[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The increased incidence of minor physical anomalies (MPAs) in schizophrenia is the fundamental basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia etiology. Ocular misalignment falls into the category of MPAs, but this phenotype has not been assessed in schizophrenia. This study reveals that constant exotropia displays marked association with schizophrenia. To assess the genetic mechanisms, we examined the transcription factor genes ARIX and its paralogue, PMX2B. We identified frequent deletion/insertion polymorphisms in the 20-alanine homopolymer stretch of PMX2B, with a modest association between these functional polymorphisms and constant exotropia in schizophrenia. The polymorphisms were also associated with overall schizophrenia and more specifically with schizophrenia manifesting strabismus. These results suggest a possible interaction between PMX2B and other schizophrenia-precipitating factors, increasing the risk of the combined phenotypes. This study also highlights the unique nature of the polyalanine length variations found in PMX2B.
Seishin shinkeigaku zasshi = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica 02/2004; 106(12):1585-92.