[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of sixty-one subjects occupationally exposed to chromium in an industry which manufactures chromium sulphate and fifteen control subjects from a nearby industry which does not manufacture any chromium related compounds were studied. The history of each subject was recorded on pre-designed form through interview and a routine medical examination was carried out. Blood samples (5-6 ml) were collected for the estimation of chromium and semen samples were collected for semen analysis and the determination of copper and zinc levels in the seminal plasma. Clinical examination revealed nasal perforation in 10 subjects (out of 61) in the exposed group as compared to none in the control group. A significantly higher level of chromium was observed in the blood of the exposed workers as compared to the control. The concentration of zinc in seminal plasma was lower while the level of copper was higher in the exposed group as compared to the control. However, these changes were not statistically significant. Statistically significant higher numbers of morphologically abnormal sperms were noticed in the exposed group with respect to the control. Further analysis of the data indicated that about 53% of the exposed subjects showed less than 30% normal forms as compared to 10% in control subjects. However, no significant alterations in semen volume, liquefaction time, mean pH value, sperm viability, concentration or motility, were noticed between chromium exposed and unexposed workers. The data also indicates that exposure to chromium has some effect on human sperm as a significant positive correlation (r=0.301) was observed between percentages of abnormal sperm morphology and blood chromium levels (p=0.016) after pooling all the data of the control and exposure groups.
Journal of Occupational Health 10/2005; 47(5):424-30. DOI:10.1539/joh.47.424 · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is experimental evidence of adverse effects of endosulfan on the male reproductive system, but there are no human data. Therefore, we undertook a study to examine the relationship between environmental endosulfan exposure and reproductive development in male children and adolescents. The study population was composed of 117 male schoolchildren (10-19 years of age) of a village situated at the foothills of cashew plantations, where endosulfan had been aerially sprayed for more than 20 years, and 90 comparable controls with no such exposure history. The study parameters included recording of clinical history, physical examination, sexual maturity rating (SMR) according to Tanner stages, and estimation of serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and endosulfan residues (70 study and 47 control subjects). Mean +/- SE serum endosulfan levels in the study group (7.47 +/- 1.19 ppb) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in controls (1.37 +/- 0.40 ppb). Multiple regression analysis showed that SMR scoring for development of pubic hair, testes, penis, and serum testosterone level was positively related to age and negatively related to aerial exposure to endosulfan (AEE; p < 0.01). Serum LH levels were significantly positively related to AEE after controlling for age (p < 0.01). The prevalence of congenital abnormalities related to testicular descent (congenital hydrocele, undescended testis, and congenital inguinal hernia) among study and controls subjects was 5.1% and 1.1%, respectively, but the differences were statistically nonsignificant. Our study results suggest that endosulfan exposure in male children may delay sexual maturity and interfere with sex hormone synthesis. Our study is limited by small sample size and nonparticipation.
Environmental Health Perspectives 01/2004; 111(16):1958-62. DOI:10.1289/ehp.6271 · 7.98 Impact Factor