Veronica Salazar

Saratov State University, Saratov, Saratovskaya Oblast', Russia

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Publications (12)50.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ageing is accompanied by an impairment of the physiological activity of the nervous, endocrine and immune system, as well as in neuroendocrine-immune communication. However, age-related changes in this communication axis have been scarcely studied. In mammals, the process of ageing is associated with an important decline in the secretion of several hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), melatonin (MEL) and oestrogens (Os). Ovariectomy, a model of menopause in rats, has been found to lead to premature immunosenescence. In the present study, the effect of ovariectomy and the role of replacement therapies with GH, MEL, O and natural phyto-oestrogens (POs) have been assessed on several functions in leucocytes from the spleen and the axillary nodes of intact and ovariectomised rats. Chemotaxis, lymphoproliferative response to the mitogen concanavalin A (Con A), the release of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and the natural killer (NK) cell activity have been investigated. Age-controlled rats were used to compare immune functions in hormone treated aged rats with those in younger untreated animals. In all experimental groups, the immune impairment caused by ageing and ovariectomy was partially or completely reversed by hormone treatments. Since the immune system is a marker of health and a predictor of longevity, the results suggest that treatment with hormones could slow down the effects of the ageing process.
    Journal of Reproductive Immunology 05/2009; 80(1-2):70-9. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is accompanied by changes in the morphology and physiology of organs and tissues, such as the liver. This process might be due to the accumulation of oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Hepatocytes are very rich in mitochondria and have a high respiratory rate, so they are exposed to large amounts of ROS and permanent oxidative stress. Twenty-four male Wistar rats of 22 months of age were divided into three groups. One group remained untreated and acted as the control group. The second was treated with growth hormone (GH) (2 mg/kg/d sc) and the third was submitted to treatment wit 1 mg/kg/d of melatonin in the drinking water. A group of 2-months-old male rats was used as young controls. After 10 wk of treatment the rats were killed by decapitation, and the liver was dissected and homogenized. Mitochondrial, cytosolic and microsomal fractions were obtained and cytochrome C, glutathione peroxidase, s-transferase and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Aging induced a significant increase in mitochondrial nitric oxide. An increase in cytochrome C in the cytosolic fraction and a reduction in the mitochondrial fraction with age was also observed. Both GH and melatonin treatments significantly reduced the enhanced measures and increased the reduced values. A reduction in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was found in old control rats when compared with the group of young animals. Treatment for 2.5 months of old rats with GH and melatonin were able to increase the enzymes reaching values similar to those found in young animals. In conclusion, GH and melatonin treatment seems to have beneficial effects against age-induced damage in the liver.
    Journal of Pineal Research 02/2007; 42(1):64-70. · 7.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging seems to be due to the accumulation of oxidative damage in cells and molecules. On the other hand, menopause and ovariectomy induce deleterious effects on different organs and systems that have been shown to be counteracted by estrogens and in a not so evident form also with phytoestrogens. The present study has investigated whether the administration of a commercial soy extract that contains approximately 10% isoflavones was able to modify some parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammation in hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized female Wistar rats. Eighteen 22-month-old animals that had been previously ovariectomized at 12 months of age were divided into four groups: ovariectomized control rats, estradiol-treated ovariectomized females and ovariectomized rats treated with isoflavones. Six intact female rats of 2 months of age were used as reference group. Hepatocytes were isolated and cultured, and carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) release, as well as adenosyl triphosphate (ATP), cyclic guanosyl monophosphate (cGMP), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lipid peroxide (LPO) content of cells were evaluated. Uterus was also removed and weighed. Hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized rats showed a decrease in ATP content as compared to young animals. Age also induced an increase in LPO cell content. NO, CO and cGMP were augmented with age, and PC synthesis showed a dramatic reduction. Treatment with either estradiol or isoflavones were able to improve all the mentioned parameters altered in hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized rats, and the magnitude of the improvement was similar for both treatments. Ovariectomy induced a significant reduction in uterine weight, which was significantly counteracted by estradiol treatment but not by isoflavone administration. In conclusion, the administration of a soy extract containing isoflavones seems to prevent oxidative changes in hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized female rats, without modifying uterus weight.
    Phytomedicine 08/2006; 13(7):468-76. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: World-wide obesity has risen to alarming levels. We present experimental support for a new and very challenging hypothesis linking obesity, voracity, and growth hormone (GH) deficiency, to the consumption of elevated amounts of the amino-acid glutamate (GLU). Supraphysiological doses of GLU are toxic for neuronal cells. Human data were obtained from 807,592 German conscripts born between 1974 and 1978, and from 1,432,368 women of the German birth statistics (deutsche Perinatalerhebung) 1995-1997. The effects of orally administered monosodium glutamate (MSG) were investigated in 30 pregnant Wistar rats and their offspring. Pregnant animals either received no extra MSG, or 2.5 g MSG, or 5 g MSG per day, up to the end of the weaning period. In all, 2.5 g, respectively 5 g, MSG accounted for some 10%, respectively 20%, of dry weight of the average daily food ration. After weaning, MSG feeding was continued in the offspring. Morbid obesity associates with short stature. Average stature of conscripts progressively declines when body mass index increases above 38 kg/m2. Also morbidly obese young women are shorter than average though to a lesser extent than conscripts. Oral administration of MSG to pregnant rats affects birth weight of the offspring. Maternal feeding with 5 g MSG per day results in severe birth weight reduction (P<0.01). Weight increments remain subnormal when MSG feeding to the mothers is maintained during weaning (P < 0.01). GH serum levels are affected in animals that received MSG during prenatal life via maternal feeding. Animals that are kept on high MSG diet (5 g MSG per day) continue to show serum GH levels that are as low or even lower than those of MSG injected animals (P < 0.05), both at day 30 and at day 90 of life. Animals that were kept on medium MSG diet (2.5 g MSG per day) showed low serum GH levels at day 30 of life (P < 0.01), but seemed to partially recover before day 90. Almost identical results were observed in IGF-1 serum levels. Oral MSG resulted in dose dependent voracity. The animals fed 5 g MSG per day increased water uptake by threefold (P < 0.01), and food uptake by almost two-fold (P < 0.01). The influence of MSG is in general more marked in males than in females. Interpretation: GLU is a widely used nutritional substance that potentially exhibits significant neuronal toxicity. Voracity, and impaired GH secretion are the two major characteristics of parenterally administered GLU-induced neuronal damage. GLU maintains its toxicity in animals even when administered orally. Males appear to be more sensitive than females. The present study for the first time demonstrates, that a widely used nutritional monosubstance--the flavouring agent MSG--at concentrations that only slightly surpass those found in everyday human food, exhibits significant potential for damaging the hypothalamic regulation of appetite, and thereby determines the propensity of world-wide obesity. We suggest to reconsider the recommended daily allowances of amino acids and nutritional protein, and to abstain from the popular protein-rich diets, and particularly from adding the flavouring agents MSG.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2006; 60(1):25-31. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In young rodents, estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. However, it is unknown if the old brain retains this response to estradiol. Here we assessed the generation of new cells in the dentate gyrus of old rats after administration of estradiol or a soy extract, since soy is used as an alternative to hormonal replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. In a first experiment, 12-month-old animals were ovariectomized and studied at 14, 18 or 22 months of age. The production of new cells, assessed by the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), was similar in 14- and 18-month-old rats. However, there was a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-immunoreactive cells at 22 months of age. In a second experiment, 22-month-old ovariectomized animals were treated for 10 weeks with a weekly s.c. injection of 150 microg estradiol valerianate or with 60 mg/kg per day soy extract added to the drinking water. Both treatments increased significantly the production of new cells in the dentate gyrus. These findings indicate that the brains of old rats retain the ability to increase the production of new cells in response to estradiol and soy extracts.
    Experimental Gerontology 06/2005; 40(5):450-3. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging induces changes in several organs and tissues, such as the liver, and this process might be due to oxidative damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. Melatonin is a secretory product with well-known antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Twenty-two-month old male Wistar rats were treated with oral melatonin for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated and cultured, and different parameters were measured in both cells and medium. Aging induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate, as well as a reduction in adenosine triphosphate content and phosphatidylcholine synthesis when compared to young animals. Melatonin administration significantly ameliorated all these age-related changes in males. Melatonin administration seems to exert beneficial effects against age-induced changes in hepatocytes.
    Journal of Pineal Research 06/2005; 38(4):240-6. · 7.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decline of growth hormone (GH) with aging is associated to memory and cognitive alterations. In this study, the number of neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus has been assessed in male and female Wistar rats at 3, 6, 12, 14, 18, 22 and 24 months of age, using the optical fractionator method. Male rats had more neurons than females at all the ages studied. Significant neuronal loss was observed in both sexes between 22 and 24 months of age. In a second experiment, 22 month-old male and female rats were treated for 10 weeks with 2 mg/kg/day of GH or saline. At 24 months of age, animals treated with GH had more neurons in the hilus than animals treated with saline. These findings indicate that GH is neuroprotective in old animals and that its administration may ameliorate neuronal alterations associated to aging.
    Neurobiology of Aging 06/2005; 26(5):697-703. · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging could be due to the accumulation of oxidative damage. On the other hand, growth hormone (GH) and estrogen deficiency induce deleterious effects on different tissues, and hormonal replacement could counteract these effects. We have investigated whether GH and estrogen administration modify some parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammation in hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized female rats. Twenty-two month-old ovariectomized animals were divided into control rats, rats treated with GH, rats treated with estradiol, and rats treated with GH+estradiol. Two-month-old intact female rats were used as young reference group. Hepatocytes were isolated, cultured, and CO and NO release, ATP, cyclic-guanosyl monophosphate (cGMP), and lipid peroxide (LPO) content of cells, as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC)synthesis, were measured. Hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized rats showed a decrease in ATP content and PC synthesis compared to young rats. Age also induced an increase in LPO, NO, CO, and cGMP. Treating old rats with GH significantly increased ATP and reduced CO and cGMP levels. Estradiol administration improved all the parameters that were altered. Co-administration of GH and estrogens induced a more marked effect than estrogens alone only in cGMP content. In conclusion, administration of estrogens to old ovariectomized females seemed to prevent oxidative changes in hepatocytes, whereas the effect of GH is not so evident.
    Endocrine 03/2005; 26(1):11-8. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is accompanied by changes in the morphology and physiology of organs and tissues, such as the liver. This process might be due to the accumulation of oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Hepatocytes are very rich in mitochondria and have a high respiratory rate, so they are exposed to large amounts of ROS and permanent oxidative stress. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is an endogenous metabolite that has shown to exert protective effects on different experimental pathological models in which free radicals are involved. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SAMe on age-induced damage in hepatocytes. For this purpose, male and female Wistar rats of 18 and 2 months of age were used. Cells were isolated and, after incubation in the presence or in the absence of SAMe, different parameters were measured. Aging induced a significant increase in nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and cGMP, and a reduction in reduced glutathione, ATP and phosphatidylcholine synthesis, as well as in methionine- adenosyl-transferase and methyl-transferase activities. Incubation of old cells with SAMe prevented all these age-related changes, reaching values in some of the parameters similar to those found in young animals. In conclusion, SAMe seems to have beneficial effects against age-induced damage in hepatocytes.
    Biogerontology 02/2005; 6(5):313-23. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of dibutyl phtalate (DBP) given in a soy-free rat chow on pre-pubertal development, 46 Long Evans female rats 2-month-old were divided into three experimental groups and fed three different chows: (1) control; (2) DP 0.61 g/kg chow (12 mg/kgrat/day); (3) DP 2.5 g/kg chow (50 mg/kg rat/day) for 2 months. While under this treatment, they were mated and their offspring studied. Litter size and female:male ratio were recorded. At 14 days of age 6, male pups of each group were sacrificed and testis and thymus were excised and weighed. Pups were weaned at 22 days of age and continued into three experimental groups according to diet. From day 22 onwards, vaginal opening, occurrence of first estrous, and pre-putial separation were recorded. RESULTS: The percent of pregnancies showed a marked decrease in group 3, while no difference was observed between groups 1 and 2. Sex prevalence and litter size were not affected by the different diets. Pup survival showed a decrease when mothers were fed diet 2, but it was similar in diets 1 and 3. Pup weights on day 2 showed an evident (P < 0.05) reduction in groups 2 and 3, the decrease being more marked (P < 0.001) in group 3. On day 6, pups of group 2 showed lower weights (P < 0.01) as compared with the other groups. Weight gain was significantly higher in pups of group 3. Eye opening was not affected by the different diets. Fourteen-day-old male pups' relative weight of thymus and testis showed a decrease in animals whose mothers had been fed diets 2 and 3. Vaginal opening and occurrence of first estrous showed an evident delay (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) in females fed diets 2 and 3. Significant differences (P < 0.001) in pre-putial separation were observed between treated and untreated groups. Conclusion: Offspring pre-pubertal development seems to be affected by oral intake of DBP by their mothers during pregnancy, the effects being more evident in the reproductive development of male pups.
    Toxicology 01/2005; 205(1-2):131-7. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging induces changes in several organs, such as the liver, and this process might be due to damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis shows a reduction with age, and this fact could be associated with some age-related changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GH administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Two and twenty two month-old male and female Wistar rats were used. Old rats were treated with human recombinant GH for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated from the liver and cultured, and different parameters were measured in cells and medium. Plasma IGF-1 was also measured. Aging significantly decreased plasma IGF-1 in males. In females, plasma IGF-1 was also reduced, but not significantly. GH treatment restored plasma IGF-1 levels to values similar to young males. Aging was associated with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate (cGMP), as well as a reduction in adenosyl triphosphate (ATP) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. GH administration partially prevented all these changes in males. In females, some of the parameters were significantly improved by GH (ATP, CO, cGMP), while others showed a tendency to improvement, although differences did not reach significance. In conclusion, GH administration could exert beneficial effects against age-related changes in hepatocytes, mainly in males.
    Endocrine 11/2004; 25(1):33-9. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impairment of the immune system with aging, or 'immunosenescence', appears to contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of aged subjects. T cell functions and Natural Killer activity seem to be the immune responses most affected by ageing. Since the immune system works more efficiently in females than in males, we have studied the changes of several immune functions with age in rats of both sexes. In addition, we have investigated if ovariectomy, a model of menopause in rats, produces a loss of this gender-related advantage. In the present work, the changes with age (2, 6, 12, 14, 18, 22 and 24 months old) in lymphocyte chemotaxis, T lymphoproliferative response to the mitogen ConA, IL-2 release and Natural Killer activity of cells from axillary nodes and spleen of male and female rats as well as of females ovariectomized at 12 months of age have been studied. An age-related decrease was found in all investigated functions, with a slightly different evolution depending on the immune organ and gender considered. In general, the data obtained show that a certain degree of immunosenescence takes place with age in rats, with males being less immunocompetent than intact age-matched females, but showing an immune response similar to that of ovariectomized animals.
    Biogerontology 02/2004; 5(6):389-400. · 3.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

246 Citations
50.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007
    • Saratov State University
      • Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
      Saratov, Saratovskaya Oblast', Russia
  • 2004–2007
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Departamento de Fisiología (Fisiología Animal)
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2005
    • University of Malaga
      • Facultad de Ciencias
      Málaga, Andalusia, Spain