Manoj Kaplinghat

University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States

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Publications (104)308.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We consider a simple supersymmetric hidden sector: pure SU(N) gauge theory. Dark matter is made up of hidden glueballinos with mass $m_X$ and hidden glueballs with mass near the confinement scale $\Lambda$. For $m_X \sim 1~\text{TeV}$ and $\Lambda \sim 100~\text{MeV}$, the glueballinos freeze out with the correct relic density and self-interact through glueball exchange to resolve small-scale structure puzzles. An immediate consequence is that the glueballino spectrum has a hyperfine splitting of order $\Lambda^2 / m_X \sim 10~\text{keV}$. We show that the radiative decays of the excited state can explain the observed 3.5 keV X-ray line signal from clusters of galaxies, Andromeda, and the Milky Way.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The BICEP2 results, when interpreted as a gravitational wave signal and combined with other CMB data, suggest a roll-off in power towards small scales in the primordial matter power spectrum. Among the simplest possibilities is a running of the spectral index. Here we show that the preferred level of running alleviates small-scale issues within the $\Lambda$CDM model, more so even than viable WDM models. We use cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-size halo along with full-box simulations to compare predictions among four separate cosmologies: a BICEP2-inspired running index model ($\alpha_s$ = -0.024), two fixed-tilt $\Lambda$CDM models motivated by Planck, and a 2.6 keV thermal WDM model. We find that the running BICEP2 model reduces the central densities of large dwarf-size halos ($V_\mathrm{max}$ ~ 30 - 80 km s$^{-1}$) and alleviates the too-big-to-fail problem significantly compared to our adopted Planck and WDM cases. Further, the BICEP2 model suppresses the count of small subhalos by ~50% relative to Planck models, and yields a significantly lower "boost" factor for dark matter annihilation signals. Our findings highlight the need to understand the shape of the primordial power spectrum in order to correctly interpret small-scale data.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We construct empirical models of the diffuse gamma-ray background toward the Galactic Center. Including all known point sources and a template of emission associated with interactions of cosmic rays with molecular gas, we show that the extended emission observed previously in the Fermi Large Area Telescope data toward the Galactic Center is detected at high significance for all permutations of the diffuse model components. However, we find that the fluxes and spectra of the sources in our model change significantly depending on the background model. In particular, the spectrum of the central Sgr A$^\ast$ source is less steep than in previous works and the recovered spectrum of the extended emission has large systematic uncertainties, especially at lower energies. If the extended emission is interpreted to be due to dark matter annihilation, we find annihilation into pure $b$-quark and $\tau$-lepton channels to be statistically equivalent goodness-of-fits. In the case of the pure $b$-quark channel, we find a dark matter mass of $39.4\left(^{+3.7}_{-2.9}\rm\ stat.\right)\left(\pm 7.9\rm\ sys.\right)\rm\ GeV$, while a pure $\tau^{+} \tau^{-}$ channel case has an estimated dark matter mass of $9.43\left(^{+0.63}_{-0.52}\rm\ stat.\right)(\pm 1.2\rm\ sys.)\ GeV$. Alternatively, if the extended emission is interpreted to be astrophysical in origin such as due to unresolved millisecond pulsars, we obtain strong bounds on dark matter annihilation, although systematic uncertainties due to the dependence on the background models are significant.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is strong evidence in favor of the idea that dark matter is self-interacting, with cross section-to-mass ratio $\sigma / m \sim 1~\mathrm{cm^2/g} \sim 1~\mathrm{barn/GeV}$. We show that viable models of dark matter with this large cross section are straightforwardly realized with non-Abelian hidden sectors. In the simplest of such models, the hidden sector is a pure gauge theory, and the dark matter is hidden glueballs with mass around 100 MeV. Alternatively, the hidden sector may be a supersymmetric pure gauge theory with a $\sim 10~\mathrm{TeV}$ gluino thermal relic. In this case, the dark matter is largely composed of glueballinos that strongly self-interact through the exchange of light glueballs. We present a unified framework that realizes both of these possibilities in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking, where, depending on a few model parameters, the dark matter is either hidden glueballinos, hidden glueballs, or a mixture of the two. These models provide simple examples of multi-component dark matter, have interesting implications for particle physics and cosmology, and include cases where a sub-dominant component of dark matter may be extremely strongly self-interacting, with interesting astrophysical consequences.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 4, on the Cosmic Frontier, discusses the program of research relevant to cosmology and the early universe. This area includes the study of dark matter and the search for its particle nature, the study of dark energy and inflation, and cosmic probes of fundamental symmetries.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We measured velocities of 862 individual red giant stars in seven isolated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: NGC 6822, IC 1613, VV 124 (UGC 4879), the Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 216), Leo A, Cetus, and Aquarius (DDO 210). We also computed velocity dispersions, taking into account the measurement uncertainties on individual stars. None of the isolated galaxies is denser than the densest Local Group satellite galaxy. Furthermore, the isolated dwarf galaxies have no obvious distinction in the velocity dispersion--half-light radius plane from the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and M31. The similarity of the isolated and satellite galaxies' dynamics and structural parameters imposes limitations on environmental solutions to the too-big-to-fail problem, wherein there are fewer dense dwarf satellite galaxies than would be expected from cold dark matter simulations. This data set also has many other applications for dwarf galaxy evolution, including the transformation of dwarf irregular into dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We intend to explore these issues in future work.
    01/2014; 439(1).
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    Manoj Kaplinghat, Ryan E. Keeley, Tim Linden, Hai-Bo Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from CDM predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.5 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.
    Physical review letters. 11/2013; 113(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We present 3D kinematic observations of stars within the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy from the Keck telescopes. Recent observations have shown that the cluster has a shallower surface density profile than expected for a dynamically relaxed cusp, leading to important implications for its formation and evolution. However, the true three dimensional profile of the cluster is unknown due to the difficulty in de-projecting the stellar number counts. Here, we use spherical Jeans modeling of individual proper motions and radial velocities to constrain for the first time, the de-projected spatial density profile, cluster velocity anisotropy, black hole mass ($M_\mathrm{BH}$), and distance to the Galactic center ($R_0$) simultaneously. We find that the inner stellar density profile of the late-type stars, $\rho(r)\propto r^{-\gamma}$ to have a power law slope $\gamma=0.05_{-0.60}^{+0.29}$, much more shallow than the frequently assumed Bahcall $\&$ Wolf slope of $\gamma=7/4$. The measured slope will significantly affect dynamical predictions involving the cluster, such as the dynamical friction time scale. The cluster core must be larger than 0.5 pc, which disfavors some scenarios for its origin. Our measurement of $M_\mathrm{BH}=5.76_{-1.26}^{+1.76}\times10^6$ $M_\odot$ and $R_0=8.92_{-0.55}^{+0.58}$ kpc is consistent with that derived from stellar orbits within 1$^{\prime\prime}$ of Sgr A*. When combined with the orbit of S0-2, the uncertainty on $R_0$ is reduced by 30% ($8.46_{-0.38}^{+0.42}$ kpc). We suggest that the MW NSC can be used in the future in combination with stellar orbits to significantly improve constraints on $R_0$.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 779(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We show that the canonical oscillation-based (non-resonant) production of sterile neutrino dark matter is inconsistent at $>99$% confidence with observations of galaxies in the Local Group. We set lower limits on the non-resonant sterile neutrino mass of $2.5$ keV (equivalent to $0.7$ keV thermal mass) using phase-space densities derived for dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, as well as limits of $8.8$ keV (equivalent to $1.8$ keV thermal mass) based on subhalo counts of $N$-body simulations of M 31 analogues. Combined with improved upper mass limits derived from significantly deeper X-ray data of M 31 with full consideration for background variations, we show that there remains little room for non-resonant production if sterile neutrinos are to explain $100$% of the dark matter abundance. Resonant and non-oscillation sterile neutrino production remain viable mechanisms for generating sufficient dark matter sterile neutrinos.
    11/2013; 89(2).
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    ABSTRACT: In this Report we discuss the four complementary searches for the identity of dark matter: direct detection experiments that look for dark matter interacting in the lab, indirect detection experiments that connect lab signals to dark matter in our own and other galaxies, collider experiments that elucidate the particle properties of dark matter, and astrophysical probes sensitive to non-gravitational interactions of dark matter. The complementarity among the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in several theoretical scenarios. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program based on all four of those approaches.
    10/2013;
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    Manoj Kaplinghat, Sean Tulin, Hai-Bo Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Dark matter self-interactions can affect the small scale structure of the Universe, reducing the central densities of dwarfs and low surface brightness galaxies in accord with observations. From a particle physics point of view, this points toward the existence of a 1-100 MeV particle in the dark sector that mediates self-interactions. Since mediator particles will generically couple to the Standard Model, direct detection experiments provide sensitive probes of self-interacting dark matter. We consider three minimal mechanisms for coupling the dark and visible sectors: photon kinetic mixing, Z boson mass mixing, and the Higgs portal. Self-interacting dark matter motivates a new benchmark paradigm for direct detection via momentum-dependent interactions, and ton-scale experiments will cover astrophysically motivated parameter regimes that are unconstrained by current limits. Direct detection is a complementary avenue to constrain velocity-dependent self-interactions that evade astrophysical bounds from larger scales, such as those from the Bullet Cluster.
    10/2013; 89(3).
  • Jose A. R. Cembranos, Manoj Kaplinghat
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    ABSTRACT: Super-weakly interacting massive particles produced in the late decays of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are generic in large regions of supersymmetric parameter space and other frameworks for physics beyond the standard model. If their masses are similar to that of the decaying WIMP, then they could naturally account for all of the cosmological dark matter abundance. Their astrophysical consequences and collider signatures are distinct and different from WIMP candidates. In particular, they could modify Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, distort the Cosmic Microwave Background, reduce galactic substructure and lower central densities of low-mass galaxies.
    08/2013;
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    Manoj Kaplinghat, Sean Tulin, Hai-Bo Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Dark matter self-interactions have important implications for the distributions of dark matter in the Universe, from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. We present benchmark models that illustrate characteristic features of dark matter that is self-interacting through a new light mediator. These models have self-interactions large enough to change dark matter densities in the centers of galaxies in accord with observations, while remaining compatible with large-scale structure data and all astrophysical observations such as halo shapes and the Bullet Cluster. These observations favor a mediator mass in the 10 - 100 MeV range and large regions of this parameter space are accessible to direct detection experiments like LUX, SuperCDMS, and XENON1T.
    08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We use cosmological simulations to study the effects of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the shapes, density profiles and substructure counts of dark-matter haloes from the scales of spiral galaxies to galaxy clusters. Our simulations rely on a new SIDM N-body algorithm that is derived self-consistently from the Boltzmann equation and that reproduces analytic expectations in controlled numerical experiments. We find that well-resolved SIDM haloes have constant-density cores, with significantly lower central densities than their cold dark matter (CDM) counterparts. In contrast, the subhalo content of SIDM haloes is only modestly reduced compared to CDM, with the suppression greatest for large hosts and small halo-centric distances. Moreover, the large-scale clustering and halo circular velocity functions in SIDM are effectively identical to CDM, meaning that all of the large-scale successes of CDM are equally well matched by SIDM. From our largest cross-section runs, we are able to extract scaling relations for core sizes and central densities over a range of halo sizes and find a strong correlation between the core radius of an SIDM halo and the NFW scale radius of its CDM counterpart. We construct a simple analytic model, based on CDM scaling relations, that captures all aspects of the scaling relations for SIDM haloes. Our results show that halo core densities in σ/m = 1 cm^2 g^-1 models are too low to match observations of galaxy clusters, low surface brightness spirals (LSBs) and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. However, SIDM models with σ/m = 0.1-0.5 cm^2 g^-1 appear capable of reproducing reported core sizes and central densities of dwarfs, LSBs and galaxy clusters without the need for velocity dependence. We discuss constraints arising from merging clusters observations, measurements of dark-matter density on small scales and subhalo survival requirements, and show that SIDM models with σ/m = 0.1-0.5 cm^2 g^-1 = 0.2 - 1 barn GeV^-1 are consistent with all observational constraints.
    07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In this report we summarize the many dark matter searches currently being pursued through four complementary approaches: direct detection, indirect detection, collider experiments, and astrophysical probes. The essential features of broad classes of experiments are described, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. The complementarity of the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in two simple theoretical frameworks. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program drawing from all four approaches.
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Segue 2, discovered by Belokurov et al. (2009), is a galaxy with a luminosity of only 900 L_sun. We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of 25 members of Segue 2--a threefold increase in spectroscopic sample size. The velocity dispersion is too small to be measured with our data. The upper limit with 90% (95%) confidence is sigma_v < 2.2 (2.6) km/s, the most stringent limit for any galaxy. The corresponding limit on the mass within the 3-D half-light radius (46 pc) is M_1/2 < 1.5 (2.1) x 10^5 M_sun. Segue 2 is the least massive galaxy known. We identify Segue 2 as a galaxy rather than a star cluster based the wide dispersion in [Fe/H] (from -2.85 to -1.33) among the member stars. The stars' [alpha/Fe] ratios decline with increasing [Fe/H], indicating that Segue 2 retained Type Ia supernova ejecta despite its presently small mass and that star formation lasted for at least 100 Myr. The mean metallicity, <[Fe/H]> = -2.22 +/- 0.13 (about the same as the Ursa Minor galaxy, 330 times more luminous than Segue 2), is higher than expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation defined by more luminous dwarf galaxy satellites of the Milky Way. Segue 2 may be the barest remnant of a tidally stripped, Ursa Minor-sized galaxy. If so, it is the best example of an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy that came to be ultra-faint through tidal stripping. Alternatively, Segue 2 could have been born in a very low-mass dark matter subhalo (v_max < 10 km/s), below the atomic hydrogen cooling limit.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2013; 770(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Segue 2, discovered by Belokurov et al. in 2009, has a luminosity of only 900 L⊙. However, the mass within the half light radius is 4 × 105 M⊙, yielding a mass-to-light ratio of 500 M⊙/L⊙. We present new Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of 28 member stars in Segue 2. The new spectroscopy confirms Belokurov et al.'s velocity dispersion (3.7 ± 0.9 km/s) and hence their inferred mass and mass-to-light ratio. We also present the metallicity distribution and [α/Fe] ratios of 15 member stars. The metallicity has a mean of <[Fe/H]> = -1.8 ± 0.2 and a 1σ dispersion of 0.6 dex. Furthermore, [α/Fe] decreases with increasing [Fe/H], indicating that Type Ia supernovae exploded during the star formation lifetime. Segue 2 is therefore a galaxy, not a globular cluster. However, the mean metallicity is 0.9 dex larger than suggested by the luminosity-metallicity relation defined by dwarf galaxies. If the high mean metallicity is not an artifact of the small sample size, then Segue 2 is a candidate for tidal stripping by the Milky Way, but it is unclear how it could be so heavily stripped without (1) having a larger half-light radius or (2) being completely disrupted.
    01/2013;
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    Shahab Joudaki, Kevork N. Abazajian, Manoj Kaplinghat
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    ABSTRACT: We find that the viability of a cosmological model that incorporates 2 sterile neutrinos with masses around 1 eV each, as favored by global neutrino oscillation analyses including short baseline results, is significantly dependent on the choice of datasets included in the analysis and the ability to control the systematic uncertainties associated with these datasets. Our analysis includes a variety of cosmological probes including the cosmic microwave background (WMAP7+SPT), Hubble constant (HST), galaxy power spectrum (SDSS-DR7), and supernova distances (SDSS and Union2 compilations). In the joint observational analysis, our sterile neutrino model is equally favored as a LCDM model when using the MLCS light curve fitter for the supernova measurements, and strongly disfavored by the data at \Delta\chi^2 ~ 18 when using the SALT2 fitter. When excluding the supernova measurements, the sterile neutrino model is disfavored by the other datasets at \Delta\chi^2 ~ 12, and at best becomes mildly disfavored at \Delta\chi^2 ~ 3 when allowing for curvature, evolving dark energy, additional relativistic species, running of the spectral index, and freedom in the primordial helium abundance. No single additional parameter accounts for most of this effect. Therefore, if laboratory experiments continue to favor a scenario with roughly eV mass sterile neutrinos, and if this becomes decisively disfavored by cosmology, then a more exotic cosmological model than explored here may become necessary.
    Physical review D: Particles and fields 08/2012; 87(6).
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    ABSTRACT: We present a method for identifying localized secondary populations in stellar velocity data using Bayesian statistical techniques. We apply this method to the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Minor and find two secondary objects in this satellite of the Milky Way. One object is kinematically cold with a velocity dispersion of $4.25 \pm 0.75\ \kms$ and centered at $(9.1\arcmin \pm 1.5, 7.2\arcmin \pm 1.2)$ in relative RA and DEC with respect to the center of Ursa Minor. The second object has a large velocity offset of $-12.8^{+1.75}_{-1.5}\ \kms$ compared to Ursa Minor and centered at $(-14.0\arcmin^{+2.4}_{-5.8}, -2.5\arcmin^{+0.4}_{-1.0})$. The kinematically cold object has been found before using a smaller data set but the prediction that this cold object has a velocity dispersion larger than $2.0\ \kms$ at 95% C.L. differs from previous work. We use two and three component models along with the information criteria and Bayesian evidence model selection methods to argue that Ursa Minor has one or two localized secondary populations. The significant probability for a large velocity dispersion in each secondary object raises the intriguing possibility that each has its own dark matter halo, that is, it is a satellite of a satellite of the Milky Way.
    08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We use cosmological simulations to study the effects of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the density profiles and substructure counts of dark matter halos from the scales of spiral galaxies to galaxy clusters, focusing explicitly on models with cross sections over dark matter particle mass \sigma/m = 1 and 0.1 cm^2/g. Our simulations rely on a new SIDM N-body algorithm that is derived self-consistently from the Boltzmann equation and that reproduces analytic expectations in controlled numerical experiments. We find that well-resolved SIDM halos have constant-density cores, with significantly lower central densities than their CDM counterparts. In contrast, the subhalo content of SIDM halos is only modestly reduced compared to CDM, with the suppression greatest for large hosts and small halo-centric distances. Moreover, the large-scale clustering and halo circular velocity functions in SIDM are effectively identical to CDM, meaning that all of the large-scale successes of CDM are equally well matched by SIDM. From our largest cross section runs we are able to extract scaling relations for core sizes and central densities over a range of halo sizes and find a strong correlation between the core radius of an SIDM halo and the NFW scale radius of its CDM counterpart. We construct a simple analytic model, based on CDM scaling relations, that captures all aspects of the scaling relations for SIDM halos. Our results show that halo core densities in \sigma/m = 1 cm^2/g models are too low to match observations of galaxy clusters, low surface brightness spirals (LSBs), and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. However, SIDM with \sigma/m ~ 0.1 cm^2/g appears capable of reproducing reported core sizes and central densities of dwarfs, LSBs, and galaxy clusters without the need for velocity dependence. (abridged)
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; 430(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
308.67 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2003–2008
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2000–2001
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Physics
      Columbus, OH, United States