[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes various components of the macromolecular crystallographic refinement program REFMAC5, which is distributed as part of the CCP4 suite. REFMAC5 utilizes different likelihood functions depending on the diffraction data employed (amplitudes or intensities), the presence of twinning and the availability of SAD/SIRAS experimental diffraction data. To ensure chemical and structural integrity of the refined model, REFMAC5 offers several classes of restraints and choices of model parameterization. Reliable models at resolutions at least as low as 4 Å can be achieved thanks to low-resolution refinement tools such as secondary-structure restraints, restraints to known homologous structures, automatic global and local NCS restraints, `jelly-body' restraints and the use of novel long-range restraints on atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence. REFMAC5 additionally offers TLS parameterization and, when high-resolution data are available, fast refinement of anisotropic ADPs. Refinement in the presence of twinning is performed in a fully automated fashion. REFMAC5 is a flexible and highly optimized refinement package that is ideally suited for refinement across the entire resolution spectrum encountered in macromolecular crystallography.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of the hexamer duplex d(CGTACG)(2) complexed with the intercalating anthraquinone derivative 1,5-bis[3-(diethylamino)propionamido]anthracene-9,10-dione and the acridine derivative 9-acridinyl tetralysine have been solved at 2.0- and 1.4-A resolution, respectively. In both cases, the drugs adopt multiple orientations within a large DNA cavity constituted by two groups of four approximately coplanar bases. Cations play a pivotal role in the crystal structure. Both complexes crystallise in the presence of Co(2+), Ba(2+) and Na(+) ions. They reveal at least two different types of coordination environments: (1) specific sites for Co(2+) interacting with N7 of guanine; (2) a central ionic site formed by four phosphate groups, which can be occupied by different ions. One more ionic site that is not always occupied by ions is also visible in the electron density map. All of them play a role in the crystal structure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most important aspects of macromolecular structure refinement is the use of prior chemical knowledge. Bond lengths, bond angles and other chemical properties are used in restrained refinement as subsidiary conditions. This contribution describes the organization and some aspects of the use of the flexible and human/machine-readable dictionary of prior chemical knowledge used by the maximum-likelihood macromolecular-refinement program REFMAC5. The dictionary stores information about monomers which represent the constitutive building blocks of biological macromolecules (amino acids, nucleic acids and saccharides) and about numerous organic/inorganic compounds commonly found in macromolecular crystallography. It also describes the modifications the building blocks undergo as a result of chemical reactions and the links required for polymer formation. More than 2000 monomer entries, 100 modification entries and 200 link entries are currently available. Algorithms and tools for updating and adding new entries to the dictionary have also been developed and are presented here. In many cases, the REFMAC5 dictionary allows entirely automatic generation of restraints within REFMAC5 refinement runs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deoxyoligonucleotide d(CGCAATTGCG) has previously been crystallized in four different space groups. The crystals diffract to moderate resolution (2.3-2.9 A). Here, a fifth crystal form that diffracts to higher resolution (1.6 A) is presented which was obtained thanks to the use of Co2+ and cryogenic temperatures. The availability of five different crystal structures allows a thorough analysis of the conformational variability of this DNA sequence. It is concluded that the central hexamer sequence CAATTG has a practically constant conformation under all conditions, whilst the terminal base pairs at both ends vary considerably as a result of differing interactions in the crystals. The new crystal structure presented here is stabilized by guanine-Co2+-guanine interactions and the formation of C1+ -G8.C3 triplexes between neighbouring duplexes. As a result of the higher resolution of the crystal structure, a more regular structure was obtained and a clear definition of the spine of hydration was observed which was not visible in the four previous structures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fisher's information is a statistical quantity related to maximum-likelihood theory. It is a matrix defined as the expected value of the squared gradient of minus the log-likelihood function. This matrix is positive semidefinite for any parameter value. Fisher's information is used in the quasi-Newton scoring method of minimization to calculate the shift vectors of model parameters. If the matrix is non-singular, the scoring-minimization step is always downhill. In this article, it is shown how the scoring method can be applied to macromolecular crystallographic refinement. It is also shown how the computational costs involved in calculation of the Fisher's matrix can be efficiently reduced. Speed is achieved by assuming a continuous distribution of reciprocal-lattice points. Matrix elements calculated with this method agree very well with those calculated analytically. The scoring algorithm has been implemented in the program REFMAC5 of the CCP4 suite. The Fisher's matrix is used in its sparse approximation. Tests indicate that the algorithm performs satisfactorily.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An electron-spin-echo-detected, electron-paramagnetic-resonance study has been performed on the type 2 copper site of quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase from Aspergillus japonicus. In the protein, copper is coordinated by three histidine nitrogens and two sulfurs from the inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate. A single crystal of the protein was studied at 95 GHz and the complete g-tensor determined. The electron-paramagnetic-resonance data are compatible with two orientations of the principal g-axes in the copper center, one of which is preferred on the basis of an analysis of the copper coordination and the d-orbitals that are involved in the unpaired-electron orbital. For this orientation, the principal z-axis of the g-tensor makes an angle of 19 degrees with the Cu-N(His112) bond and the N of His112 may be considered the axial ligand. The singly occupied molecular orbital contains a linear combination of copper dxy and dyz-orbitals, which are antibonding with atomic orbitals of histidine nitrogens and diethyldithiocarbamate sulfurs. The orientation of the g-tensor for the quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase is compared with that for type 1 copper sites.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3QD) is the only firmly established copper dioxygenase known so far. Depending solely on a mononuclear Cu center, it catalyzes the breakage of the O-heterocycle of flavonols, producing more easily degradable phenolic carboxylic acid ester derivatives. In the enzymatic process, two CC bonds are broken and concomitantly carbon monoxide is released. The x-ray structures of Aspergillus japonicus 2,3QD anaerobically complexed with the substrate kaempferol and the natural substrate quercetin have been determined at 1.90- and 1.75-A resolution, respectively. Flavonols coordinate to the copper ion as monodentate ligands through their 3OH group. They occupy a shallow and overall hydrophobic cavity proximal to the metal center. As a result of a van der Waals contact between the most outward flavonol A-ring and Pro(164), a flexible loop in front of the active site becomes partly ordered. Interestingly, flavonols bound to 2,3QD are bent at the C2 atom, which is pyramidalized. The increased local sp(3) character at this atom may stabilize a carbon-centered radical activated for dioxygen attack. Glu(73) coordinates the copper through its O epsilon 1 atom. The short distance of about 2.55 A between its O epsilon 2 atom and the flavonol O3 atom suggests that a hydrogen bond exists between the two atoms, indicating that Glu(73) can act as a base in flavonol deprotonation and that it retains the proton. Structure-based geometric considerations indicate O(2) binding to the flavonol C2 atom as the preferred route for flavonol dioxygenation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2003; 99(26):16625-30. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3QD) is a copper-containing dioxygenase that catalyses the oxidation of the flavonol quercetin to 2-protocatechuoylphloroglucinol carboxylic acid with concomitant production of carbon monoxide. In contrast to iron dioxygenases, very little is known about copper dioxygenases. We have characterized 2,3QD from the fungus Aspergillus japonicus by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). At pH 6.0, 2,3QD shows a mixture of two EPR species. The major form has parameters typical of type 2 Cu sites (g// = 2.330, A// = 13.7 mT), the minor one has a more distorted geometry (g// = 2.290, A// = 12.5 mT). Anaerobic addition of the substrate quercetin results in a different, single species EPR spectrum with g// = 2.336, A// = 11.4 mT, parameters, which are in-between those of the type 2 and type 1 Cu sites in the Peisach-Blumberg (g// vs. A//) plot. After turnover, a new EPR signal is observed, which is ascribed to the carboxylic acid ester product complex. This spectrum is similar to that of the native enzyme at pH 10.0 and has g-tensor parameters suggesting a trigonal bipyramidal site. Of a variety of flavonoids studied, only flavonols are able to bind to the copper centre of 2,3QD. Nine flavonols with different hydroxylation patterns at the A- and B-ring have been analysed. They cluster in two different regions of the Peisach-Blumberg plot and show that the presence of a 5-OH group has a large effect on the A// parameter. Several differences are noted between A. japonicus 2,3QD and the enzyme from A. niger German Collection of Microorganisms 821.
European Journal of Biochemistry 07/2002; 269(12):2971-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of the copper-dependent Aspergillus japonicus quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3QD) complexed with the inhibitors diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and kojic acid (KOJ) are reported at 1.70 and 2.15 A resolution, respectively. Both inhibitors asymmetrically chelate the metal center and assume a common orientation in the active site cleft. Their molecular plane blocks access to the inner portion of the cavity which is lined by the side chains of residues Met51, Thr53, Phe75, Phe114, and Met123 and which is believed to bind the flavonol B-ring of the natural substrate. The binding of the inhibitors brings order into the mixed coordination observed in the native enzyme. DDC and KOJ induce a single conformation of the Glu73 side chain, although in different ways. In the presence of DDC, Glu73 is detached from the copper ion with its carboxylate moiety pointing away from the active site cavity. In contrast, when KOJ is bound, Glu73 ligates the Cu ion through its O(epsilon)(1) atom with a monodentate geometry. Compared to the native coordinating conformation, this conformation is approximately 90 degrees rotated about the chi(3) angle. This latter Glu73 conformation is compatible with the presence of a bound substrate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3QD) is a mononuclear copper-dependent dioxygenase which catalyzes the cleavage of the heterocyclic ring of the flavonol quercetin (5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy flavonol) to produce 2-protocatechuoyl-phloroglucinol carboxylic acid and carbon monoxide. In this study, X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to characterize the local structural environment of the Cu(2+) center of Aspergillus japonicus 2,3QD. Analysis of the EXAFS region of native 2,3QD at functionally relevant pH (pH 6.0) indicates an active site equally well-described by either four or five ligands (3N(His) + 1-2O) at an average distance of 2.00 A. Bond valence sum analysis confirms that the best model is somewhere between the two. When, however, 2,3QD is anaerobically complexed with its natural substrate quercetin, the copper environment undergoes a transition to a five-coordinated cage, which is also best modeled by a single shell of N/O scatterers at the average distance of 2.00 A. This coordination is independently confirmed by the anaerobic complex with myricetin (5'-hydroxy quercetin). XANES analysis confirms that substrate binding does not reduce the Cu(2+) ion. The present study gives the first direct insights into the coordination chemistry of the enzyme complexed with its substrates. It suggests that activation for O(2) attack is achieved by monodentate substrate complexation to the copper ion through the 3-hydroxyl group. In addition, monodentate carboxylate ligation by the Glu73 side chain is likely to play a role in the fine-tuning of the equilibrium leading to the formation of the activated E.S complex.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes the insertion of molecular oxygen into polyphenolic flavonols. Dioxygenation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes has been studied extensively, but dioxygenases employing other metal cofactors are poorly understood. We determined the crystal structure of quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase at 1.6 A resolution. The enzyme forms homodimers, which are stabilized by an N-linked heptasaccharide at the dimer interface. The mononuclear type 2 copper center displays two distinct geometries: a distorted tetrahedral coordination, formed by His66, His68, His112, and a water molecule, and a distorted trigonal bipyramidal environment, which additionally comprises Glu73. Manual docking of the substrate quercetin into the active site showed that the different geometries of the copper site might be of catalytic importance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using synchrotron radiation and a CCD camera, X-ray data have been collected from wild-type bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 at 100 K to 0.97 Å resolution allowing full anisotropic refinement. The final model has a conventional R factor of 9.44% for all reflections, with a mean standard uncertainty for the positional parameters of 0.031 Å as calculated from inversion of the full positional least-squares matrix. At 0.97 Å resolution, bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 reveals for the first time that its rigid scaffolding does not preclude flexibility, which probably plays an important role in the catalytic process. Functionally important regions (the interfacial binding site and calcium-binding loop) are located at the molecular surface, where conformational variability is more pronounced. A cluster of 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol molecules is present at the entrance of the hydrophobic channel that leads to the catalytic site and mimics the fatty-acid chains of a substrate analogue. Bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 at atomic resolution is compared with previous crystallographic structures and with models derived from nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Given the high structural similarity among extracellular phospholipases A2 observed so far at lower resolution, the results arising from this structural analysis are expected to be of general validity for this class of enzymes.