Publications (2)3.71 Total impact
Article: Fatty acid recycling in adipocytes: a role for glyceroneogenesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: FA (fatty acid) recycling in adipose tissue appears to be an important pathway for regulating FA release into the blood during fasting. Re-esterification requires G3P (glycerol 3-phosphate), which cannot be synthesized from glucose because glycolysis is much reduced under such circumstances. In addition, G3P can scarcely originate from glycerol since glycerol kinase has a very low activity in white adipose tissue. It was shown about 35 years ago that a metabolic pathway named glyceroneogenesis, which allows G3P synthesis from non-carbohydrate precursors like pyruvate, lactate or amino acids, is activated during fasting. The major enzyme in this pathway was shown to be PEPCK-C [cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP); EC 22.214.171.124]. The present review analyses the mechanisms by which a series of hormones and nutrients affect PEPCK-C gene transcription and glyceroneogenesis and describes evidence for dysregulation of this pathway in type 2 diabetes.Biochemical Society Transactions 01/2004; 31(Pt 6):1125-9. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus because they decrease plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and fatty acid levels. Thiazolidinediones are agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a nuclear receptor that is highly expressed in fat tissue. We identify glyceroneogenesis as a target of thiazolidinediones in cultured adipocytes and fat tissues of Wistar rats. The activation of glyceroneogenesis by thiazolidinediones occurs mainly in visceral fat, the same fat depot that is specifically implicated in the progression of obesity to type 2 diabetes. The increase in glyceroneogenesis is a result of the induction of its key enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, whose gene expression is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent in adipocytes. The main role of this metabolic pathway is to allow the re-esterification of fatty acids via a futile cycle in adipocytes, thus lowering fatty acid release into the plasma. The importance of such a fatty acid re-esterification process in the control of lipid homeostasis is highlighted by the existence of a second thiazolidinedione-induced pathway involving glycerol kinase. We show that glyceroneogenesis accounts for at least 75% of the whole thiazolidinedione effect. Because elevated plasma fatty acids promote insulin resistance, these results suggest that the glyceroneogenesis-dependent fatty acid-lowering effect of thiazolidinediones could be an essential aspect of the antidiabetic action of these drugs.J Biol Chem. 278(21):18785-90.