ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that urinary catheter balloons filled with sterile water, saline or glycine have equivalent rates of failure to deflate.
This was an in vitro equivalence study designed to test whether saline or glycine are neither substantially worse nor substantially better than water in terms of balloon-deflation failure rates. Glycine was chosen as the third arm, as it is readily available during endoscopic procedures and would be useful to use in such situations. We hypothesised that balloon-deflation failure rates using saline or glycine were no worse than water by 10%. We calculated the sample size for equivalence testing; 600 catheters were randomized by computer-generated random numbers to receive 10 mL of water, saline or glycine, and then immersed in a heated artificial urine solution for 6 weeks. The catheter balloons were then deflated, noting any failures to deflate and recording the deflation volumes.
There was no failure to deflate in all 600 catheters. The median deflation volume for water, saline and glycine was 9.0, 9.2 and 9.1 mL, respectively (P < 0.001 Kruskal-Wallis test). Post-hoc pair-wise comparisons showed that the deflation volume difference between water and saline was significant (P < 0.001), as was that between water and glycine (P < 0.001). The practical implication of this difference is not apparent from this study.
The use of saline or glycine in catheter balloons has an equivalent deflation failure rate to using water, which in this study was zero.
BJU International 07/2009; 104(11):1693-5. · 2.84 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of previous bladder outlet surgery (BOS) on the peri-operative variables of patients having laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), as reported evidence as to whether BOS affects the outcome of RP is contradictory.
Of 600 consecutive patients attending for LRP from March 2000 to January 2006, 558 had had no surgery (NS) and 42 (7.0%) had a history of BOS (transurethral prostatectomy in 35, 5.8%; bladder neck incision in seven, 1.2%). All patients had clinical stage < or = T3aN0M0 prostate cancer and had their procedure performed or supervised by the same surgeon.
Patients with previous BOS had a significantly greater age (mean 64.6 vs 61.8 years, P = 0.008), duration of catheterization (mean 13.7 vs 10.5 days, P = 0.003), proportion of pT3a tumours (16.7% vs 4.5%, P = 0.009) and potency rates at > or = 24 months (P < 0.001). Patients with previous BOS had a significantly lower body weight (mean 79.7 vs 83.0 kg, P = 0.05) and prostate weight (mean 46.7 vs 58.6 g, P = 0.01). Although patients with previous BOS had poorer continence at 3 months (61% vs 91%, P < 0.001), continence rates were similar in the two groups after this.
Previous BOS does not affect the medium-term outcomes after LRP.
BJU International 02/2007; 99(2):399-402. · 2.84 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate if women with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) warrant cystoscopy to exclude an abnormality of the lower urinary tract. This is particularly relevant given that non-invasive imaging has often been performed to exclude abnormality. Our further aims were to correlate imaging and risk factors with cystoscopic findings to determine their predictive value in finding pathology.
A database of women undergoing cystoscopy with recurrent UTI has been maintained at our institution for 10 years. We retrospectively examined this and patient records for patient demographics, and investigative and operative data.
A total of 118 patients (mean 55 years) having recurrent UTI (mean 4.7 infections/year) were available. There were nine patients (8%) with significant abnormalities at cystoscopy: urethral stricture (six), bladder calculus (one), bladder diverticulum (one) and colovesical fistula (one). The negative predictive value (NPV) of imaging was 99% and significant (P < 0.01). Women with no risk factors for UTI had a NPV of 93% for normal cystoscopy (P > 0.05). The positive predictive value was low for imaging and risk factors in predicting cystoscopy findings.
In our study, 8% of women had significant abnormalities detected during cystoscopy with most over 50 years. Women without risk factors for recurrent UTI and with normal imaging could have a cystoscopy omitted. Younger women are less likely to have pathology and this must be factored into decisions to perform cystoscopy.
International Journal of Urology 04/2006; 13(4):350-3. · 1.75 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the construction of a simple training model from reconfigured chicken skin to simulate open and laparoscopic reconstructive pyeloplasty.
Reconfiguring and suturing chicken skin dissected off its muscle creates a model of the ureteropelvic junction. Dismembered pyeloplasty techniques may be practiced with open or laparoscopic equipment. Students with prior training in suturing and knot-tying only used the open pyeloplasty model on three occasions. Urology trainees experienced in surgery but not laparoscopic pyeloplasty used the model laparoscopically.
Students demonstrated a significant improvement (P < 0.05) between their first (17.00 +/- 4.44 minutes; mean +/- 95% CI) and third (11.33 +/- 2.40 minutes) attempts using the open model. Urology trainees improved their mean times from the first (18.0 minutes) to third (11.8 minutes) attempts using the laparoscopic model.
This cheap and readily available model is reproducible and applicable to training in both open and laparoscopic pyeloplasty.
Journal of Endourology 03/2006; 20(2):149-52. · 1.85 Impact Factor
TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 02/2004; 4:1014-6. · 1.66 Impact Factor