ABSTRACT: To assess the independent contribution of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and age to anemia in older nursing home residents.
Skilled nursing facility.
Nursing home residents with records in the Beverly Healthcare Data Warehouse who were admitted to a nursing home between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003; were alive as of January 31, 2004; and had hemoglobin and serum creatinine (SCr) values available for analysis.
Prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin <13 g/dL for men and <12 g/dL for women) and CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), according to Modification of Diet in Renal Disease criteria) and the contribution of CKD and age to the prevalence of anemia.
Six thousand two hundred resident records were analyzed (70% female, 85% Caucasian). Overall, 59.6% of residents were anemic, and 43.1% had CKD, and residents with CKD were more likely to have anemia (64.9% with vs 55.7% without CKD; odds ratio (OR)=1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.33-1.63). Although older age was associated with lower hemoglobin values primarily in residents without CKD (Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r)=-0.10, P<.001), age had no association with hemoglobin in CKD (Spearman r=0.01, P=.60). The greater risk of anemia in the presence of CKD persisted in each age category (OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.53-2.80, aged 65-74; OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.21-1.70, aged 75-84; and OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.15-1.57, aged > or =85).
Overall, these results suggest that CKD contributes more strongly than older age to the high prevalence of anemia in older nursing home residents.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 10/2007; 55(10):1566-70. · 3.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the importance of severe retrognathia as a risk factor for the development of recent onset painful TMJ disorders among adult females.
This study was conducted in a large health maintenance organization between 1998 and 1999 [Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), Portland, OR, USA].
Adult females with recent onset painful TMJ disorders (n=29) and normal controls (n=104).
Cases were recruited from the TMD clinic at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW). Controls were recruited from a dental clinic at KPNW. Case status was determined using a questionnaire; mandibular sagittal position was determined by measuring a research angle on facial photographs. The mean research angle for cases was compared to the mean for controls. Multivariable exact conditional logistic regression analysis was used to examine the demographic characteristics of cases and controls, and to determine the strength of association between recent onset painful TMJ disorders and severe retrognathia. The population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) and the attributable risk percentage (AR%) were calculated to further evaluate severe retrognathia as a risk factor.
The mean research angle among cases (67.7 degrees; 95% CI=66.0-69.4) was smaller than among controls (71.6 degrees; 95% CI=70.7-72.5, P<0.001). The odds ratio for the association between case status and the presence or absence of severe retrognathia was elevated (OR=6.3; 95% CI=1.1-47.5, P=0.039). The PAR% and AR%, associated with severe retrognathia, were 13.3 and 84.1%, respectively.
Severe retrognathia is strongly associated with recent onset painful TMJ disorders (OR=6.3). Only a small proportion of these disorders are attributable to severe retrognathia among the total population of adult females (PAR%=13.3%). However, a large proportion of these TMJ disorders are potentially attributable to severe retrognathia among adult females with severe retrognathia (AR%=84.1%).
Journal of orthodontics 12/2005; 32(4):249-56; discussion 247.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine what factors are independently associated with an increased likelihood of failed operative vaginal delivery.
We conducted a population-based case-control study evaluating maternal, pregnancy, provider, care setting, and fetal factors associated with failed operative vaginal delivery. Subjects were identified using Washington state birth certificates for infants born between 1992 and 2001. Cases (n = 1750) were live-born singletons with both labored cesarean delivery and an operative vaginal delivery ("failure") coded on the birth certificate. Controls (n = 3500), frequency matched by delivery year to the cases, were randomly selected from among singletons undergoing a successful operative vaginal delivery. Odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% CI, estimated with Mantel-Haenszel methods, measured the association between case status and potential risk factors.
Failed operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased maternal age, African American race, higher body mass index (BMI), diabetes, polyhydramnios, induction of labor, dysfunctional labor, and prolonged labor. Case compared with control mothers were more likely to deliver a low-birth weight or macrosomic infant.
Identification of maternal and fetal factors associated with failed operative vaginal delivery may enable providers to better counsel patients, and allow improved planning and allocation of surgical resources.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 10/2004; 191(3):896-902. · 3.47 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension are common, and their relation is not well understood. The authors conducted a population-based case-control study using 1992-1998 Washington State birth certificate and hospital discharge records to investigate this relation. Consecutive cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension were divided into four groups based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes: eclampsia (n=154), severe preeclampsia (n=1,180), mild preeclampsia (n=5,468), and gestational hypertension (n=8,943). Cases were compared with controls who did not have pregnancy-induced hypertension (n=47,237). Gestational diabetes was more common in each case group (3.9% in eclamptics, 4.5% in severe preeclamptics, and 4.4% in both mild preeclamptics and those with gestational hypertension) than in controls (2.7%). After adjustment for body mass index, age, ethnicity, parity, and prenatal care, gestational diabetes was associated with increased risk of severe preeclampsia (odds ratio (OR)=1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.1), mild preeclampsia (OR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.8), and gestational hypertension (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.6). Gestational diabetes was more strongly associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension among women who received less prenatal care (OR=4.2 for eclampsia and OR=3.1 for severe preeclampsia, p<0.05 for both) and among Black women (OR for eclampsia and preeclampsia together=3.9, p<0.05).
American Journal of Epidemiology 12/2003; 158(12):1148-53. · 5.22 Impact Factor