[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR), a G protein-coupled receptor, is expressed in many epithelial tissues including the parathyroid glands, kidney, and GI tract. Although its role in regulating PTH levels and Ca(2+) metabolism are best characterized, it may also regulate salt and water transport in the kidney as demonstrated by recent reports showing association of potent gain-of-function mutations in the CaR with a Bartter-like, salt-wasting phenotype. To determine whether this receptor interacts with novel proteins that control ion transport, we screened a human adult kidney cDNA library with the COOH-terminal 219 amino acid cytoplasmic tail of the CaR as bait using the yeast two-hybrid system. We identified two independent clones coding for approximately 125 aa from the COOH terminus of the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel, Kir4.2. The CaR and Kir4.2 as well as Kir4.1 (another member of Kir4 subfamily) were reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from HEK-293 cells in which they were expressed, but the receptor did not coimmunoprecipitate with Kir5.1 or Kir1.1. Both Kir4.1 and Kir4.2 were immunoprecipitated from rat kidney extracts with the CaR. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, expression of the CaR with either Kir4.1 or Kir4.2 channels resulted in inactivation of whole cell current as measured by two-electrode voltage clamp, but the nonfunctional CaR mutant CaR(R796W), and that does not coimmunoprecipitate with the channels, had no effect. Kir4.1 and the CaR were colocalized in the basolateral membrane of the distal nephron. The CaR interacts directly with Kir4.1 and Kir4.2 and can decrease their currents, which in turn could reduce recycling of K(+) for the basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and thereby contribute to inhibition of Na(+) reabsorption.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 04/2007; 292(3):F1073-81. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Filamin plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton organization, membrane stabilization, and anchoring of transmembrane proteins. Using short interfering RNA (siRNA) to selectively target the filamin A gene and silence its expression, we studied the role of filamin A in G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Silencing of filamin A protein expression was determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Functional consequences of filamin A gene silencing were measured by studying its role in MAPK signaling pathways activated by the Ca2+ -sensing receptor. This work defines filamin A involvement in GPCR signaling pathways and describes an additional method for studying its function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased extracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](o)) can damage tissues, but the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly defined. Using HEK 293 cell lines that stably overexpress the Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR), a G protein-coupled receptor, we demonstrate that activation of the CaR leads to apoptosis, which was determined by nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and increased cytosolic cytochrome c. This CaR-induced apoptotic pathway is initiated by CaR-induced accumulation of ceramide which plays an important role in inducing cell death signals by distinct G protein-independent signaling pathways. Pretreatment of wild-type CaR-expressing cells with pertussis toxin inhibited CaR-induced [(3)H]ceramide formation, c-Jun phosphorylation, and caspase-3 activation. The ceramide accumulation, c-Jun phosphorylation, and caspase-3 activation by the CaR can be abolished by sphingomyelinase and ceramide synthase inhibitors in different time frames. Cells that express a nonfunctional mutant CaR that were exposed to the same levels of [Ca(2+)](o) showed no evidence of activation of the apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, we report the involvement of the CaR in stimulating programmed cell death via a pathway involving GTP binding protein alpha subunit (Galpha(i))-dependent ceramide accumulation, activation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun phosphorylation, caspase-3 activation, and DNA cleavage.
The Journal of Lipid Research 08/2005; 46(7):1396-404. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) couples to multiple G proteins involved in distinct signaling pathways: Galphai to inhibit the activity of adenylyl cyclase and activate ERK, Galphaq to stimulate phospholipase C and phospholipase A2, and Gbetagamma to stimulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. To determine whether the receptor also couples to Galpha12/13, we investigated the signaling pathway by which the CaR regulates phospholipase D (PLD), a known Galpha12/13 target. We established Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines that stably overexpress the wild-type CaR (CaRWT) or the nonfunctional mutant CaRR796W as a negative control, prelabeled these cells with [3H]palmitic acid, and measured CaR-stimulated PLD activity as the formation of [3H]phosphatidylethanol (PEt). The formation of [3H]PEt increased in a time-dependent manner in the cells that overexpress the CaRWT but not the CaRR796W. Treatment of the cells with C3 exoenzyme inhibited PLD activity, which indicates that the CaR activates the Rho family of small G proteins, targets of Galpha12/13. To determine which G protein(s) the CaR couples to in order to activate Rho and PLD, we pretreated the cells with pertussis toxin to inactivate Galphai or coexpressed regulators of G protein-signaling (RGS) proteins to attenuate G protein signaling (RGS4 for Galphai and Galphaq, and a p115RhoGEF construct containing the RGS domain for Galpha12/13). Overexpression of p115RhoGEF-RGS in the MDCK cells that overexpress CaRWT inhibited extracellular Ca2+-stimulated PLD activity, but pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin and overexpression of RGS4 were without effect. The involvement of other signaling components such as protein kinase C, ADP-ribosylation factor, and phosphatidylinositol biphosphate was excluded. These findings demonstrate that the CaR couples to Galpha12/13 to regulate PLD via a Rho-dependent mechanism and does so independently of Galphai and Galphaq. This suggests that the CaR may regulate cytoskeleton via Galpha12/13, Rho, and PLD.