[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Establishing the origin of electrophoretic mobility of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles is the primary goal of this work. It was found that the electrophoretic mobility originates from ionizable amino acids of cytoplasmic domains of the Ca2+-ATPase, the calcium pump of SR. The mobility was measured at pH 4.0, 4.7, 5.0, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 in the region of ionic strength from 0.05 to 0.2 M. Mobility measurements were supplemented by studies of SR vesicles by photoelectron microscopy. The median diameter of SR vesicles was 260 nm. Ca2+-ATPases were not resolved. The mobility data were standardized by interpolation to a reference ionic strength of 0.1M. The mobility of the SR vesicles is determined by the charge of the Ca2+-ATPase. It is due to the ionizable amino acids selected from the amino acid sequence of SERCA1a Ca2+-ATPase. The pH dependence of charge residing in various domains of Ca2+-ATPase was computed using pKa values in free water. The charge correlated with measured mobility. It was shown that a linear relationship exists between the mobility of the SR vesicles, mu, and the total computed charge, Q, on three cytoplasmic domains of Ca2+-ATPase: A, P, and N. It is given by mu=alpha+betaQ where the fitted values beta=(0.043+/-0.002) x 10(-8) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) e(-1) and alpha=(0.16+/-0.02) x 10(-8) m(2) V(-1) s(-1). Since beta and alpha values do not change from pH 4 to pH 9, one concludes that the hydrodynamic friction of the cytoplasmic domains of SR is independent of their charge.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2010; 1798(9):1689-97. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report results of a partitioning study of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (TeCP). In the study we explored (1) the effect of the length of acyl chains of lipids (C16:1 - C24:1) and alkanes (C6-C16), (2) the role of the carbonyl group of lipids, and (3) the effect of molecular structure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane on TeCP partitioning. Mole fraction partition coefficients have been measured using equilibrium dialysis for un-ionized (HA), and ionized (A) species, Kp(x) (HA), Kp(x) (A). Their values are concentration-dependent. Partition coefficients were analyzed in terms of a model that accounts for saturation of membrane associated with the finite area of partition site, and electrostatic interactions of (A-) species with charged membrane. Limiting values of partition coefficients, corresponding to infinite dilution of solute, Kp(x0) (HA), Kp(x0) (A) were obtained. Kp(x0) (HA) and Kp(x0) (A ) measure the strength of solute-membrane interactions. Studies were done with single-layered vesicles of lipids with variable chain length: 1,2-dipalmitoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C16:1), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C18:1), 1,2-dierucoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C22:1), and 1 ,2-dinervonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C24:1), and egg-PC. Kp(x0) for transfer of TeCP from water into lipid membranes was found to be independent of the length of acyl chains, whereas Kp(x0) for transfer from water into alkanes increased with the length of alkane. The effect of the carbonyl CO group of lipids on partitioning was measured using 1,2-di-o-octadecenyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CO absent) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (CO present) liposomes. Carbonyl groups, known to change dipolar potential, had no effect on partitioning. Partition coefficients of un-ionized and ionized forms of TeCP were invariant to the presence of proteins and other membrane components of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane.
Journal of Membrane Biology 03/2005; 203(3):127-42. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effect of segmented solvent molecules on the free energy of transfer of small molecules from water into alkanes (hexane, heptane, octane, decane, dodecane, tetradecane, and hexadecane). For these alkanes we measured partition coefficients of benzene, 3-methylindole (3MI), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (TeCP), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP) at 3, 11, 20, 33 [corrected], and 47 degrees C. For 3MI, TeCP, and TriBP the dependence of free energy of transfer on length of alkane chains was found to be very different from that for benzene. In contrast to benzene, the energy of transfer for 3MI, TeCP, and TriBP was independent of the number of carbons in alkanes. To interpret data, we used the classic Flory-Huggins (FH) theory of concentrated polymer solutions for the alkane phase. For benzene, the measured dependence of energy of transfer on the number of carbons in alkanes agreed well with predictions based on FH model in which the size of alkane segments was obtained from the ratio of molar volumes of alkanes and the solute. We show that for benzene, the energy of transfer can be divided into two components, one called environmental swap energy (ESE), and one representing the contribution of configurational entropy of alkane chains. For 3MI, TeCP, and TriBP the contribution of configurational entropy was not measurable even though the magnitude of the effect predicted from the FH model for short chain alkanes was as much as 20 times greater than experimental uncertainties. From the temperature dependence of ESE we obtained enthalpy and entropy of transfer for benzene, 3MI, TeCP, and TriBP. Experimental results are discussed in terms of a thermodynamic cycle considering creation of cavity, insertion of solute, and activation of solute-medium attractive interactions. Our results suggest that correcting experimental free energy of transfer by Flory-Huggins configurational entropy term is not generally appropriate and cannot be applied indiscriminately.
The Journal of Chemical Physics 02/2004; 120(3):1383-94. · 3.16 Impact Factor