Chernobyl radioactive contamination, and remain stable. The 137Cs content in lake fish and a mixture of forest mushrooms was between approximately 10-20 kBq/kg, which exceeded the temporary Russian permissible levels for these products by a factor of 20-40. Consumption of lake fish gave the main contribution to internal doses (40-50%) for Kozhany village inhabitants Simple countermeasures, such as Prussian blue doses for dairy cows and pre-boiling mushrooms and fish before cooking, halved the 137Cs internal dose to inhabitants, even 10 years after the radioactive fallout.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 02/2004; 77(1):63-75. · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper a compartment model of the highly vulnerable Arctic terrestrial food chain "lichen-reindeer-man" is outlined. Based upon an analysis of measured (137)Cs and (90)Sr contents in lichen and reindeer meat from 1961 up to 2001, site specific model parameters for two regions in north-western Arctic Russia and for Kautokeino municipality in Arctic Norway have been determined. The dynamics of radionuclide activity concentrations in the "lichen-reindeer-man" food chain for all areas was satisfactorily described by a double exponential function with short-term and long-term effective ecological half-lives between 1-2 and 10-12 years, respectively, for both (137)Cs and (90)Sr. Using parameter values derived from the model, life-time internal effective doses due to consumption of reindeer meat by reindeer-breeders after an assumed single pulse deposit of 1 kBq m(-2) of (137)Cs were estimated to be 11.4 mSv (Kola Peninsula), 5 mSv (Nenets Autonomous Area), and 2 mSv (Kautokeino, Norway). Differences in vulnerability to radiocaesium deposition were due to differences in transfer between lichen and reindeer and in diet between the three regions.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 02/2004; 74(1-3):159-69. · 2.12 Impact Factor