Manoj Kaplinghat

University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States

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Publications (112)459.39 Total impact

  • Manoj Kaplinghat · Sean Tulin · Hai-Bo Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Astrophysical observations spanning dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters indicate that dark matter (DM) halos are less dense in their central regions compared to expectations from collisionless DM N-body simulations. Using detailed fits to DM halos of galaxies and clusters, we show that self-interacting DM (SIDM) may provide a consistent solution to the DM deficit problem across all scales, even though individual systems exhibit a wide diversity in halo properties. Since the characteristic velocity of DM particles varies across these systems, we are able to measure the self-interaction cross section as a function of kinetic energy and thereby deduce the SIDM particle physics model parameters. Our results prefer a mildly velocity-dependent cross section, from $\sigma/m \simeq 2\; {\rm cm^2/g}$ on galaxy scales to $\sigma/m \simeq 0.1\; {\rm cm^2/g}$ on cluster scales, consistent with the upper limits from merging clusters. Our results dramatically improve the constraints on SIDM models and may allow the masses of both DM and dark mediator particles to be measured even if the dark sector is completely hidden from the Standard Model, which we illustrate for the dark photon model.
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    Eugenio Del Nobile · Manoj Kaplinghat · Hai-Bo Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) is a simple and well-motivated scenario that could explain long-standing puzzles in structure formation on small scales. If the required self-interaction arises through a light mediator (with mass $\sim 10$ MeV) in the dark sector, this new particle must be unstable to avoid overclosing the universe. The decay of the light mediator could happen due to a weak coupling of the hidden and visible sectors, providing new signatures for direct detection experiments. The SIDM nuclear recoil spectrum is more peaked towards low energies compared to the usual case of contact interactions, because the mediator mass is comparable to the momentum transfer of nuclear recoils. We show that the SIDM signal could be distinguished from that of DM particles with contact interactions by considering the time-average energy spectrum in experiments employing different target materials, or the average and modulated spectra in a single experiment. Using current limits from LUX and SuperCDMS, we also derive strong bounds on the mixing parameter between hidden and visible sector.
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    Manoj Kaplinghat · Tim Linden · Hai-Bo Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Observations by the Fermi-LAT telescope have uncovered a significant $\gamma$-ray excess toward the Milky Way Galactic Center. There has been no detection of a similar signal in the direction of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Additionally, astronomical observations indicate that dwarf galaxies and other faint galaxies are less dense than predicted by the simplest cold dark matter models. We show that a self-interacting dark matter model with a particle mass of roughly 50 GeV annihilating to the mediator responsible for the strong self-interaction can simultaneously explain all three observations. The mediator is necessarily unstable and its mass must be below about 100 MeV in order to lower densities in faint galaxies. If the mediator decays to electron-positron pairs with a cross section on the order of the thermal relic value, then we find that these pairs can up-scatter the interstellar radiation field and produce the observed $\gamma$-ray excess. We show that this model is compatible with all current constraints and highlight detectable signatures unique to self-interacting dark matter models.
    Physical Review Letters 01/2015; 114(21). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.211303 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    Quinn E. Minor · Manoj Kaplinghat
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    ABSTRACT: We point out three correlated predictions of the axion monodromy inflation model: large amplitude of gravitational waves, suppression of power on horizon scales and on scales relevant for the formation of dwarf galaxies. While these predictions are likely generic to models with oscillations in the inflaton potential, the axion monodromy model naturally accommodates the required running spectral index through Planck-scale corrections to the inflaton potential. Applying this model to a combined data set of Planck, ACT, SPT, and WMAP low-$\ell$ polarization cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, we find a best-fit tensor-to-scalar ratio $r_{0.05} = 0.07^{+0.05}_{-0.04}$ due to gravitational waves, which may have been observed by the BICEP2 experiment. Despite the contribution of gravitational waves, the total power on large scales (CMB power spectrum at low multipoles) is lower than the standard $\Lambda$CDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of initial perturbations and no gravitational waves, thus mitigating some of the tension on large scales. There is also a reduction in the matter power spectrum of 20-30\% at scales corresponding to $k = 10~{\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, which are relevant for dwarf galaxy formation. This will alleviate some of the unsolved small-scale structure problems in the standard $\Lambda$CDM cosmology.
    Physical Review D 11/2014; 91(6). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.91.063504 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new extended gamma ray excess toward the Galactic Center that traces the 3.4 micron infrared emission morphology. Combined with its measured spectrum, this new extended source is consistent with inverse Compton emission from a high-energy electron-positron population with energies up to about 10 GeV. Previously detected emissions tracing the 20 cm radio, interpreted as bremsstrahlung radiation, and the Galactic Center Extended emission tracing a spherical distribution and peaking at 2 GeV, are also detected. We show that the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions are likely due to the same source of electrons and positrons. All three extended emissions may be explained within the framework of a model where the dark matter annihilates to leptons or a model with unresolved millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Center.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 10/2014; 2015(07). DOI:10.1088/1475-7516/2015/07/013 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a simple supersymmetric hidden sector: pure SU(N) gauge theory. Dark matter is made up of hidden glueballinos with mass $m_X$ and hidden glueballs with mass near the confinement scale $\Lambda$. For $m_X \sim 1~\text{TeV}$ and $\Lambda \sim 100~\text{MeV}$, the glueballinos freeze out with the correct relic density and self-interact through glueball exchange to resolve small-scale structure puzzles. An immediate consequence is that the glueballino spectrum has a hyperfine splitting of order $\Lambda^2 / m_X \sim 10~\text{keV}$. We show that the radiative decays of the excited state can explain the observed 3.5 keV X-ray line signal from clusters of galaxies, Andromeda, and the Milky Way.
    Physical Review D 08/2014; 90(9). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.90.095016 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The BICEP2 results, when interpreted as a gravitational wave signal and combined with other cosmic microwave background data, suggest a roll-off in power towards small scales in the primordial matter power spectrum. Among the simplest possibilities is a running of the spectral index. Here we show that the preferred level of running alleviates small-scale issues within the ΛCDM model, more so even than viable WDM models. We use cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-sized halo along with full-box simulations to compare predictions among four separate cosmologies: a BICEP2-inspired running index model (αs = −0.024), two fixed-tilt ΛCDM models motivated by Planck, and a 2.6 keV thermal WDM model. We find that the running BICEP2 model reduces the central densities of large dwarf-sized haloes (Vmax ∼ 30–80 km s−1) and alleviates the too-big-to-fail problem significantly compared to our adopted Planck and WDM cases. Further, the BICEP2 model suppresses the count of small subhaloes by ∼50 per cent relative to Planck models, and yields a significantly lower ‘boost’ factor for dark matter annihilation signals. Our findings highlight the need to understand the shape of the primordial power spectrum in order to correctly interpret small-scale data.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2014; 444(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1479 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We construct empirical models of the diffuse gamma-ray background toward the Galactic Center. Including all known point sources and a template of emission associated with interactions of cosmic rays with molecular gas, we show that the extended emission observed previously in the Fermi Large Area Telescope data toward the Galactic Center is detected at high significance for all permutations of the diffuse model components. However, we find that the fluxes and spectra of the sources in our model change significantly depending on the background model. In particular, the spectrum of the central Sgr A$^\ast$ source is less steep than in previous works and the recovered spectrum of the extended emission has large systematic uncertainties, especially at lower energies. If the extended emission is interpreted to be due to dark matter annihilation, we find annihilation into pure $b$-quark and $\tau$-lepton channels to be statistically equivalent goodness-of-fits. In the case of the pure $b$-quark channel, we find a dark matter mass of $39.4\left(^{+3.7}_{-2.9}\rm\ stat.\right)\left(\pm 7.9\rm\ sys.\right)\rm\ GeV$, while a pure $\tau^{+} \tau^{-}$ channel case has an estimated dark matter mass of $9.43\left(^{+0.63}_{-0.52}\rm\ stat.\right)(\pm 1.2\rm\ sys.)\ GeV$. Alternatively, if the extended emission is interpreted to be astrophysical in origin such as due to unresolved millisecond pulsars, we obtain strong bounds on dark matter annihilation, although systematic uncertainties due to the dependence on the background models are significant.
    Physical Review D 02/2014; 90(2). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.90.023526 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is strong evidence in favor of the idea that dark matter is self-interacting, with cross section-to-mass ratio $\sigma / m \sim 1~\mathrm{cm^2/g} \sim 1~\mathrm{barn/GeV}$. We show that viable models of dark matter with this large cross section are straightforwardly realized with non-Abelian hidden sectors. In the simplest of such models, the hidden sector is a pure gauge theory, and the dark matter is hidden glueballs with mass around 100 MeV. Alternatively, the hidden sector may be a supersymmetric pure gauge theory with a $\sim 10~\mathrm{TeV}$ gluino thermal relic. In this case, the dark matter is largely composed of glueballinos that strongly self-interact through the exchange of light glueballs. We present a unified framework that realizes both of these possibilities in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking, where, depending on a few model parameters, the dark matter is either hidden glueballinos, hidden glueballs, or a mixture of the two. These models provide simple examples of multi-component dark matter, have interesting implications for particle physics and cosmology, and include cases where a sub-dominant component of dark matter may be extremely strongly self-interacting, with interesting astrophysical consequences.
    Physical Review D 02/2014; 89(11). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.89.115017 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 4, on the Cosmic Frontier, discusses the program of research relevant to cosmology and the early universe. This area includes the study of dark matter and the search for its particle nature, the study of dark energy and inflation, and cosmic probes of fundamental symmetries.
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    ABSTRACT: We measured velocities of 862 individual red giant stars in seven isolated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: NGC 6822, IC 1613, VV 124 (UGC 4879), the Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 216), Leo A, Cetus, and Aquarius (DDO 210). We also computed velocity dispersions, taking into account the measurement uncertainties on individual stars. None of the isolated galaxies is denser than the densest Local Group satellite galaxy. Furthermore, the isolated dwarf galaxies have no obvious distinction in the velocity dispersion--half-light radius plane from the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and M31. The similarity of the isolated and satellite galaxies' dynamics and structural parameters imposes limitations on environmental solutions to the too-big-to-fail problem, wherein there are fewer dense dwarf satellite galaxies than would be expected from cold dark matter simulations. This data set also has many other applications for dwarf galaxy evolution, including the transformation of dwarf irregular into dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We intend to explore these issues in future work.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2014; 439(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu025 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    Manoj Kaplinghat · Ryan E. Keeley · Tim Linden · Hai-Bo Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from CDM predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.5 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.
    Physical Review Letters 11/2013; 113(2). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.021302 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present 3D kinematic observations of stars within the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy from the Keck telescopes. Recent observations have shown that the cluster has a shallower surface density profile than expected for a dynamically relaxed cusp, leading to important implications for its formation and evolution. However, the true three dimensional profile of the cluster is unknown due to the difficulty in de-projecting the stellar number counts. Here, we use spherical Jeans modeling of individual proper motions and radial velocities to constrain for the first time, the de-projected spatial density profile, cluster velocity anisotropy, black hole mass ($M_\mathrm{BH}$), and distance to the Galactic center ($R_0$) simultaneously. We find that the inner stellar density profile of the late-type stars, $\rho(r)\propto r^{-\gamma}$ to have a power law slope $\gamma=0.05_{-0.60}^{+0.29}$, much more shallow than the frequently assumed Bahcall $\&$ Wolf slope of $\gamma=7/4$. The measured slope will significantly affect dynamical predictions involving the cluster, such as the dynamical friction time scale. The cluster core must be larger than 0.5 pc, which disfavors some scenarios for its origin. Our measurement of $M_\mathrm{BH}=5.76_{-1.26}^{+1.76}\times10^6$ $M_\odot$ and $R_0=8.92_{-0.55}^{+0.58}$ kpc is consistent with that derived from stellar orbits within 1$^{\prime\prime}$ of Sgr A*. When combined with the orbit of S0-2, the uncertainty on $R_0$ is reduced by 30% ($8.46_{-0.38}^{+0.42}$ kpc). We suggest that the MW NSC can be used in the future in combination with stellar orbits to significantly improve constraints on $R_0$.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 779(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/779/1/L6 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We show that the canonical oscillation-based (non-resonant) production of sterile neutrino dark matter is inconsistent at $>99$% confidence with observations of galaxies in the Local Group. We set lower limits on the non-resonant sterile neutrino mass of $2.5$ keV (equivalent to $0.7$ keV thermal mass) using phase-space densities derived for dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, as well as limits of $8.8$ keV (equivalent to $1.8$ keV thermal mass) based on subhalo counts of $N$-body simulations of M 31 analogues. Combined with improved upper mass limits derived from significantly deeper X-ray data of M 31 with full consideration for background variations, we show that there remains little room for non-resonant production if sterile neutrinos are to explain $100$% of the dark matter abundance. Resonant and non-oscillation sterile neutrino production remain viable mechanisms for generating sufficient dark matter sterile neutrinos.
    Physical Review D 11/2013; 89(2). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.89.025017 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this Report we discuss the four complementary searches for the identity of dark matter: direct detection experiments that look for dark matter interacting in the lab, indirect detection experiments that connect lab signals to dark matter in our own and other galaxies, collider experiments that elucidate the particle properties of dark matter, and astrophysical probes sensitive to non-gravitational interactions of dark matter. The complementarity among the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in several theoretical scenarios. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program based on all four of those approaches.
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    Manoj Kaplinghat · Sean Tulin · Hai-Bo Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Dark matter self-interactions can affect the small scale structure of the Universe, reducing the central densities of dwarfs and low surface brightness galaxies in accord with observations. From a particle physics point of view, this points toward the existence of a 1-100 MeV particle in the dark sector that mediates self-interactions. Since mediator particles will generically couple to the Standard Model, direct detection experiments provide sensitive probes of self-interacting dark matter. We consider three minimal mechanisms for coupling the dark and visible sectors: photon kinetic mixing, Z boson mass mixing, and the Higgs portal. Self-interacting dark matter motivates a new benchmark paradigm for direct detection via momentum-dependent interactions, and ton-scale experiments will cover astrophysically motivated parameter regimes that are unconstrained by current limits. Direct detection is a complementary avenue to constrain velocity-dependent self-interactions that evade astrophysical bounds from larger scales, such as those from the Bullet Cluster.
    Physical Review D 10/2013; 89(3). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.89.035009 · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Jose A. R. Cembranos · Manoj Kaplinghat
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    ABSTRACT: Super-weakly interacting massive particles produced in the late decays of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are generic in large regions of supersymmetric parameter space and other frameworks for physics beyond the standard model. If their masses are similar to that of the decaying WIMP, then they could naturally account for all of the cosmological dark matter abundance. Their astrophysical consequences and collider signatures are distinct and different from WIMP candidates. In particular, they could modify Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, distort the Cosmic Microwave Background, reduce galactic substructure and lower central densities of low-mass galaxies.
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    Manoj Kaplinghat · Sean Tulin · Hai-Bo Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Dark matter self-interactions have important implications for the distributions of dark matter in the Universe, from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. We present benchmark models that illustrate characteristic features of dark matter that is self-interacting through a new light mediator. These models have self-interactions large enough to change dark matter densities in the centers of galaxies in accord with observations, while remaining compatible with large-scale structure data and all astrophysical observations such as halo shapes and the Bullet Cluster. These observations favor a mediator mass in the 10 - 100 MeV range and large regions of this parameter space are accessible to direct detection experiments like LUX, SuperCDMS, and XENON1T.
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    ABSTRACT: We use cosmological simulations to study the effects of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the shapes, density profiles and substructure counts of dark-matter haloes from the scales of spiral galaxies to galaxy clusters. Our simulations rely on a new SIDM N-body algorithm that is derived self-consistently from the Boltzmann equation and that reproduces analytic expectations in controlled numerical experiments. We find that well-resolved SIDM haloes have constant-density cores, with significantly lower central densities than their cold dark matter (CDM) counterparts. In contrast, the subhalo content of SIDM haloes is only modestly reduced compared to CDM, with the suppression greatest for large hosts and small halo-centric distances. Moreover, the large-scale clustering and halo circular velocity functions in SIDM are effectively identical to CDM, meaning that all of the large-scale successes of CDM are equally well matched by SIDM. From our largest cross-section runs, we are able to extract scaling relations for core sizes and central densities over a range of halo sizes and find a strong correlation between the core radius of an SIDM halo and the NFW scale radius of its CDM counterpart. We construct a simple analytic model, based on CDM scaling relations, that captures all aspects of the scaling relations for SIDM haloes. Our results show that halo core densities in σ/m = 1 cm^2 g^-1 models are too low to match observations of galaxy clusters, low surface brightness spirals (LSBs) and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. However, SIDM models with σ/m = 0.1-0.5 cm^2 g^-1 appear capable of reproducing reported core sizes and central densities of dwarfs, LSBs and galaxy clusters without the need for velocity dependence. We discuss constraints arising from merging clusters observations, measurements of dark-matter density on small scales and subhalo survival requirements, and show that SIDM models with σ/m = 0.1-0.5 cm^2 g^-1 = 0.2 - 1 barn GeV^-1 are consistent with all observational constraints.
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    ABSTRACT: In this report we summarize the many dark matter searches currently being pursued through four complementary approaches: direct detection, indirect detection, collider experiments, and astrophysical probes. The essential features of broad classes of experiments are described, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. The complementarity of the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in two simple theoretical frameworks. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program drawing from all four approaches.
    Physics of the Dark Universe 05/2013; 7-8. DOI:10.1016/j.dark.2015.04.001

Publication Stats

4k Citations
459.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2015
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2003–2008
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2000–2001
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Physics
      Columbus, OH, United States