Takuo Yano

Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima-ken, Japan

Are you Takuo Yano?

Claim your profile

Publications (19)26.73 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Development of a cheap system for reuse of glycerol by-product discharged from the biodiesel fuel (BDF) production process is needed in parallel with development of a low-cost BDF production system. In this article, optimization of compost fermentation of glycerol by-product was studied. The type and amount of additive nitrogen source was studied, and good utilization of glycerol was observed when 0.5 g of urea was added to a mixture of 625 g dry sawdust, 25 g of microbial seed, and 50 g of glycerol by-product. To achieve efficient compost fermentation, repeated batch fermentation was applied and five batch cultures were repeated. Although the pH level and nitrogen and water contents were maintained at suitable levels for microbial growth, the glycerol consumption rate gradually decreased with accumulation of oily compounds in the compost. Finally, a material cost evaluation of the compost fermentation proposed in this study was performed. The total material cost decreased to ¥0.57 /l of BDF when employing an existing compost system for the fermentation process, although sawdust used for mushroom cultivation was used in this study at the very high cost of ¥123 /kg dry sawdust. However, the cost of disposal of the glycerol byproduct as an industrial waste was ¥5.2 /l of BDF produced; therefore, there might be an economical advantage to compost fermentation of glycerol by-product from BDF production. Key wordsBiodiesel by-product-Glycerol-Compost-C/N ratio-Repeated batch culture
    Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 11/2010; 12(4):308-313. DOI:10.1007/s10163-010-0302-0 · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 11/2009; 108. DOI:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.08.233 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biodieset fuel (BDF) made from edible oil or its waste is widely used as a renewable and environmentally friendly energy source. The crude BDF produced with alkali catalyst is washed with water to remove a by-product, glycerol. The BDF wastewater discharged from this washing process has to be appropriately treated. The microbial treatrient of the BDF wastewater is promising because glycerol is difficult to separate from the BDFwastewater. The addition of some nutrients is essentiaLforthe efficient microbial treatment of the BDF wastewater. Measurement of the glycerol concentration in the microbial-treated BDFwastewater isvery important because the amount of nutrients which should be added depends on the glycerol concentratim. The prediction of the glycerol concentration in the BDF wastewater using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was investigated. Oil degradable yeast and some nutrients were added to the BDF wastewater. The microbiaL-treated wastewaterwas used as the source for calibration and validation set samples. Calibration equations relating the NIR spectral data to the glycerol concentration measured with the enzymatic method were obtained. The prediction of the glycerol concentration was successfully carried out using NIR spectroscop,f regardless of the presence orabsence of the microbiaLcetts. A good result was observed for the calibration equation made with optical data in the presence of the microbial cells at the wavelengths of 2264nm and 1052 nm. This result suggests that the glycerol concentration in the microbiat-treated BDF wastewater can be predicted even in the presence of the microbial ceLts. The simple, rapid and on-tine prediction of the gLycerot concentration in the BDF wastewater using NIR spectroscopy will allow more efficient microbial treatment of tho BDF wastewater.
    Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 01/2008; 16(3). DOI:10.1255/jnirs.804 · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To prepare and maintain the optimal biodegradation conditions of wastewater discharged from a biodiesel fuel (BDF) production process with alkali-catalysis transesterification, rapid and simple methods were investigated to measure oil (carbon source of microorganisms) and urea (nitrogen source) concentrations and solids content (indicator of growth inhibition of microorganism) of the wastewater. Two non-destructive methods were investigated. First, physical properties of the BDF wastewater such as electric conductivity (EC), specific gravity (Sp.Gr.) and Brix values were measured and the values were analysed with multiple liner regression (MLR). Only solids content could be predicted by measured physical properties. However, adjustment of the C/N ratio of the BDF wastewater was also necessary to prepare the optimal condition for the microorganism growth in the wastewater treatment process. Therefore, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was applied to simultaneous, non-destructive and rapid measurement of the constituents of the wastewater. The dominant absorptions caused by oil, urea and solids material in the wastewater were observed at 1718, 2154 and 2286 urn, respectively. These were used as the first wavelength to formulate calibration equations, a MLR analysis was carried out between the NIR spectral data and the values of conventional analyses, such as hexane extraction, enzymatic and oven-drying methods, in the calibration sample set (sample number, n = 50). To validate the calibration equations obtained, the predicted values of the oil, urea and solids in the validation sample set (n = 40), which was not used for formulating the calibration equations, were calculated using the calibration equations. Good agreement was observed between the values of the conventional analyses and the values predicted using NIR; the multiple correlation coefficients of determination (r(2)) for the validation equations for oil, solids and urea were 0.993, 0.877 and 0.960, respectively. Prediction of the solids content of the BDF wastewater using EC and Brix values is also possible with the handy EC and Brix meters which are inexpensive and easy to handle. However, these do not allow total management of the BDF production and BDF wastewater treatment processes. On the other hand, the NIR method is potentially suitable for automated process management of a BDF wastewater treatment system.
    Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 01/2007; 15(2). DOI:10.1255/jnirs.721 · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An air-oil and oil-water interface detector composed of bent plastic optical fiber, photodiode, light emitting diode (LED) and five analog electric circuits was developed and the sensor system was applied to measurement of the oil layer thickness of kitchen wastewater in a grease trap (oil separator for industrial kitchen wastewater). The raw output voltage of the developed sensor system depends on the refractive indexes of the air, soybean oil and tap water. When the sensitive part of the sensor passes through the oil layer, the air-oil and oil-water interfaces can be detected by the peak of the first derivative data calculated from the output voltage of the sensor system. The optimal sampling interval of the output voltage and the optimal movement speed of the sensor are between 100 and 400 ms and over 2.56 mm/s, respectively. The detection limit of oil layer thickness is approximately 3 mm at a 100 ms sampling interval and 2.56 mm/s movement speed. To evaluate the developed sensor system, the thickness of the oil layer in the actual wastewater was measured. Good agreement between the conventional analysis value obtained by a hexane extraction method and the calculated value obtained by the developed sensor was observed. The developed plastic optical fiber sensor system is useful to measure the amount of the floating oil (oil layer thickness) in a grease trap installed in the stream of the wastewater discharged from an industrial kitchen, and the sensor materials are very cheap. A sensing system for detecting the interface of the various materials can be constructed because the refractive index of the materials may be detectable by the developed sensor.
    Journal of chemical engineering of Japan 06/2006; 39(6):670-677. DOI:10.1252/jcej.39.670 · 0.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chaperonins suppress the denaturation of proteins and promote protein folding in vivo. Because hyperthermophilic chaperonins are expected to be used as a stabilizer for proteins, the effects of a group II chaperonin from a hyperthermophilic archaeum, Thermococcus strain KS-1 (T. KS-1 cpn), on the stabilization of mesophilic and thermophilic free enzymes and an enzyme co-immobilized with T. KS-1 cpn were studied. T. KS-1 cpn prevented the thermal inactivation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), jack bean urease, and Thermus flavus malate dehydrogenase (MDH) at high temperatures. T. KS-1 cpn also improved the long-term stability of ADH at lower temperatures. Moreover, the residual ADH activity of ADH co-entrapped with T. KS-1 cpn was improved and maintained at a higher level than that of the entrapped ADH without chaperonin. T. KS-1 cpn is useful for the stabilization of free and immobilized enzymes and applicable to various fields of biotechnology.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 03/2006; 101(2):131-6. DOI:10.1263/jbb.101.131 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The biological treatment of wastewater discharged from a biodiesel fuel (BDF) production plant conducting alkali catalysis transesterification was investigated. BDF wastewater has a high pH and high hexane-extracted oil and low nitrogen concentrations, and inhibits the growth of microorganisms. The biological treatment of BDF wastewater is difficult because the composition of such wastewater is not suitable for microbial growth. To apply the microbiological treatment of BDF wastewater using an oil degradable yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, the pH was adjusted to 6.8 and several nutrients such as a nitrogen source (ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride or urea), yeast extract, KH2PO4 and MgSO4.7H2O were added to the wastewater. The optimal initial concentration of yeast extract was 1 g/l and the optimal C/N ratio was between 17 and 68 when using urea as a nitrogen source. A growth inhibitor was also present in the BDF wastewater, and this growth inhibitor could be detected by measuring the solid content in an aqueous phase after the hexane extraction of the wastewater. Microorganisms could not grow at solid contents higher than 2.14 g/l in the wastewater. To avoid the growth inhibition, the BDF wastewater was diluted with the same volume of water. Oil degradation in the diluted BDF wastewater was observed and the best result was obtained under the determined optimal conditions. This treatment system is simple because no controllers, except for a temperature, are necessary. These results suggest that the biological treatment system developed for BDF wastewater is useful for small-scale BDF production plants.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 11/2005; 100(4):437-42. DOI:10.1263/jbb.100.437 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • Ken-ichiro Suehara · Takuo Yano
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is a nondestructive analytical technique that has been used for simultaneous prediction of the concentrations of several substrates, products and constructs in mixtures sampled from fermentation processes. In this chapter, we discuss applications of NIR for the monitoring of bioprocesses involving rice vinegar, compost, glycolipid, L-glutamic acid, lactic acid fermentation, mushroom cultivation, and Koji production. This includes detailed discussion of applications of NIR to process management of rice vinegar fermentation and compost fermentation. In the present study, absorbance at wavelengths between 400 and 2500 nm was measured at 2 nm intervals. To obtain calibration equations, multiple linear regression (MLR) was performed on NIR spectral data and conventional analysis values of a calibration sample set. To validate these calibration equations, they were used to calculate concentrations of a prediction sample set, which were then compared with concentrations measured by conventional methods. There was excellent agreement between the results of the conventional method and those of the NIR method, when both were used to analyze culture broth of rice vinegar fermentation and solid-state fermented compost. These results indicate that NIR is a useful method for monitoring and control of bioprocesses.
    Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology 02/2004; 90:173-98. DOI:10.1007/b94197 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A uniform color space based on color vision mechanisms was proposed. The mechanisms considered to construct the uniform color space were, proportion of three types of cones, compressive response nonlinearity at receptor and post- receptor stages, constant noise or dark response added to the receptor response, and fractional expressions of opponent and S channel in the postreceptor stage. The present uniform color space explains, three dimensional color discrimination data, supra-threshold color differences such as Munsell color chips, and luminance dependence of the color differences.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 06/2002; DOI:10.1117/12.464578 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 01/2002; 10(1). DOI:10.1255/jnirs.321 · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was employed for the simultaneous prediction of the concentrations of glucose and citric acid in the aqueous solution of a blood anticoagulant solution. The solution was placed in an NIR spectrophotometer and the absorbance at wavelengths between 400 and 2500 nm was measured at 2 nm intervals. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to obtain calibration equations relating the NIR spectral data and the glucose and citric acid concentrations of a calibration sample set obtained by enzymatic methods. The value of the multiple correlation coefficient (R) was 0.993 when using the wavelengths of 2274 and 1674 nm for glucose. The value of the simple correlation coefficient (r) for citric acid was 0.993 when using the wavelength 1690 nm. To validate the calibration equations obtained, glucose and citric acid concentrations in a prediction sample set were compared with the concentrations measured by the enzymatic methods. Excellent agreement between the results of the enzymatic method and those of NIR spectroscopy was observed for both constituents. The procedure of NIR spectroscopy was simple and the operation time required to predict the concentrations was a few minutes. These results indicate that NIR spectroscopy may be a useful method for monitoring the production process of the blood anticoagulant.
    Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 01/2001; 9(1). DOI:10.1255/jnirs.293 · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the carbon and nitrogen content of compost during compost fermentation of tofu (soybean-curd) refuse. Reflectance measurements in the wavelength range between 400 and 2500 nm were made at 2 nm intervals. The NIR absorption of the carbon components was observed at two wavelengths, 1584 and 1024 nm in the second derivative spectrum. The NIR absorption of nitrogen components was observed at two wavelengths, 2174 and 900 nm in the second derivative spectrum. To formulate a calibration equation, a multiple linear regression analysis was carried out between the NIR spectral data and the carbon and nitrogen content in the calibration sample set (sample number, n = 60) obtained using a Pregie-Dumas combustion method. The values of the multiple correlation coefficient were 0.988 and 0.984, respectively. To validate the calibration equations obtained, the carbon and nitrogen content in the prediction sample set (n = 48), not used for formulating the calibration equation, were calculated using the calibration equations and compared with the values obtained using the Pregie-Dumas combustion method. Good agreement was observed between the results of the Pregie-Dumas combustion method and the NIR method. The values of the simple correlation coefficient were 0.986 and 0.972, respectively. The study indicates that NIR is a useful method for process management of the compost fermentation of tofu refuse.
    Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 01/2001; 9(1). DOI:10.1255/jnirs.292 · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), a nondestructive analytical technique, was employed for the simultaneous determination of the concentrations of glucose and lactic acid in peritoneal dialysis solutions. Solutions were placed in a near-infrared spectrophotometer and the absorbance at wavelengths between 400 and 2500 nm was measured at 2 nm intervals. To obtain calibration equations, multiple linear regression (MLR) was carried out on the NIR spectral data and on the glucose and lactic acid concentrations obtained by enzymatic methods using a calibration sample set. The value of the simple correlation coefficient (r) was 0.996 when using a wavelength of 2270 nm for glucose. The value of the multiple correlation coefficient (R) for lactic acid was 0.997 when using wavelengths of 1688 and 1268 nm. To validate the calibration equations obtained, glucose and lactic acid concentrations in a prediction sample set which was not used for calibration were calculated using the calibration equation and compared with the concentrations measured by the enzymatic method. Excellent agreement between the results of the enzymatic method and of NIR was observed for both constituents. Concentrations of glucose and lactic acid in the peritoneal dialysis solutions were analyzed simultaneously by NIR. The procedure for NIR was simple, and the operation time required to determine the concentrations was a few minutes. These results indicate that NIR may be a useful method for monitoring of the production of peritoneal dialysis solutions.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 02/2000; 90(5):540-4. DOI:10.1016/S1389-1723(01)80037-2 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • T Aimi · K Tsugawa · T Yano · T Morinaga
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequences of genes for the homolog in Coprinus cinereus of the eukaryotic ribosomal protein L41 and for tRNAThr(AGU) are reported. The gene for tRNAThr(AGU) was located upstream of the gene for the L41 ribosomal protein, and these genes were adjacent to each other but in opposite orientations. The deduced amino acid sequence of ribosomal protein L41 exhibited strong homology to those of L41 proteins of several yeasts. The 56th amino acid of the deduced protein was proline, as it is in the L41 protein of a cycloheximide-sensitive strain of yeast. The putative secondary structure of the tRNA gene resembled the characteristic cloverleaf structure of tRNAs. Elements resembling an A-box and a B-box were found in the gene for tRNAThr(AGU). These boxes are known as internal promoter elements in genes for eukaryotic tRNAs.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/1999; 1432(1):137-41. DOI:10.1016/S0167-4838(99)00092-8 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequences of genes for the homolog in Coprinus cinereus of the eukaryotic ribosomal protein L41 and for tRNAThr(AGU) are reported. The gene for tRNAThr(AGU) was located upstream of the gene for the L41 ribosomal protein, and these genes were adjacent to each other but in opposite orientations. The deduced amino acid sequence of ribosomal protein L41 exhibited strong homology to those of L41 proteins of several yeasts. The 56th amino acid of the deduced protein was proline, as it is in the L41 protein of a cycloheximide-sensitive strain of yeast. The putative secondary structure of the tRNA gene resembled the characteristic cloverleaf structure of tRNAs. Elements resembling an A-box and a B-box were found in the gene for tRNAThr(AGU). These boxes are known as internal promoter elements in genes for eukaryotic tRNAs.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology 06/1999; 1432(1):137-141.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In a compost fermentation of soybean-curd (tofu) refuse, the effects of the moisture content of the compost on the compost reaction were studied. The moisture content of the compost was a very important factor for good fermentation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to the determination of the moisture content of the compost. The reflected rays in the wavelength range between 400 and 2500 nm were measured at 2 nm intervals. The absorption of water was observed at three wavelengths, 960, 1406 and 1888 nm. To formulate a calibration equation, a multiple linear regression analysis was carried out between the near-infrared spectral data at 960 nm (sample number, n = 50) and on the moisture content obtained using a drying method. The values of the simple correlation coefficient and the standard error of calibration were 0.987 and 1.33%, respectively. To validate the calibration equation obtained, the moisture content in the prediction sample set (n = 35) not used for formulating the calibration equation was calculated using the calibration equation, and compared with the values obtained using the drying method. Good agreement was observed between the results of the drying method and those of the NIRS method. The simple correlation coefficient and standard error of prediction were 0.979 and 1.85%, respectively. Then, the NIRS method was applied to a practical situation in which the moisture content was measured and controlled during the compost fermentation, and good results were obtained. The study indicates that NIRS is a useful method for measurement and control of the moisture content in the compost of soybean-curd refuse.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 02/1999; 87(6):769-74. DOI:10.1016/S1389-1723(99)80151-0 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was applied to the prediction of the growth rate of mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, in a solid culture. Cell mass is conventionally measured by analysing the concentration of glucosamine which is a component of the cell wall. The correlation between the concentration of glucosamine obtained by the conventional method and that obtained by NIR spectroscopy was examined by multiple regression analysis. The value predicted by NIR spectroscopy was in fairly good agreement with that obtained by the conventional method. This result suggests that NIR spectroscopy is applicable to the prediction of growth rate in the solid culture and gives a useful method for the control of mushroom production.
    Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 01/1998; 6(1):273. DOI:10.1255/jnirs.147 · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was employed for the simultaneous determination of the water and rice bran content in solid media used for mushroom cultivation. The solid media were prepared by addition of water to a mixture of sawdust with rice bran and wheat bran. The medium packed in a polyethylene bag was placed in a near-infrared spectrophotometer. The reflected rays, in the wavelength range between 400 and 2500 nm, were measured at 2 nm intervals. To obtain a calibration equation for water content, a simple linear regression was carried out on the near-infrared spectral data at 1450 nm and on the water content of a calibration sample set (sample number, n=113) obtained using dry-weight method. The values of the simple correlation coefficient and the standard error of calibration were 0.995 and 1.33%, respectively. On the basis of the result of a multiple linear regression on the content of rice bran in the solid media, a calibration equation using the second-derivative reflectance data at the wavelengths of 672 and 2100 nm was obtained, with the values of the multiple correlation coefficient and standard error of 0.978 and 1.73%, respectively. To validate the calibration equations obtained, water and rice bran content in the prediction sample set (n=56) not used for formulating the calibration equations were calculated using the calibration equations, and compared with the values obtained using the dry-weight method based on the mixing ratio. For both the water and rice bran content, excellent agreement was observed between the results of the conventional method and those of NIR method. The simple correlation coefficient and standard error of prediction were 0.995 and 1.33% for water content and 0.975 and 1.84% for rice bran content. The content of water and rice bran in the solid media could be analyzed simultaneously by NIR. The NIR procedure was simple, and the operation time required to determine the content was only 5 min. These results indicate that NIR may be a useful method for monitoring the content of water and rice bran in solid media used for mushroom cultivation.
    Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 01/1998; 86(5):472-476. DOI:10.1016/S0922-338X(98)80154-2
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), which is a nondestructive analytical technique, was employed for the simultaneous prediction of the concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid in the culture broth sampled from a rice vinegar fermentation. The broth was placed in a near-infrared spectrophotometer and the absorbance at wavelengths between 400 and 2,500 nm was measured at 2 nm intervals. To obtain calibration equations, multiple linear regression (MLR) was conducted on the NIR spectral data and on the ethanol and acetic acid concentrations obtained by gas chromatography of a calibration sample set. The value of the multiple correlation coefficient (R) was 0.999 when using the wavelengths of 1,686 and 1,738 nm for ethanol. The value of R for acetic acid was 0.940 when using the wavelengths of 1,674 and 1,718 nm. To validate the calibration equations obtained, ethanol and acetic acid concentrations in a prediction sample set which was not used for calibration were calculated using the calibration equation, and compared with the concentrations measured by gas chromatography. Excellent agreement between the results of the conventional method and those of NIR was observed for both constituents. The concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid in the culture broth could be analyzed simultaneously by NIR. The procedure of NIR was simple, and the operation time required to predict the concentrations was only 5 min. These results indicate that NIR may be a useful method for the monitoring and control of rice vinegar fermentation.
    Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 01/1997; 84(5-84):461-465. DOI:10.1016/S0922-338X(97)82008-9