Publications (2)0 Total impact
ABSTRACT: Recent observations with the XMM-Newton satellite confirmed the existence of the soft excess phenomenon in galaxy clusters, earlier discovered in several EUVE, ROSAT and BeppoSAX observations. Among the clusters for which XMM has reported detection of soft excess emission are MKW03s and A2052, two clusters in the Hercules concentration. The Hercules supercluster lies along the southern extension of the North Polar Spur, a region of bright soft X-ray emission clearly visible in ROSAT All-Sky Survey images. We analyze 11 pointed ROSAT PSPC observations toward 3 clusters in the Hercule concentration, MKW03s, A2052 and A2063, and 8 neighboring fields in order to investigate the soft X-ray emission in that region of the sky. We find that the soft X-ray emission varies by a factor of few on scales of few degrees, rendering the background subtraction a complex task. If the Noth Polar Spur emission is of local origin, we find that only A2052 and A2063 have evidence of cluster soft excess emission, and that the OVII emission lines detected in XMM observations of A2052 and MKW03s are not associated with the cluster. If part or all of the North Polar Spur soft X-ray enhancement is of extragalactic nature, the three clusters feature strong soft excess emission, and the OVII emission lines observed by XMM are genuinely associated with the clusters. We interpret the soft excess emission with the presence of warm gas, either intermixed with the hot intra-cluster medium or in filamentary structures located around the clusters, and estimate that the warm gas is approximately as massive as the hot intra-cluster medium. Comment: 17 pages, published in A. & A
ABSTRACT: Recent observations with the XMM-Newton satellite confirmed the existence of the soft excess phenomenon in galaxy clusters, earlier discovered in several EUVE, ROSAT and BeppoSAX observations. Excess of soft X-ray radiation in the spectra of several clusters -- above the contribution from the well-known hot intra-cluster gas -- is normally interpreted as emission from cooler gas (T~10^6 K) in the vicinity of galaxy clusters. In this paper we investigate the emission from three clusters in the Hercules concentration, MKW~S, A2052 and A2063. Available XMM observations for two of them (MKW~3s and A2052) indicate the presence of the excess emission, also associated with O VII emission lines. The clusters lie close to the North Polar Spur region, a portion of the sky which features strong soft X-ray emission. We analyze the ROSAT PSPC data of the three clusters and of eight other neighboring locations, in order to study the level of the local soft X-ray background and its influence on the determination of soft excess fluxes. Our analysis reveals that the North Polar Spur region has strong gradients in the soft X-ray emission, which render the background subtraction process quite cumbersome. Despite these complications, we are able to provide evidence for the presence of soft excess emission in the PSPC data of MKW~S, A2052 and A2063.