Adebowale J Adeniran

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (24)53.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemical stains have greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for primary and distant tumours. We evaluate a marker that has recently been incorporated in clinical practice, PAX-8, in primary and metastatic RCCs.
    Journal of clinical pathology. 10/2014;
  • Adebowale J Adeniran, Pei Hui
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    ABSTRACT: BRAF V600E mutation is the single most common genetic alteration identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma. There is significant association between BRAF V600E mutation and aggressive tumor behavior. BRAF V600E mutation has also been found to be an independent predictor of treatment failure and tumor recurrence even in patients with low-stage disease. Pre-operative BRAF mutation testing of thyroid fine needle aspiration specimens has become a routine clinical practice that enhances the predictability of malignancy in indeterminate fine needle aspiration cytology specimens especially those in the follicular lesion of undetermined significance/atypia of undetermined significance category. In addition to histological evaluation of subsequent core needle biopsy and BRAF immunohistochemistry, an expanded panel of mutation testing including BRAF V600E, NRAS, HRAS, RET/papillary thyroid carcinoma and PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements are currently advocated to further improve the diagnostic predictability in the detection of thyroid carcinomas using cytological specimens.
    Expert Review of Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid is a common procedure, with an established role in reducing unnecessary thyroid surgery and identifying neoplasms and malignancies.
    Cancer Cytopathology 06/2014; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2007 Bethesda classification for thyroid cytology defines follicular neoplasm as a category of cases with cellular specimens demonstrating abundant follicular cells arranged in a microfollicular pattern with little or no colloid. The current recommendation for the management of these cases is diagnostic lobectomy. There has been great difficulty and variability in triaging and reporting follicular neoplasm. To increase diagnostic accuracy, at the study institution, this category is subclassified further into 3 categories: 1) microfollicular-patterned neoplasm (MN); 2) Hürthle cell neoplasm (HN); and 3) follicular lesion with some features suggestive of but not diagnostic of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FL). The authors reviewed the cases of follicular neoplasm observed over a period of 5 years to document the follow-up trend using this modified classification. A search of the cytology records was performed for the period between January 2008 and December 2012. All thyroid fine-needle aspiration cases were reviewed and those with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm (including Hürthle cell neoplasm) were identified. Correlating follow-up surgical pathology reports were reviewed. A total of 399 cases of follicular neoplasm with surgical follow-up were identified. Malignancy was identified in 32% of all cases of follicular neoplasm and was found to be disproportionately higher in the FL category (73%). A cytological diagnosis of FL is more likely to be called malignant (73%) than benign neoplastic (9%) or benign nonneoplastic (18%). A cytological diagnosis of MN or HN is more likely to be benign neoplastic (46% and 46%, respectively) than malignant (29% and 26%, respectively) or benign nonneoplastic (25% and 28%, respectively). Of the cytological features examined, 2 (nuclear enlargement and nuclear grooves) were significantly associated with the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The results of the current study clearly indicate that follicular lesions with even subtle nuclear atypia have a high positive predictive value for malignancy and therefore should be distinguished from other follicular lesions because these cases require more aggressive surgical management. The current study also raises an important issue concerning the current thyroid classification based on the 2007 Bethesda classification for thyroid cytology. Future thyroid fine-needle aspiration classification schemes should consider subclassifying follicular neoplasms for the purpose of risk stratification. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer Cytopathology 04/2014; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) creates a continuous diagnostic dilemma among pathologists because of the paucity of nuclear changes of papillary carcinoma and overlapping features with benign and other neoplastic follicular lesions. Current guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules recommend surgery for confirmed PTC, suspicious for PTC, and follicular neoplasm cases, while further immediate diagnostic studies or treatment are not routinely required if the nodule is benign on cytology. This study is designed to determine the accuracy of cytology in the diagnosis of FVPTC, based on the Bethesda classification system, and determine the implications for patient management based on the current recommendation. Based on a retrospective review of cytologic diagnoses between January 2008 and December 2011, thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens with subsequent surgical intervention and a final diagnosis of FVPTC were selected. The cytologic diagnoses were compared with the final diagnoses, and the percentage of cases contributing to the final diagnosis of FVPTC was calculated for each diagnostic category. Triage efficiency and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. One hundred and fifty-two cases with histologic confirmation of FVPTC were identified (representing 128 patients-101 female, 27 male). All patients had undergone either lobectomy with completion thyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy. The cytologic diagnosis of "positive for malignancy" accounted for only 27 % of the final histologic diagnosis of FVPTC, while suspicious for carcinoma, follicular neoplasm, follicular lesion of undetermined significance, and benign accounted for 11, 23, 23, and 16 % of the final diagnosis of FVPTC, respectively. Only 18 % of the 55 cases tested were positive for BRAF mutation. The subtle nuclear features of FVPTC pose challenges for an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, a better approach is to triage these cases for surgical intervention and/or further evaluation of the particular nodule. Our triage efficacy for FVPTC was 84 %; however, the diagnostic accuracy of PTC was 38 %. A negative diagnosis on FNA has diagnostic and management implications for up to 16 % of cases because they may have no further immediate diagnostic studies or treatment. BRAF mutation analysis provides minimal effect on diagnostic accuracy.
    Endocrine Pathology 04/2014; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This case confirms the observation that urothelial carcinomas can secrete beta-hCG, and that beta-hCG can potentially be used as a marker of a patient's clinical response to treatment. Prospective studies are clearly warranted by these observations.
    Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 10/2013; 27(10):1028, 1030. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive subtype that generally present as large tumors in advanced stage. However, little is known about the tall cell variant of microcarcinoma (tumors measuring <1 cm). In this study, we compare tall cell variant of microcarcinoma with classic papillary microcarcinomas to examine the hypothesis that despite the small size, the tall cell microcarcinoma may be more aggressive than the classic papillary microcarcinoma. Patients and Methods We identified 27 tall cell microcarcinomas and compared their clinicopathological features and BRAFV600E mutational status with age and size matched classic papillary microcarcinomas. The patients with tall cell microcarcinomas included 22 women and 5 men aged 33 to 74 years (median 56 years). All patients underwent total thyroidectomy, with lymph node dissection in 20 patients. Results Tumor size in tall cell microcarcinomas ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm (median 7 mm). Extrathyroidal extension and lymphovascular invasion were seen in 9 (33%) and 4 (15%) tumors respectively. Thirteen patients (48%) harbored multifocal papillary carcinomas. Metastasis to central compartment lymph nodes was seen in 8 patients, and to lateral cervical nodes in 3 patients. Nine of the 25 patients (36%) presented at advanced stage (stage III/IVA). The BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 25 of 27 tumors (92.6%). In contrast, age and size matched classic papillary microcarcinomas (n=26) showed no extrathyroidal extension (p=0.002), lymphovascular invasion in 1, central compartment lymph node metastasis in 2, lateral cervical node metastasis in 1, multifocal tumors in 10 (38.5%), BRAFV600E mutation in 20 (76.9%), and infrequently presented in stage III/IV (7.7%, p=0.02). Conclusions The tall cell variant of papillay thyroid microcarcinoma is associated with aggressive features at presentation, and should be differentiated from other papillary thyroid microcarcinomas.
    Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 05/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various ultrasonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules have been associated with a higher likelihood of malignancy, and certain clinical features may also increase the likelihood of malignancy in patients. This study is designed to determine the ultrasonographic and clinical predictors of malignancy in the atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) category. A search through the cytology files at our institution was made for cases with diagnosis of AUS/FLUS. The clinical and radiologic findings were correlated with the final surgical pathology diagnosis. A total of 140 cases of AUS/FLUS with corresponding surgical intervention were identified (112 females and 28 males). There was a 79 % malignancy rate in nodules with irregular contours, compared to 51 % in nodules with regular outlines. Nodules demonstrating calcifications showed a 57 % malignancy rate, compared to 50 % in nodules without calcifications. Sixty-one percent of cases with an ultrasonographic diagnosis of indeterminate to suspicious were malignant following surgical resection. The rates of malignancy in patients with radiation exposure, symptomatic nodules, and positive family history of thyroid cancer were 22, 59, and 33 %, respectively. BRAF mutation was demonstrated in 57 % of malignant cases and in none of benign cases. No single clinical or ultrasonographic feature or combination of features is adequately sensitive or specific to identify all malignant nodules. However, a combination of solid nodules, nodules with irregular contours, symptomatic nodules, and positive BRAF mutation has high predictive value for malignancy in patients with a cytologic diagnosis of AUS/FLUS.
    Endocrine Pathology 04/2013; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a six-tiered diagnostic risk classification system was created based on the recommendations of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored NCI Thyroid Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference at Bethesda, MD in October 2007. The objective of the current study was to compare the frequency distribution of the various diagnostic categories to evaluate its diagnostic performance before and after implementation of The Bethesda System (TBS). A total of 5,897 thyroid Fine needle aspirations (FNAs) were reviewed; 3,207 were from 2008 after TBS implementation, and 2,690 were from 2007 immediately before TBS implementation. Follow-up consisted of reviewing corresponding histologic results. The rates of "Nondiagnostic" specimens and cases with a diagnosis of "Follicular Neoplasm" decreased from 13.1 to 11.1% and 8.6 to 5.5%, respectively, after implementation of TBS, while the rate of negative specimens increased from 68.2 to 73.8%. The other categories remained relatively stable. In addition, there also was a significant decrease in the use of noncommittal descriptive diagnoses. The diagnostic performance of thyroid FNA in identifying a neoplastic process as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.88 to 0.89; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.03). Implementation of TBS showed a significant reduction of: nondiagnostic thyroid FNAs, of FNAs with a diagnosis of "Follicular Neoplasm," as well as cases with descriptive noncommittal diagnoses. TBS results in improved diagnostic performance and therefore more consistent and uniform reporting of thyroid FNA. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 03/2013; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Targeted therapies in renal cell carcinoma can have different effects on primary and metastatic tumors. To pave the way for predictive biomarker development, we assessed differences in expression of targets of currently approved drugs in matched primary and metastatic specimens from 34 patients. METHODS: Four cores from each site were embedded in tissue microarray blocks. Expression of B-Raf, C-Raf, cKIT, FGF-R1, HIF-2alpha, mTOR, PDGF-Rbeta, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2, VEGF-R3, VEGF, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, MEK1, and ERK1/2 was studied using a quantitative immunofluorescence method. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in global expression levels in primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma tumors, with the exception of MEK, which had higher expression in metastatic than primary specimens. Similarly, more ki67 positive cells were seen in metastatic specimens. Correlations between marker expression in primary and metastatic specimens were variable, with the lowest correlation seen for FGF-R1 and VEGF-D. There were no significant differences in the degree of heterogeneity in primary versus metastatic tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of most of the studied markers was similar in primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma tumors, suggesting that predictive biomarker testing for these markers can be conducted on either the primary or metastatic tumors for most markers.
    BMC Clinical Pathology 02/2013; 13(1):3.
  • Modern Pathology 02/2013; 26:92. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Anti-angiogenic therapies are among the most commonly used drugs in renal cell carcinoma. Tumor vascularity, defined by microvessel area, may be associated with response to these drugs. Clinical studies suggest that metastatic sites are more responsive than primary tumors. Our purpose was to characterize microvessel area (MVA) in matched primary and metastatic samples and in samples of different histologies. METHODS: We employed a method of automated, quantitative analysis of in situ tumor components to identify the area of CD-34 staining endothelial cells within renal cell carcinoma tumors. MVA was assessed in corresponding primary and metastatic samples from 34 patients, as well as in 334 primary nephrectomy specimens with variable histologies. RESULTS: MVA measurements from different parts of the same tumor correlated well (R = 0.75), indicating that MVA was fairly uniform within a tumor. While MVA was slightly higher in primary tumors than corresponding metastatic sites, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). MVA in paired primary and metastatic samples correlated moderately well (R = 0.36). MVA was higher in clear cell than papillary histology and oncocytomas (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.018, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of significant differences MVA in matched primary and metastatic samples suggests that both types of tumors should respond to anti-angiogenic drugs. This should be confirmed on additional cohorts. Given the small cohort, future predictive biomarker studies entailing MVA measurements should include specimens from both sites. Clear cell carcinomas are more vascular than other histologic subtypes, which may explain the higher response rates to anti-angiogenic therapies in clear cell tumors.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 01/2013; 11(1):15. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and highly aggressive primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin with a high propensity for local, regional, and distant spread. Distant metastasis of MCC to the pancreas is uncommonly seen and may impose a diagnostic challenge cytologically. Here we report a case of MCC with pancreatic metastasis, which was diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). The aspirates revealed both single and clustered epithelial cells with scant cytoplasm and round nuclei with stippled chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Immunocytochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CK20, synaptophysin, CD56, and CD117. The neoplastic cells were also identified by flow cytometry as non-hematopoietic cells which were positive for CD56 and negative for CD45. To our knowledge, this is only the second case report of MCC metastatic to the pancreas diagnosed by EUS-FNA. There have been several reports of MCC metastatic to the pancreas diagnosed only at the time of surgical resection. However, a preoperative diagnosis allows for appropriate management while sparing a patient the morbidity of unnecessary procedures. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012; © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 06/2012; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Bethesda 2007 Thyroid Cytology Classification defines follicular lesion of undetermined significance as a heterogeneous category of cases that are not convincingly benign nor sufficiently atypical for a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm or suspicious for malignancy. In our institution, we refer to these cases as indeterminate, and they are further sub-classified into two: (1) low cellularity with predominant microfollicular architecture and absence of colloid (IN(a)) and (2) nuclear features not characteristic of benign lesions (nuclear atypia) (IN(b)). We reviewed these indeterminate cases to document the follow-up trend using this two-tier classification. A search of the cytology records was performed for the period between January 2008 and June 2009. All thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases were reviewed and the ones diagnosed as indeterminate were identified. Correlating follow-up FNA and/or surgical pathology reports were reviewed. The percentage of cases showing a malignancy was calculated. One hundred and seventy-one indeterminate cases were identified, representing 2.8% of the 6,205 thyroid FNA cases examined during the time under review (107 IN(a), 64 IN(b)). Records of follow-up procedures were available in 106 (61%) cases. Malignancy was identified in 27% of all indeterminate cases. This was disproportionately more in the IN(b) (56%) compared to the IN(a) (7%) cases. A diagnosis of "IN(a)" does not carry the same implication as that of "IN(b)". The IN(b) category needs a more aggressive follow-up than the IN(a) category and may justify an immediate referral for lobectomy. Despite the vague morphologic criteria for this diagnostic category, the indeterminate rate remains relatively low and falls within the NCI recommendation (<7%).
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 05/2012; 40(5):410-5. · 1.49 Impact Factor
  • Matthew J Horne, Adebowale J Adeniran
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    ABSTRACT: In this short review, we discuss primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the testis, an entity that is most commonly seen in older patients. The most common clinical presentation is a unilateral testicular mass. Microscopically, the tumor shows diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes between intact seminiferous tubules. Spermatogenic arrest, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular hyalinization are commonly seen. The tumor is positive for B-cell markers by immunohistochemistry. Treatment has traditionally been with orchiectomy and combination chemotherapy; however, only a minority of patients enjoy a prolonged disease-free survival. Differential diagnosis includes seminoma and viral and granulomatous orchitis.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 10/2011; 135(10):1363-7. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The BRAF V600E mutation has been reported in 50%-80% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cases and is highly specific for PTC. Reflex BRAF testing may improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) tests having equivocal cytologic interpretations and provide prognostic information that helps guide management in patients with PTC. Cases with equivocal thyroid FNA readings (indeterminate and suspicious for PTC) or a positive diagnosis for PTC and concomitant BRAF mutation analysis were included in this prospective study. BRAF mutation analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction combined with single-strand conformation polymorphism gel electrophoresis using lavage fluid obtained from needle rinsing. The results of histopathologic follow-up were correlated with the cytologic interpretations and BRAF status. One hundred fifty-seven FNAs with equivocal or positive cytologic interpretations were eligible for the study. All but one (99.4%) FNAs were found to have sufficient DNA quality and quantity for the assay. Based on the follow-up diagnosis of nodules after surgical resection, the sensitivity for diagnosing PTC was 63.3% with cytology alone and 80.0% with the combination of cytology and BRAF testing, respectively. No false positives were noted with either cytology or BRAF mutation analysis. All PTCs with extrathyroidal extension and of tall-cell variant were postive for BRAF mutation. BRAF V600E mutation analysis can be easily performed on cytologic preparation using lavage fluids obtained from needle rinsing. By combining morphologic evaluation and BRAF testing, there is a substantial improvement in the preoperative identification of PTC when compared with cytology alone. Patients with equivocal cytologic diagnosis and BRAF V600E mutation are candidates for total thyroidectomy ± central lymph node dissection.
    Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 05/2011; 21(7):717-23. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Objective: The Bethesda 2007 Thyroid Cytology Classification defines atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) as a heterogeneous category of cases that are neither convincingly benign nor sufficiently atypical for a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm or suspicious for malignancy. At our institution, we refer to these cases as 'indeterminate' and they are further subclassified into two categories. BRAF mutation occurs in 40-60% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In this study, we examined cases in the AUS/FLUS category in correlation with BRAF mutation analysis and surgical pathology outcome. Study Design: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens interpreted as 'indeterminate' were selected from our files, and available remnants of thin-layer processed specimens were used for BRAF mutation analysis. Surgical pathology reports were reviewed for the final outcomes in these patients. Results: Of the 84 indeterminate cases with BRAF mutation analysis, only 49 had follow-up with surgical intervention. Sixteen cases had BRAF mutation. All of the BRAF-positive cases had a final diagnosis of PTC. Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of BRAF mutation in detecting PTC in FNA specimens with indeterminate diagnosis was 59.3 and 100%, respectively, while the positive and negative predictive values were 100 and 65.6%, respectively. The limited data supports the use of BRAF mutation analysis to predict the risk of malignancy in patients with indeterminate thyroid FNAs.
    Acta cytologica 01/2011; 55(6):570-5. · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic plasmacytoma is a rare disorder which may present with obstructive jaundice. Only eighteen cases have been reported in the English language literature. We present the first case of pancreatic plasmacytoma and gastric plasmacytoma diagnosed with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). A 75-year-old male with a known history of multiple myeloma presented with obstructive jaundice and a pancreatic mass. A concomitant gastric mass due to gastric plasmacytoma was seen. The diagnosis was established via EUS-FNA of the pancreatic mass. Pancreatic plasmacytoma should be suspected in patients with a history of myeloma. EUS-FNA is a safe and effective modality in the diagnosis of pancreatic plasmacytoma. Radiation therapy should be the first-line of therapy in treating pancreatic plasmacytomas.
    Case Reports in Gastroenterology 01/2010; 4(3):410-415.
  • Adebowale J Adeniran, Jerzy Stanek
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    ABSTRACT: Amnion nodosum is commonly regarded as a placental hallmark of severe and prolonged oligohydramnios. It consists of nodules of amorphous granular material present on the surface of the amnion. We reviewed all 45 cases of amnion nodosum from our placental database from 1994 through 2003 (study group). The control group consisted of 45 cases from the same database matched for gestational age but without amnion nodosum. Oligohydramnios, multiple pregnancy, perinatal mortality, macerated stillbirths, and chronic twin-twin transfusion were the most common clinical features encountered in the study group. Luminal vascular abnormalities of chorionic villi, fibrosis of chorionic villi, and placental edema were the placental features that were more frequently present in the study group.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 01/2008; 131(12):1829-33. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. It has been recently shown that these tumors commonly have one of three genetic alterations: BRAF point mutations, RET/PTC rearrangements, or RAS point mutations. In this study, we analyze the relationship between these alterations and the microscopic features of papillary carcinomas, their clinical features, and prognostic characteristics. Ninety-seven papillary carcinomas were studied; in all cases, frozen tissue was available for nucleic acid extraction. Of 96 unselected cases, 42% were positive for BRAF, 18% for RET/PTC, and 15% for RAS mutations. Morphologic features were evaluated in detail in 61 cases and 6 characteristic nuclear features and 3 additional microscopic features were assessed quantitatively. At least 4 nuclear features were found in each tumor, with nuclear pseudoinclusions being the least frequent finding in all mutation groups. BRAF mutations were associated with older patient age, typical papillary appearance or the tall cell variant, a higher rate of extrathyroidal extension, and more advanced tumor stage at presentation. RET/PTC rearrangements presented at younger age and had predominantly typical papillary histology, frequent psammoma bodies, and a high rate of lymph node metastases. Tumors with RAS mutations were exclusively the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and correlated with significantly less prominent nuclear features and low rate of lymph node metastases. These findings demonstrate that BRAF, RET/PTC, and RAS mutations are associated with distinct microscopic, clinical, and biologic features of thyroid papillary carcinomas.
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology 03/2006; 30(2):216-22. · 4.87 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

293 Citations
53.01 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2014
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2004–2008
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Cincinnati, OH, United States