Michael J Friez

Greenwood Genetic Center, GRD, South Carolina, United States

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Publications (54)263.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) gene, located on chromosome 21q22.13 within the Down syndrome critical region, has been implicated in syndromic intellectual disability associated with Down syndrome and autism. DYRK1A has a critical role in brain growth and development primarily by regulating cell proliferation, neurogenesis, neuronal plasticity and survival. Several patients have been reported with chromosome 21 aberrations such as partial monosomy, involving multiple genes including DYRK1A. In addition, seven other individuals have been described with chromosomal rearrangements, intragenic deletions or truncating mutations that disrupt specifically DYRK1A. Most of these patients have microcephaly and all have significant intellectual disability. In the present study, we report 10 unrelated individuals with DYRK1A-associated intellectual disability (ID) who display a recurrent pattern of clinical manifestations including primary or acquired microcephaly, ID ranging from mild to severe, speech delay or absence, seizures, autism, motor delay, deep-set eyes, poor feeding and poor weight gain. We identified unique truncating and non-synonymous mutations (three nonsense, four frameshift and two missense) in DYRK1A in nine patients and a large chromosomal deletion that encompassed DYRK1A in one patient. On the basis of increasing identification of mutations in DYRK1A, we suggest that this gene be considered potentially causative in patients presenting with ID, primary or acquired microcephaly, feeding problems and absent or delayed speech with or without seizures.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 29 April 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.29.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2015.29 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There have been dramatic improvements in our ability to more accurately diagnose the underlying genetic causes of developmental delay/intellectual disability; however, there is less known about the treatment trajectory and whether or not patient management and outcomes have changed due to the information gained from genetic testing. Here we report a case study of a 20-month-old male first referred to the genetics clinic in 2008 for interhemispheric cysts, agenesis of the corpus callosum, left cortical dysplasia, and developmental delay of unknown etiology. The diagnostic work-up for this patient included chromosomal microarray which detected >20% mosaicism for monosomy 7, which raised concern for a possible myelodysplastic syndrome. The clone was not detected in stimulated peripheral blood cultures and his karyotype was reported as a normal male. Because of this microarray finding, he was referred to pediatric hematology/oncology where he was confirmed to have a pre-symptomatic diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome and was treated with chemotherapy and a bone-marrow transplant. This case illustrates the clinical utility of microarray testing and the importance of long-term follow-up to assess patient outcomes.
    Molecular Cytogenetics 12/2014; 7(1):93. DOI:10.1186/s13039-014-0093-4 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cenani-Lenz syndrome (CLS) is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia that results in malformations of the distal limb, renal anomalies, and characteristic facies. In 2010, this condition was found to be caused by mutations in LRP4, a member of the low-density lipoprotein family of receptors. LRP4 has been shown to antagonize LRP5/LRP6 activation of WNT and β-catenin signaling. Loss of LRP4 function leads to excessive Wnt and β-catenin signaling in the limb bud, which causes abnormal limb development. The large majority of patients with CLS reported in the literature have splicing and missense mutations, which result in syndactyly, oligodactyly, and minor renal malformations. More recently, a patient with CLS has been identified with a homozygous nonsense mutation and a more severe presentation of findings typically associated with this condition. Here we present two sibling fetuses with a prenatal lethal presentation of mesomelic limb reductions, oligosyndactyly, genitourinary malformation and compound heterozygosity for two novel truncating mutations in LRP4. These findings lend further support to the CLS genotype-phenotype correlation presented in recent publications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 09/2014; 164(9). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36647 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alpha-Thalassemia Intellectual Disability, one of the recognizable X-linked disability syndromes, is characterized by short stature, microcephaly, distinctive facies, hypotonic appearance, cardiac and genital anomalies, and marked skewing of X-inactivation in female carriers. With the advent of next generation sequencing, mutations have been identified that result in less severe phenotypes lacking one or more of these phenotypic manifestations. Here we report five unrelated kindreds in which a c.109C>T (p.R37X) mutation segregates with a variable but overall milder phenotype. The distinctive facial appearance of alpha-thalassemia intellectual disability was present in only one of the 18 affected males evaluated beyond the age of puberty, although suggestive facial appearance was present in several during infancy or early childhood. Although the responsible genetic alteration is a nonsense mutation in exon 2 of ATRX, the phenotype appears to be partially rescued by the production of alternative transcripts and/or other molecular mechanisms.
    Clinical Genetics 05/2014; 87(5). DOI:10.1111/cge.12420 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IDEAS (intellectual disabilities evaluation and advice system) provides the opportunity for physicians who are sending samples for the Greenwood Genetic Center (GGC) 92-gene X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) (formerly X-linked mental retardation) panel to have their male patient's clinical features reviewed by an experienced panel of six Clinical Geneticists. They were asked to obtain parental consent, complete a one-page information form, and provide A-P and lateral photographs. The panel members independently reviewed the material and forwarded comments about clinical features, possible diagnoses, and/or further testing for the patient. We present the results of the first 55 patients evaluated. In only a single case did all panelists agree on a non-XLID diagnosis, later proven by genetic testing. The XLID gene panel diagnosed an additional five (9%) cases, but in only two cases did one panelist suggest the correct gene, which was one of four they suggested. This paper examines the possible reasons for the low rate of clinical diagnosis and suggests that, while the data received were often incomplete, the most important reasons for lack of diagnoses were the source of referral and selection of patients for review. We did note that there were a number of instances where we disagreed with the submitted information as to whether the individual was dysmorphic and with the stated presence of certain physical signs, most often downslanted palpebrae and posterior ear angulation. These differences in assessment of clinical signs and the general lack of completeness and detail provided in the standard data sheet, including that regarding the extended family history, lead us to raise concerns regarding the feasibility of establishing high quality central clinical databases designed to aid in the interpretation of exomic/genomic variants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2014; 164(5). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36456 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MECP2 duplication syndrome, originally described in 2005, is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder comprising infantile hypotonia, severe to profound intellectual disability, autism or autistic-like features, spasticity, along with a variety of additional features that are not always clinically apparent. The syndrome is due to a duplication (or triplication) of the gene methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2). To date, the disorder has been described almost exclusively in males. Female carriers of the duplication are thought to have no or mild phenotypic features. Recently, a phenotype for females began emerging. We describe a family with ∼290 kb duplication of Xq28 region that includes the MECP2 gene where the proposita and affected family members are female. Twin sisters, presumed identical, presented early with developmental delay, and seizures. Evaluation of the proposita at 25 years of age included microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) which revealed the MECP2 gene duplication. The same duplication was found in the proposita's sister, who is more severely affected, and the proband's mother who has mild intellectual disability and depression. X-chromosome inactivation studies showed significant skewing in the mother, but was uninformative in the twin sisters. We propose that the MECP2 duplication caused for the phenotype of the proband and her sister. These findings support evidence for varied severity in some females with MECP2 duplications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 04/2014; 164(4). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36380 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide variants (SNV) in the gene encoding the MET receptor tyrosine kinase have been associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The MET promoter SNV rs1858830 C 'low activity' allele is enriched in ASD, associated with reduced protein expression, and impacts functional and structural circuit connectivity in humans. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulation of MET on ASD-risk etiology, we examined an interaction between the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and the MET 5' promoter region. Mutations in MeCP2 cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a predominantly female neurodevelopmental disorder sharing some ASD clinical symptoms. MeCP2 binds to a region of the MET promoter containing the ASD-risk SNV, and displays rs1858830 genotype-specific binding in human neural progenitor cells derived from the olfactory neuroepithelium. MeCP2 binding enhances MET expression in the presence of the rs1858830 C allele, but MET transcription is attenuated by RTT-specific mutations in MeCP2. In the postmortem temporal cortex, a region normally enriched in MET, gene expression is reduced dramatically in females with RTT, although not due to enrichment of the rs1858830 C 'low activity' allele. We newly identified a sex-based reduction in MET expression, with male ASD cases, but not female ASD cases compared with sex-matched controls. The experimental data reveal a prominent allele-specific regulation of MET transcription by MeCP2. The mechanisms underlying the pronounced reduction of MET in ASD and RTT temporal cortex are distinct and likely related to factors unique to each disorder, including a noted sex bias.
    Translational Psychiatry 10/2013; 3(10):e316. DOI:10.1038/tp.2013.91 · 4.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucolipidosis (ML) II and ML IIIα/β are allelic autosomal recessive metabolic disorders due to mutations in GNPTAB. The gene encodes the enzyme UDP-GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase (GNPT), which is critical to proper trafficking of lysosomal acid hydrolases. The ML phenotypic spectrum is dichotomous. Criteria set for defining ML II and ML IIIα/β are inclusive for all but the few patients with phenotypes that span the archetypes. Clinical and biochemical findings of the 'intermediate' ML in eight patients with the c.10A>C missense mutation in GNPTAB are presented to define this intermediate ML and provide a broader insight into ML pathogenesis. Extensive clinical information, including radiographic examinations at various ages, was obtained from a detailed study of all patients. GNPTAB was sequenced in probands and parents. GNPT activity was measured and cathepsin D sorting assays were performed in fibroblasts. Intermediate ML patients who share the c.10A>C/p.K4Q mutation in GNPTAB demonstrate a distinct, consistent phenotype similar to ML II in physical and radiographic features and to ML IIIα/β in psychomotor development and life expectancy. GNPT activity is reduced to 7-12% but the majority of newly synthesized cathepsin D remains intracellular. The GNPTAB c.10A>C/p.K4Q missense allele results in an intermediate ML II/III with distinct clinical and biochemical characteristics. This delineation strengthens the utility of the discontinuous genotype-phenotype correlation in ML II and ML IIIα/β and prompts additional studies on the tissue-specific pathogenesis in GNPT-deficient ML.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 18 September 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.207.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 09/2013; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2013.207 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Next-generation sequencing technologies have been and continue to be deployed in clinical laboratories, enabling rapid transformations in genomic medicine. These technologies have reduced the cost of large-scale sequencing by several orders of magnitude, and continuous advances are being made. It is now feasible to analyze an individual's near-complete exome or genome to assist in the diagnosis of a wide array of clinical scenarios. Next-generation sequencing technologies are also facilitating further advances in therapeutic decision making and disease prediction for at-risk patients. However, with rapid advances come additional challenges involving the clinical validation and use of these constantly evolving technologies and platforms in clinical laboratories. To assist clinical laboratories with the validation of next-generation sequencing methods and platforms, the ongoing monitoring of next-generation sequencing testing to ensure quality results, and the interpretation and reporting of variants found using these technologies, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics has developed the following professional standards and guidelines.Genet Med advance online publication 25 July 2013Genetics in Medicine (2013); doi:10.1038/gim.2013.92.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 07/2013; 15(9). DOI:10.1038/gim.2013.92 · 6.44 Impact Factor
  • Michael J. Friez, Monica J. Basehore
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is considered to be a collection of conditions that are each caused by mutation in one of the many X-linked genes associated with either a syndromic or nonsyndromic form of intellectual disability. A significant number of XLID conditions have been described, but only approximately 50 % of the causative XLID genes have been discovered. For affected individuals from families with clear or potentially X-linked inheritance, the strategy for next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be tailored appropriately, given the ability to focus sole attention on the X chromosome rather than the entire genome. The primary goal of this chapter is to focus on the principles associated with testing known XLID genes that have been included on various targeted NGS panels. These principles can be extended to other X-linked genes that may be implicated in XLID, as well as to other genes on the X chromosome with relevant medical implications.
    Next Generation Sequencing, 01/2013: pages 167-186; , ISBN: 978-1-4614-7000-7
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent missense mutations in the RNA polymerase II Mediator subunit MED12 are associated with X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) and multiple congenital anomalies, including craniofacial, musculoskeletal, and behavioral defects in humans with FG (or Opitz-Kaveggia) and Lujan syndromes. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we report that MED12 mutations R961W and N1007S causing FG and Lujan syndromes, respectively, disrupt a Mediator-imposed constraint on GLI3-dependent Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. We show that the FG/R961W and Lujan/N1007S mutations disrupt the gene-specific association of MED12 with a second Mediator subunit, CDK8, identified herein to be a suppressor of GLI3 transactivation activity. In FG/R961W and Lujan/N1007S patient-derived cells, we document enhanced SHH pathway activation and GLI3-target gene induction coincident with impaired recruitment of CDK8 onto promoters of GLI3-target genes, but not non-GLI3-target genes. Together, these findings suggest that dysregulated GLI3-dependent SHH signaling contributes to phenotypes of individuals with FG and Lujan syndromes and further reveal a basis for the gene-specific manifestation of pathogenic mutations in a global transcriptional coregulator.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2012; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1121120109 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most individuals with intellectual disability and/or autism are tested for Fragile X syndrome at some point in their lifetime. Greater than 99% of individuals with Fragile X have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat motif in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene, and diagnostic testing involves determining the size of the CGG repeat as well as methylation status when an expansion is present. Using a previously described triplet repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction, we have performed additional validation studies using two cohorts with previous diagnostic testing results available for comparison purposes. The first cohort (n=88) consisted of both males and females and had a high percentage of abnormal samples, while the second cohort (n=624) consisted of only females and was not enriched for expansion mutations. Data from each cohort were completely concordant with the results previously obtained during the course of diagnostic testing. This study further demonstrates the utility of using laboratory-developed triplet repeat-primed FMR1 testing in a clinical setting.
    Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 01/2012; 16(6):465-70. DOI:10.1089/gtmb.2011.0134 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-Linked intellectual disability accounts for a significant fraction of males with cognitive impairment. Many of these males present with a non-syndromic phenotype and presently mutations in 17 X-linked genes are associated with these patients. Mutations in IL1RAPL1 have been found in multiple families with non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability. All of the published mutations predict loss of function of the protein. We have identified an additional two families with deletions of a portion of the gene that give rise to cognitive impairment, as well as some behavioral problems and mild dysmorphism. Our clinical findings better delineate the phenotypic spectrum associated with IL1RAPL1 mutations.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2011; 155A(5):1109-14. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.33833 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Christianson syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome characterized by microcephaly, impaired ocular movement, severe global developmental delay, hypotonia which progresses to spasticity, and early onset seizures of variable types. Gilfillan et al.2008] reported mutations in SLC9A6, the gene encoding the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHE6, in the family first reported and in three others. They also noted the clinical similarities to Angelman syndrome and found cerebellar atrophy on MRI and elevated glutamate/glutamine in the basal ganglia on MRS. Here we report on nonsense mutations in two additional families. The natural history is detailed in childhood and adult life, the similarities to Angelman syndrome confirmed, and the MRI/MRS findings documented in three affected boys.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2010; 152A(11):2775-83. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.33093 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked creatine transporter defect is caused by mutations in SLC6A8 at Xq28, which encodes the sodium-dependent creatine transporter. Reduction in creatine uptake results in elevated urine creatine and CSF creatine deficiency, which can be detected on magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We report a patient who was initially suspected of having a mitochondrial disorder but was later found to have a creatine transporter defect. The abnormal laboratory study results seen in this patient suggesting a mitochondrial cytopathy could be due to excess mitochondrial stress as well as the mitochondrial inclusion bodies. This report looks at the mitochondrial presentation of the creatine transporter deficiency.
    Journal of child neurology 08/2010; 25(8):1009-12. DOI:10.1177/0883073809352109 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Manifesting carriers of DMD gene mutations may present diagnostic challenges, particularly in the absence of a family history of dystrophinopathy. We review the clinical and genetic features in 15 manifesting carriers identified among 860 subjects within the United Dystrophinopathy Project, a large clinical dystrophinopathy cohort whose members undergo comprehensive DMD mutation analysis. We defined manifesting carriers as females with significant weakness, excluding those with only myalgias/cramps. DNA extracted from peripheral blood was used to study X-chromosome inactivation patterns. Among these manifesting carriers, age at symptom onset ranged from 2 to 47 years. Seven had no family history and eight had male relatives with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Clinical severity among the manifesting carriers varied from a DMD-like progression to a very mild Becker muscular dystrophy-like phenotype. Eight had exonic deletions or duplications and six had point mutations. One patient had two mutations (an exonic deletion and a splice site mutation), consistent with a heterozygous compound state. The X-chromosome inactivation pattern was skewed toward non-random in four out of seven informative deletions or duplications but was random in all cases with nonsense mutations. We present the results of DMD mutation analysis in this manifesting carrier cohort, including the first example of a presumably compound heterozygous DMD mutation. Our results demonstrate that improved molecular diagnostic methods facilitate the identification of DMD mutations in manifesting carriers, and confirm the heterogeneity of mutational mechanisms as well as the wide spectrum of phenotypes.
    Neuromuscular Disorders 08/2010; 20(8):499-504. DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2010.05.010 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied a family with severe mental retardation characterized by the virtual absence of speech, autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, late-onset ataxia, weakness and dystonia. Post-mortem examination of two males revealed widespread neuronal loss, with the most striking finding being neuronal and glial tau deposition in a pattern reminiscent of corticobasal degeneration. Electron microscopic examination of isolated tau filaments demonstrated paired helical filaments and ribbon-like structures. Biochemical studies of tau demonstrated a preponderance of 4R tau isoforms. The phenotype was linked to Xq26.3, and further analysis identified an in-frame 9 base pair deletion in the solute carrier family 9, isoform A6 (SLC9A6 gene), which encodes sodium/hydrogen exchanger-6 localized to endosomal vesicles. Sodium/hydrogen exchanger-6 is thought to participate in the targeting of intracellular vesicles and may be involved in recycling synaptic vesicles. The striking tau deposition in our subjects reveals a probable interaction between sodium/proton exchangers and cytoskeletal elements involved in vesicular transport, and raises the possibility that abnormalities of vesicular targeting may play an important role in more common disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and autism spectrum disorders.
    Brain 05/2010; 133(Pt 5):1391-402. DOI:10.1093/brain/awq071 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although few examples are formally documented, all polymerase chain reaction-based testing is theoretically vulnerable to allele drop-out (ADO), the failure to amplify one of the two alleles present in a cell. In a clinical setting, this can lead to false positive or negative diagnosis. We investigated the mechanisms leading to ADO in the MECP2 gene in two unrelated female patients undergoing testing for Rett syndrome. Both the patients had two benign DNA variations, c.819G > T and c.1161C > T, that appeared homozygous due to ADO. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that this region of the MECP2 gene is rich in complex tertiary structures called G-quadruplex and i-motifs, the disruption of which by the c.819G > T and c.1161C > T variants leads to preferential amplification of the variant allele. Other examples of ADO likely occur, and consideration of disrupting G-quadruplex and i-motif structures should be given when this phenomenon is unexpected. We identify factors in both the polymerase chain reaction amplification and the sequencing steps that help overcome ADO.
    Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 04/2010; 14(2):241-7. DOI:10.1089/gtmb.2009.0178 · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Jules G Leroy, Sara S Cathey, Michael J Friez
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    ABSTRACT: Mucolipidosis alpha/beta (ML III alpha/beta; pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy), a slowly progressive disorder with clinical onset at approximately age three years, is characterized by slow growth rate and subnormal stature; radiographic evidence of mild to moderate dysostosis multiplex; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. If present, organomegaly is mild. Pain from osteoporosis that is clinically and radiologically apparent in childhood becomes more severe from adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. In ML III alpha/beta the activity of nearly all lysosomal hydrolases is up to tenfold higher in plasma and other body fluids than in normal controls because of inadequate targeting to lysosomes. Urinary excretion of oligosaccharides (OSs), a nonspecific finding, is often excessive. Significant deficiency (1%-10% of normal) of the activity of the enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: lysosomal hydrolase N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GNPTA), encoded by GNPTAB, confirms the diagnosis. Bidirectional sequencing of the entire GNPTAB coding region detects two disease-causing mutations in more than 95% of individuals with ML III alpha/beta. Such testing is clinically available; duplication/deletion analysis is also available. Treatment of manifestations: Low-impact physical therapy is usually well tolerated. Myringotomy tube placement may be indicated in the treatment of recurrent otitis media. Carpal tunnel signs may require tendon release. In late childhood or early adolescence symptomatic relief of hip pain may be initially accomplished with over-the-counter analgesics; in some older adolescents and adults with milder phenotypic variants, bilateral hip replacement has been successful. Later in the disease course management focuses on relief of general bone pain associated with osteoporosis, which has responded in a few individuals to scheduled intermittent IV administration of the bisphosphonate pamidronate. Prevention of secondary complications: Because of concerns about airway management, surgical intervention should be undertaken only in tertiary care settings with pediatric anesthesiologists and intensivists. Surveillance: Twice-yearly outpatient clinic visits for young children; annual routine follow-up visits after age six years unless bone pain, deteriorating ambulation, and/or cardiac and respiratory monitoring need more frequent attention. ML III alpha/beta is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At conception, each sib of an affected individual has a 25% chance of being affected, a 50% chance of being an asymptomatic carrier, and a 25% chance of being unaffected and not a carrier. Carrier testing for at-risk relatives and prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk are possible if the disease-causing mutations in the family are known.
    GeneReviews™, Edited by Roberta A Pagon, Thomas D Bird, Cynthia R Dolan, Karen Stephens, Margaret P Adam, 01/2010; University of Washington, Seattle.
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    ABSTRACT: FG syndrome is a rare X-linked multiple congenital anomaly-cognitive impairment disorder caused by the p.R961W mutation in the MED12 gene. We identified all known patients with this mutation to delineate their clinical phenotype and devise a clinical algorithm to facilitate molecular diagnosis. We ascertained 23 males with the p.R961W mutation in MED12 from 9 previously reported FG syndrome families and 1 new family. Six patients are reviewed in detail. These 23 patients were compared with 48 MED12 mutation-negative patients, who had the clinical diagnosis of FG syndrome. Traits that best discriminated between these two groups were chosen to develop an algorithm with high sensitivity and specificity for the p.R961W MED12 mutation. FG syndrome has a recognizable dysmorphic phenotype with a high incidence of congenital anomalies. A family history of X-linked mental retardation, deceased male infants, and/or multiple fetal losses was documented in all families. The algorithm identifies the p.R961W MED12 mutation-positive group with 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity. The clinical phenotype of FG syndrome defines a recognizable pattern of X-linked multiple congenital anomalies and cognitive impairment. This algorithm can assist the clinician in selecting the patients for testing who are most likely to have the recurrent p.R961W MED12 mutation.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 11/2009; 11(11):769-75. DOI:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181bd3d90 · 6.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
263.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2015
    • Greenwood Genetic Center
      GRD, South Carolina, United States
  • 2010
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Neurology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2007
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Ghent
      Gand, Flemish, Belgium
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of General Pediatrics
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Loma Linda University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Loma Linda, California, United States