ABSTRACT: Synergism between low-molecular-weight heparin and low doses of unfractionated heparin (UH) enhancing anti-factor Xa activity and the release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor was observed. The aim of this study was to verify whether this association is effective in preventing experimental venous thrombosis. Seventy rats were allocated into 7 groups: the control group treated with distilled water, the H(350) group treated with UH 350 IU/kg, the E(2) group treated with enoxaparin 2 mg/kg, the H(175) group treated with UH 175 IU/kg, the E(1) group treated with enoxaparin 1 mg/kg, the H(175) + E(1) group treated with UH 175 IU/kg plus enoxaparin 1 mg/kg, and the H(100) + E(0.5) group treated with UH 100 IU/kg plus enoxaparin 0.5 mg/kg. Forty minutes after subcutaneous injection, thrombosis was induced in vena cava. Three hours later, if present, thrombi were withdrawn and weighed. Bleeding time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time (TT), and anti-factor Xa were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. Forty-eight other animals were treated, but without inducing thrombus, and tests were performed 40 min after injection. Thrombus developed in 90.9% of control animals, 20% of the H(350) group, 22.2% of the E(2) group, 10% of the H(175) + E(1) group, and 30% of the H(100) + E(0.5) group; there was a difference between group C and the other groups. Only in the H(350) and H(175) + E(1) groups were TT and activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged in relation to control at the end of the experiment. Forty minutes after injection, TT was prolonged in the H(350) and H(175) + E(1) groups. In conclusion, combinations of low doses of low-molecular-weight heparin and low doses of UH were as effective as high doses of each one used alone in preventing thrombus development in rat vena cava.
Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis 02/2005; 34(6):263-8. · 2.23 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Treatment of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) with a once-daily regimen of enoxaparin, rather than a continuous infusion of unfractionated heparin (UFH) is more convenient and allows for home care in some patients. This study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of these two regimens for the treatment of patients with proximal lower limb DVT.
201 patients with proximal lower limb DVT from 13 centers in Brazil were randomized in an open manner to receive either enoxaparin [1.5 mg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.) OD] or intravenous (i.v.) UFH (adjusted to aPTT 1.5-2.5 times control) for 5-10 days. All patients also received warfarin (INR 2-3) for at least 3 months. The primary efficacy endpoint was recurrent DVT (confirmed by venography or ultrasonography), and safety endpoints included bleeding and serious adverse events. The rate of pulmonary embolism (PE) was also collected. Hospitalization was at the physician's discretion.
Baseline patient characteristics were comparable between groups. The duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter with enoxaparin than with UFH (3 versus 7 days). In addition, 36% of patients receiving enoxaparin did not need to be hospitalized, whereas all of the patients receiving UFH were hospitalized. The treatment duration was slightly longer with enoxaparin (8 versus 7 days). There was a nonsignificant trend toward a reduction in the rate of recurrent DVT with enoxaparin versus UFH, and similar safety.
A once-daily regimen of enoxaparin 1.5 mg/kg subcutaneous is at least as effective and safe as conventional treatment with a continuous intravenous infusion of UFH. However, the once daily enoxaparin regimen is easier to administer (subcutaneous versus intravenous), does not require aPTT monitoring, and leads to both a reduced number of hospital admissions and an average 4-day-shorter hospital stay.
Thrombosis Research 02/2004; 114(3):149-53. · 2.44 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and safety of a low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin) with unfractionated heparin (UH) in this prophylaxis.
Seventy five patients (59 men and 16 women), undergoing major lower extremity amputation (30 above-knee and 45 below-knee), were randomized to be treated with subcutaneous UH (5,000 IU t.i.d.) or enoxaparin (40 mg/day) during hospitalization. Prophylaxis was started 12 hours before surgery or, in emergency cases, in the first postoperative day.
The two groups were comparable with regard to baseline characteristics. Evaluation of DVT was performed by daily clinical examination and by duplex scanning before and 5 to 8 days after surgery. DVT was documented in the operated limb in 9.75% in patients treated with enoxaparin and in 11.76% in patients treated with UH (p=0.92) and there was one bilateral thrombosis in each group . Bleeding complications were not observed in both groups.
Enoxaparin and UH were both efficient and safe for the prophylaxis of DVT in patients submitted to lower extremity amputation.
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira 21(3):184-6. · 0.58 Impact Factor