[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the use of coronary-artery bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest ("off pump") on graft patency remains uncertain. We undertook a prospective, randomized, controlled study to compare graft-patency rates and clinical outcomes in off-pump surgery with conventional, "on-pump" surgery.
We randomly assigned 50 patients to undergo on-pump coronary-artery bypass grafting and 54 to undergo off-pump surgery. Surgical and anesthetic techniques were standardized for both groups. Clinical outcomes and troponin T levels were measured. Three months later, the patients underwent coronary angiography, including quantitative analysis.
The mean age of the patients was 63 years, and 87 percent were men. The on-pump group received a mean of 3.4 grafts, and the off-pump group 3.1 (P=0.41). There were no deaths. There was no significant difference in the median postoperative length of stay between the two groups (seven days in each group). The area under the curve of troponin T levels was higher during the first 72 hours in the on-pump group than in the off-pump group (30.96 hr x microg per liter vs. 19.33 hr x microg per liter, P=0.02). At three months, 127 of 130 grafts were patent in the on-pump group (98 percent), as compared with 114 of 130 in the off-pump group (88 percent, P=0.002). The patency rate was higher for all graft territories in the on-pump group than in the off-pump group.
In this randomized study, off-pump coronary surgery was as safe as on-pump surgery and caused less myocardial damage. However, the graft-patency rate was lower at three months in the off-pump group than in the on-pump group, and this difference has implications with respect to the long-term outcome.
New England Journal of Medicine 02/2004; 350(1):21-8. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endoscopic atraumatic coronary artery bypass (endo-ACAB) procedure allows single-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), avoiding sternotomy or thoracotomy. We set out to define the effect of this surgical approach on postoperative recovery, blood loss, and return to work.
We performed a case-control comparison of our first 29 endo-ACAB procedures for left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) disease against 29 control patients, who underwent off-pump beating heart CABG via sternotomy for isolated LAD disease in the same institution. Control pairs were matched for age, sex, and ventricular function.
In a matched population, endo-ACAB is associated with shorter postoperative ventilation times (6.2 hours versus 9.0 hours, P = .034) and hospital stays (5.3 nights versus 6.4 nights, P = .04), less blood loss (363.9 mL versus 570.3 mL, P = .017), and lower transfusion requirements. Endo-ACAB patients were more likely to return to employment and did so at a mean of 6.6 weeks earlier than sternotomy patients (P = .019).
Endo-ACAB for grafting of the left internal mammary artery to the LAD is associated with reduced blood loss and faster postoperative recovery. Avoiding sternotomy appears to be a significant factor in recovery after beating heart single-vessel CABG surgery.
Heart Surgery Forum 02/2004; 7(6):E546-50; discussion E546-50. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic internal thoracic artery (ITA) harvesting is employed during minimal-access coronary artery bypass grafting. To improve case selection, we prospectively analyzed our entire experience to identify variables that predict intraoperative conversion to sternotomy.
We performed a prospective study from September 1999 to November 2003 of 100 consecutive patients with an endoscopically harvested left ITA (LITA). Success was defined as an endoscopic dissection of the LITA sufficient to reach the anastomosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent preoperative and procedural predictors of success.
The measured parameters (mean +/- SD) were age (62 +/- 9 years), height (174 +/- 9 cm), weight (81 +/- 14 kg), and logistic Euroscore (2.0 +/- 1.7). Patients comprised 8 (8%) women, 17 (17%) with urgent operations, 42 (42%) with multiple vessel disease, 17 (17%) with a left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, 2 (2%) redo procedures, and 3 (3%) with pleural disease. The Zeus robot was used in 17 patients (17%). Eight-eight (88%) of the LITA were successfully harvested endoscopically. Among the 12 patients who underwent conversions, pleural adhesions were the most common finding (n = 4, 33%). One LITA was unusable. In the final multivariate model, lung disease was a negative predictor of successful endoscopic harvest (odds ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.63; P =.012). The variables of age, sex, left ventricular function, logistic Euroscore, operative priority, and use of the Zeus robot did not achieve statistical significance.
Acceptable conversion rates and low conduit wastage are achievable during a unit's initial experience. Lung disease is associated with increased conversion frequency, and surgeons embarking on endoscopic harvesting should consider excluding these patients to improve their chances of success. Pleural adhesions increase the technical difficulty of surgery.
Heart Surgery Forum 02/2004; 7(2):E179-82. · 0.63 Impact Factor