John S. Mackiewicz

State University of New York, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (31)57.32 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The vitellarium of the invasive caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 from carp Cyprinus carpio L. was examined by means of transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining for glycogen with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate (PA-TSC-SP). A vitellarium consists of numerous follicles of irregular size that are interconnected by a net of vitelline ducts. Vitelline follicles are composed of vitelline cells at various stages of development that are interconnected by interstitial tissue. Vitelline follicles are surrounded by a cytoplasmic sheath associated with an intercellular matrix. Extensive development of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes are both involved in the production of shell globules/shell globule clusters and characterise cytodifferentiation of vitellocytes. Nuclear and nucleolar transformation lead to the formation and storage of intranuclear glycogen, a feature specific for the Caryophyllidea. Newly observed within the mature vitellocytes of Khawia sp. is the presence of lamellar bodies and a few lipid droplets. These cytoplasmic inclusions first occur in the mature cells within the follicles and persist in the vitelline cells within vitelloducts and intrauterine eggs. Two types of lamellar bodies are detected: regular lamellar-structured body and irregular lamellar-structured body. None of the lamellar bodies are membrane bound. Results of the present study indicate that the formation of lamellar bodies may be closely related to the endoplasmic reticulum or shell globule clusters. Some of the shell globule clusters are transformed into lamellar body clusters. Ultrastructural features of vitellocytes in K. sinensis are compared with those of other monopleuroid, polypleuroid, and strobilated cestodes.
    Parasitology Research 06/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intrauterine embryonic development in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Contrary to previous light microscopy findings that reported the release of non-embryonated eggs of K. sinenesis to the external environment, the present study documents various stages of embryonation (ovoviviparity) within the intrauterine eggs of this cestode. At the initial stage of embryonic development, each fertilised oocyte is accompanied by several vitellocytes that become enclosed within the operculate, electrondense shell. Cleavage divisions result in formation of blastomeres (up to about 24 cells) of various sizes. Mitotic divisions and apparent rosette arrangment of the blastomeres, the latter atypical within the Eucestoda, are observed for the first time in the intrauterine eggs of K. sinenesis. The early embryo enclosed within the electrondense shell is surrounded by a thin membraneous layer which in some enlarged regions shows presence of nuclei. Simultaneously to multiplication and differentiation, some of the blastomeres undergo deterioration. A progressive degeneration of the vitellocytes within eggs provides nutritive reserves, including lipids, for the developing embryo. The possible significance of this atypical timing of the intrauterine embryonic development to (1) the ecology of K. sinensis and that of a recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe; and (2) the affiliation of caryophyllideans with other lower cestodes, are discussed.
    Parasitology Research 09/2011; 110(2):1009-17. · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • Marta Spakulová, Martina Orosová, John S Mackiewicz
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    ABSTRACT: Tapeworms (Cestoda, Platyhelminthes) are a highly diversified group of parasites that can have significant veterinary importance as well as medical impact as disease agents of human alveococcosis, hydatidosis, taeniosis/cysticercosis/neurocysticercosis, hymenolepidosis or diphyllobothriasis. Because of their great diversity, there has been keen interest in their phylogenetic relationships to other obligate parasitic platyhelminthes, as well as within the group itself. Recent phylogenetic analyses of cestodes, however, have focused on morphological, molecular, life cycle, embryology and host-specificity features and conspicuously omitted inclusion of karyological data. Here we review the literature from 1907 to 2010 and the current status of knowledge of the chromosomes and cytogenetics within all of the cestode orders and place it within an evolutionary perspective. Karyological data are discussed and tabulated for 115 species from nine eucestode orders with ideograms of 46 species, and a comparison of cytogenetic patterns between acetabulate and bothriate cestode lineages is made. Attention is drawn to gaps in our knowledge for seven remaining orders and cestodarian groups Gyrocotylidea and Amphilinidea. Among the cytogenetic aspects covered are: chromosome number, triploidy, classical karyotype cytogenetics (banding patterns, karyotype asymmetry, secondary constrictions), as well as advanced karyotype techniques allowing location of genes on chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We demonstrate that further progress in cestode karyosystematics rests with new molecular approaches and the application of advanced cytogenetic markers facilitating intimate karyotype analysis.
    Advances in Parasitology 01/2011; 74:177-230. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first description of vitellogenesis in the Diphyllidea is presented in this paper. Though the type of vitellogenesis and mature vitellocyte in Echinobothrium euterpes appear to be unique among the Eucestoda, however, they somewhat resemble that observed in the two orders of the lower cestodes, Tetraphyllidea and Proteocephalidea. Vitellocyte maturation is characterized by: (1) an increase in cell volume; (2) extensive development of short, parallel, frequently concentric cisternae of GER that produce dense proteinaceous granules; (3) development of Golgi complexes engaged in packaging this material; (4) progressive formation of saturated lipid droplets; their continuous enlargement and fusion; (5) formation of small accumulations of glycogen particles scattered between and among lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of maturing vitellocytes; (6) concentration of dense proteinaceous granules in the peripheral layer of cytoplasm, around the cell plasma membrane; and (7) vacuolization of cytoplasm of mature vitellocytes accompanied by a rapid increase in its volume. A new, unreported type of dense proteinaceous granules, situated around the limiting plasma membranes of mature vitellocytes, is described. Vitellogenesis evidently differs from that with typical shell-globules and shell-globule clusters previously reported in other taxa of lower cestodes. Cytochemical staining with periodic acidthiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen indicates a strongly positive reaction for glycogen particles between and around large unsaturated lipid droplets of the maturing and mature vitellocytes. Some hypotheses concerning the interrelationship between this pattern of vitellogenesis, possible mode of egg formation, embryonic development and diphyllidean life cycle, and their phylogenetic implications are drawn and discussed. KeywordsCestoda–Diphyllidea– Echinobothrium euterpes –vitellogenesis–ultrastructure–cytochemistry–dense proteinaceous granules–saturated lipids–glycogen
    Acta Parasitologica 01/2011; 56(2):180-190. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A comparative study of the scoleces of caryophyllidean tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasitic in cypriniform fishes in the Palaearctic Region, was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. Three-dimensional pictures of the scoleces of 18 species of caryophyllidean cestodes of the Capingentidae (1 species), Caryophyllaeidae (7) and Lytocestidae (10), and outlines of the scoleces and anterior extent of the testes and vitelline follicles of 19 Palaearctic taxa were documented. Both species of Atractolytocestus Anthony, 1957 possess a bulboacuminate scolex, whereas species of Archigetes Leuckart, 1876 have fossate scoleces of the bothrioloculodiscate type, with loculi, bothrium-like depressions and an apical disc. Breviscolex orientalis Kulakovskaya, 1962, the only member of the Capingentidae, has a cuneiform scolex, as do both taxa of the lytocestid genus Caryophyllaeides Nybelin, 1922. The scoleces of two species of Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 are flabellate, whereas that of the congeneric C. fimbriceps Annenkova-Chlopina, 1919 is cuneicrispitate. Khawia Hsü, 1935, the most specious Palaearctic genus, with seven taxa that we consider to be valid, has the highest diversity in scolex morphology: semi-bulbate, flabellate, cuneiform, cuneifimbriate, truncated cuneiform-flabellate and festoon-like. Species of Monobothrium Nybelin, 1922 have either a digitiform scolex with widened posterior part or cuneiform, with lateral auricular extensions. Paracaryophyllaeus gotoi (Motomura, 1927) is characteristic in its possessing a bulbate scolex, whereas Paraglaridacris limnodrili (Yamaguti, 1934) has a fossate scolex of the bulboloculate type with bothrium-like depressions and feebly developed lateral loculi. Anterior extent of the testes and vitelline follicles and their mutual position show a somewhat higher variability than scolex shape, with intraspecific variation in some taxa, such as Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Kulakovskaya et Akhmerov, 1965), B. orientalis, Khawia armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915) and K. sinensis Hsii, 1935. Based on scolex morphology and relative position of the anterior testes and vitelline follicles, a key is provided to facilitate the routine identification of 20 Palaearctic caryophyllidean taxa.
    Folia parasitologica 03/2010; 57(1):37-46. · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • L Poddubnaya, J S Mackiewicz
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    ABSTRACT: Transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscope methods were used to study the fine structure of the cirrus, cirrus sac, internal seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, prostate glands and cirrus armature of Echinophallus wageneri (Monticelli, 1890) and Paraechinophallus japonicus (Yamaguti, 1934) (Bothriocephallidea: Echinophallidae). The cirrus sac of these species has two unique ultrastructural features: a thick wall with two bands of muscles and prominent, rooted hard structures. Rare traits echinophallids share with diphyllobothriideans are microtriches on the ejaculatory duct and with spathebothriideans, well-developed unicellular prostate glands outside the cirrus sac. Because there is a similarity of cirrus armature and rostellar hooks in having a tegumental localisation and in having a heterogenous structure of the blade and root, a cortex, a central pulp region and a recurved apex, these structures are named "modified hooks" instead of spines. They also have a spiral arrangement; no base plate was observed. True spines, as found in trematodes, are between the surface and basal plasma membrane of the external syncytial layer of the tegument, rest on the basal plasma membrane of the distal epithelial cytoplasm, show a homogeneous electron-dark crystalline appearance and are covered by the surface plasma membrane. Aside from the characteristic hooks on the scolex of various cestodes, we see no evidence that would preclude the development of still other specialised structures, such as these modified hooks, from microtriches. In spite of the absence of studies on the development of modified hooks from the cirrus of echinophallids and/or its consideration as derived from microtriches, we assume that like microtriches, formation of modified hooks is from tegumental bodies and therefore they are derivative structures of the cestode tegument.
    International journal for parasitology 09/2008; 39(3):381-90. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic relationships of all genera of the order Caryophyllidea, possibly the earliest branching group of true tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda) and the only one that is monozoic, have been assessed for the first time. Results of this cladistic analysis, inferred from 30 unweighted morphological characters, are only partly congruent with the existing classification, which consists of four families based on the position of the inner longitudinal muscles in relation to the internal genital organs. Whereas all but five genera of the Caryophyllaeidae form a monophyletic clade, members of the Capingentidae are split, occurring within six unrelated groups. The Lytocestidae is also paraphyletic, as some genera appear in four unrelated clades. Archigetes appears in a derived clade, indicating that its direct (monoxenous) life-cycle involving only tubificid oligochaetes is secondarily derived and not plesiomorphic among the Eucestoda, as postulated by some authors.
    Systematic Parasitology 06/2008; 70(1):1-14. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During vitellogenesis in Parachristianella trygonis Trypanorhyncha, Eutetrarhynchidae) we distinguished four stages: (1) gonial or stem cell stage; (2) early differentiation stage concentrated on protein synthetic activity and shell-globule formation; (3) advanced differentiation stage with main cell activity concentrated on carbohydrate synthesis (glycogenesis) and massive glycogen storage in the form of α-glycogen rosettes and β-glycogen particles; and finally (4) mature vitellocyte stage. Early vitellocyte maturation is characterised by: (1) an increase in cell volume; (2) extensive development of large, parallel cisternae of GER that produce proteinaceous granules; (3) development of Golgi complexes engaged in packaging this material; (4) continuous enlargement of proteinaceous granules within vacuoles and their transformation into shell-globule clusters composed of heterogeneous material. Cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for polysaccharides indicated a strongly positive reaction for the presence of α-glycogen rosettes and β-glycogen particles in the advanced stage of vitellocyte maturation. Both protein synthesis for shell-globule formation and carbohydrate synthesis or glycogenesis, important storage of nutritive reserves for the developing embryos, observed during cytodifferentiation of P. trygonis vitellocytes overlap in time to some extent. Mature vitelline cells are very rich in three types of cell inclusions accumulated in large amounts in their cytoplasm: (1) shell-globule clusters, playing an important role in egg-shell formation; (2) numerous large lipid droplets, as well as a high accumulation of lipid and α-glycogen rosettes and β-glycogen particles that undoubtedly represent important nutritive reserves for the developing embryos. Despite the fact that the type of vitellogenesis and ultrastructure of the mature vitellocyte in P. trygonis appears to differ to some extent from those of three other trypanorhynch species, its general pattern and ultrastructure greatly resembles those observed in other lower cestodes. Factors that may have contributed to the qualitative and quantitative variation in lipids during vitellogenesis among the four species of Trypanorhyncha, are identified and discussed.
    Acta Parasitologica 05/2007; 52(2):114-126. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first description of vitellogenesis in the Trypanorhyncha is presented in this paper. Though the type of vitellogenesis and mature vitellocyte in Dollfusiella spinulifera appear to be unique among the Eucestoda, to some extent they resemble that observed in the lower cestodes, namely the Tetraphyllidea and Pseudophyllidea. Maturation is characterized by: (1) an increase in cell volume; (2) extensive development of large, parallel, frequently concentric cisternae of GER that produce proteinaceous granules; (3) development of Golgi complexes engaged in packaging this material; (4) continuous enlargement of proteinaceous granules within vesicles and their transformation into shell globule clusters; and (5) progressive fusion of all vesicles, with flocculent material containing the proteinaceous granules and shell globule clusters, into a single very large vesicle that characterises mature vitellocytes of this tapeworm. Cell inclusions in and around the large vesicle consist of flocculent material of a very low density, a few shell globule clusters, moderately dense proteinaceous granules and numerous large droplets of unsaturated lipids. A new previously unreported mode of transformation of proteinaceous granules into shell globule clusters, that evidently differs from that of pseudophyllideans and tetraphyllideans, is described. Cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for polysaccharides indicates a strongly positive reaction for membrane-bound glycoproteins in all membranous structures such as GER, mitochondria, Golgi complexes, nuclear and cell plasma membranes. Similar staining revealed β-glycogen particles scattered in the cytoplasm of maturing vitellocytes. Typical cytoplasmic β-glycogen particles appear mainly during early vitellocyte maturation but it is characteristic for this species that they are only seldom visible in mature cells. Some working hypotheses concerning the interrelationship between this particular pattern of vitellogensis, possible mode of egg formation in D. spinulifera, its embryonic development and trypanorhynchean life cycle, are drawn and discussed.
    Acta Parasitologica 08/2006; 51(3):182-193. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study describes the ultrastructure of mature vitellocytes of the trypanorhynch cestode Progrillotia pastinacae Dollfus, 1946 (Progrillotiidae), a parasite of the common stingray Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Dasyatidae). The vitelline cells of this species measure about 24 μm in length and about 20 μm in width. They have small, elongated, slightly lobulated nuclei, about 4–5 μm in length, with large dense elongated nucleoli and numerous irregularly-shaped dense clumps of heterochromatin. The extensive cytoplasm is rich in numerous cell organelles and cell inclusions. While the perinuclear cytoplasm contains numerous long parallel cisternae of GER, ribo-and polyribosomes, several Golgi complexes and mitochondria, the peripheral cytoplasm contains predominantly three types of cell inclusions: a great number of large lipid droplets, several shell globule clusters, and a very small amount of glycogen-like particles. The most characteristic features of vitellocytes in P. pastinacae are having almost no traces of glycogen and the great number of large, highly osmiophobic lipid droplets representing saturated fatty acids. The presence of large amounts of lipids also in two other trypanorhynchs, Grillotia erinaceus (Beneden, 1858) Guiart, 1927 and Dollfusiella spinulifera (Beveridge et Jones, 2000) Beveridge, Neifar et Euzet, 2004, is in strong contrast to the condition in the most evolved cestodes, Cyclophyllidea, that usually show no trace of lipids.
    Acta Parasitologica 01/2006; 51(3):194-199. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fine structure of the ovary, ovicapt, oviduct, fertilisation canal, vitelline ducts, vitelline reservoir, ovovitelline duct, ootype and Mehlis' gland, and proximal, middle and distal parts of the uterus of the spathebothriidean cestode, Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781), from salmoniform fish, has been studied for the first time by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Emphasis was given to characteristics which might shed light on the unclarified phylogenetic position of spathebothriideans, belonging among the most basal tapeworms (Eucestoda). New for cestodes is the finding of a multinucleate cell that plugs the ovicapt lumen. The morphology of the proximal part of the oviduct resembles that of the pseudophyllidean tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum. After fertilisation in the fertilisation canal, vitellocytes of C. truncatus become associated with fertilized oocytes in the ovovitelline duct. Only one type of Mehlis' gland secretory cell is present. The eggs with electron-dense eggshells containing large pores first appear in the proximal part of the uterus. The middle portion of the uterus has well-developed uterine glands. The distal portion of the uterus has apical microtriches. Ultrastructural data on the female genital system of C. truncatus are compared and discussed with those for other cestodes. However, on the basis of available ultrastructural data it is not possible to conclude whether the Spathebothriidea are phylogenetically closer to the Caryophyllidea or to the Pseudophyllidea.
    Folia parasitologica 12/2005; 52(4):323-38. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fine structure of the vas efferens, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct with accessory glands and vagina with seminal receptacle is described in the spathebothriidean tapeworm, Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) Kessler, 1868. The numerous well-developed prostate glands are characterised by having secretory granules with an electron-dense core surrounded by a matrix of lower electron density. Coalescence of the outer part of the granules with each other takes place in the terminal end of the secretory ducts. The position of prostate glands around the proximal part of the cirrus pouch and terminating in the ejaculatory duct is a characteristic feature of the Spathebothriidea. Up to 20 closely arranged muscle layers make up the muscular cirrus pouch wall with 4 well-developed muscular layers in the ejaculatory duct and cirrus. Both the cirrus and the vagina are covered with the same uniform cone-shaped microtriches. The vagina has an extensive seminal receptacle. All of these structures are well-adapted to insure successful sperm transfer involving ejaculation and storage, probably for both self- and cross-insemination. Cyathocephalus truncatus has a cirrus similar to that of the monozoic, progenetic caryophyllidean, Archigetes sieboldi and well-developed prostate glands like those of the polyzoic pseudophyllidean, Diphyllobothrium latum. The ultrastructural aspects of the male and female reproductive system of C. truncatus are compared with those of other tapeworms.
    Folia parasitologica 10/2005; 52(3):241-50. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrastructural descriptions of the oviduct, fertilization canal, seminal receptacle, ovovitelline duct, vitelline reservoir, ootype, Mehlis' gland, proximal uterus, and neurosecretory elements associated with egg-forming ducts are given for the progenetic spathebothriidean tapeworm, Diplocotyle olrikii from the body cavity of Gammarus oceanicus. The functional significance of cortical granules of the oocyte, as necessary elements for joining vitelline material to an oocyte in the ovovitelline duct, is estab-lished. The proximal ootype has a vesicular epithelium and is the site of initial, nascent eggshell formation. Precursors of nas-cent eggshell are vesicles, synthesized in both the proximal ootype wall and vitelline cytoplasm that become associated with the newly formed shell. Major shell structure comes from subsequent deposition of shell globules from a disintegration of vitelline clusters. Mehlis' gland has a single secretory cell type. Secretory granules from Mehlis' gland become associated with the devel-oping egg that passes through to the distal ootype and proximal uterus where egg-formation is completed. It is not known, how-ever, whether Mehlis' gland secretion promotes breakdown of free vitelline cells, liberation of shell globules, confluence of shell globules on the developing eggshell or provides further structural components for the shell. Despite some differences in ootype morphology, the basic process of eggshell formation in D. olrikii may share much in common with the Pseudophyllidea and Caryophyllidea. Small vesicles and dense-core vesicles are in nerve terminals near duct musculature. Nerve terminals with large dense vesicles are described near, in, and within the seminal receptacle, fertilization canal and distal ootype. The possible phys-iological effects of exocrine neurosecretions are discussed.
    Acta Parasitologica 01/2005; 50:292-304. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ultrastructure of the ovary and oogenesis are described from the immature and sexually mature female reproductive sys-tem of the progenetic spathebothriidean tapeworm, Diplocotyle olrikii from the body cavity of Gammarus oceanicus. Two types of cells are described: germinal (oogonia, oocytes) and interstitial. A comparison is made of the fine structure of oogonia, early and advanced maturing oocytes and mature oocytes. Two types of inclusions, cortical granules and lipid droplets, are produced by maturing oocytes, and remain in the cytoplasm of mature oocytes within the ovovitelline duct lumen while only lipid droplets are evident in the oocyte cytoplasm of intrauterine eggs. The fate and possible functions of both inclusions are discussed. The interstitial component of the ovary is a syncytium. The maturing oocyte surface is prolonged into lamellae, forming a lamel-lar mesh with adjacent germ cells and close association of interstitial mitochondria. Deep invaginations of the ovarian basement layer between numerous folds of ovarian lobules facilitate close contact of the interstitium and sarcoplasmic glycogen-rich processes with maturing oocytes. Synchronism in maturity among all of the oocytes in the ovary is shown at different stages of oogenesis. Such a pattern of oogenesis results in the production of many eggs at the same stage of development and is con-sidered an adaptation for the dissemination of fertilized eggs that occurs only at the death of the gammarid host.
    Acta Parasitologica 01/2005; 50:199-207. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitellogenesis in Mosgovoyia ctenoides was examined by means of transmission electron microscopy. Mature vitelline follicles consist of cells in various stages of development, progressing from immature cells of gonial type near the periphery to mature vitellocytes towards the centre. Maturation is characterized by: (1) increase in cell volume; (2) extensive development of large parallel cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER), the vitelline material producing units; (3) development of Golgi complexes engaged in vitelline material package; (4) continuous fusion of small vesicles into larger vitelline vesicles and fusion of these into a single very large vesicle, which is characteristic for mature vitellocytes of this tapeworm. Vitellogenesis in M. ctenoides is compared with that in other cestodes. Some conclusions concerning the interrelationship between the vitello-genesis pattern and the type of embryogenesis are drawn and discussed.
    Acta Parasitologica 01/2005; 50(4):305-311. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrastructural characteristics of progenetic and monoxenic Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878 from the oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparède are described. Our observations demonstrate that progenetic Archigetes sieboldi shares characteristics of both larval (progenetic) and adult stages. The primary larval characteristics are: the presence of a cercomer; a surface filamentous coat covering the whole worm; the presence of the penetration glands and the absence of tegumental ones; wide sarcoplasmic processes connecting the circular and longitudinal external tegumental muscles; the absence of the dense homogenous zone of the basal lamina beneath the epithelial cytoplasm of all reproductive organs and ducts; non-functional gonopores; and an orthogonal plan of nervous system with three pairs of longitudinal nerve trunks. The principle adult characteristics are: oogenesis, spermiogenesis and vitellogenesis that produce fertilized eggs; the uterine glands; a well-developed longitudinal tegumental muscle layer between tegumental cytons; and the presence of different microtriches. As a result of this progenetic development there has been a secondary reduction in the life cycle of A. sieboldi. It is postulated that a similar process of progenesis may have played a major role in the early evolution of the Caryophyllidea by first appearing in a plerocercoid stage of an ancestral strobilate cestode from fish.
    Folia parasitologica 01/2004; 50(4):275-92. · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • J. S. Mackiewicz
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    ABSTRACT: Caryophyllids are widely distributed cestodes of the fresh water siluriform and cypriniform fishes of the world. There are about 126 species and 45 genera and they constitute approximately 25% of the cestode fauna of fresh water fish (Mackiewicz, 1972). Benthic-feeding fish become infected by eating tubificid worms (Annelida; Oligochaeta) that harbour the cercomer-beariug, infective stage; the tubificids, in turn, are infected by eating the operculated eggs in mud. Such a brief synopsis belies the fact that these well-known tapeworms are at the very heart of important questions concerning the evolution of Cestoidea. One has but to read Bazitov (1976), Freeman (1973), Kulakovskaya & Demshin (1978), Mameav (1975), Malmberg (1974) and Mackiewicz (1981) to appreciate that great differences still exist as to how caryophyllids evolved and what role they may have played in the evolution of the more numerous strobilate tapeworms.(Accepted October 07 1981)
    Parasitology 03/1982; 84(02):397 - 417. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Z. Swiderski, J.S. Mackiewicz
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    ABSTRACT: Swiderski Z. and Mackiewicz J. S. 1976. Electron microscope study of vitellogenesis in Glaridacris catostomi (Cestoidea: Caryophyllidea). International Journal for Parasitology6: 61–73. Mature vitelline follicles consist of cells in various stages of development, progressing from immature cells of gonial type near the periphery to mature ones toward the centre. Maturation, completed before the cell leaves the follicle, is characterized by: increase in cell volume; increase in nuclear surface area restoring the N/C ratio; nucleolar transformation; extensive development of large parallel cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum, the shell-protein producing units; development of Golgi complexes engaged in shell globule formation; formation and storage of glycogen in the cytoplasm; simultaneous, independent formation and storage of intranuclear glycogen; progressive increase in the number and size of shell globule clusters; and disintegration of endoplasmic reticulum, degenerative changes, and accumulation of glycogen and shell globule clusters within the cytoplasm associated with a massive accumulation of glycogen in the nucleus. The functional significance of the large amount of nuclear and cytoplasmic glycogen and numerous shell globule clusters is analyzed. Vitellogenesis in G. catostomi is compared with that in other cestodes and trematodes. Some conclusions, concerning the interrelationship between the vitellogenesis pattern and the type of embryogenesis following it, are drawn and discussed.
    International Journal for Parasitology 03/1976; · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • E.G. Hayunga, J.S. Mackiewicz
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrastructural observations using transmission and scanning electron microscopy reveal the tegument to be basically similar to that of other cestodes. The syncytial distal cytoplasm is devoid of organelles except for rod-shaped bodies, believed to be secretory vesicles, and lamellated bodies which probably contribute the raw material for new microtriches. There is evidence that these vesicles originate from the Golgi found in the sub-cuticular cells.Three types of microtriches are described: typical ones with well-developed spines, ones with short filaments instead of spines, and ones with no spines. Microtriches with spines are found only on the anterior part of the worm and may serve to anchor the worm. Microtriches on the posterior have no spines and are believed to be primarily involved in the absorption of nutrients. Between these two regions there is a transitional zone where all three types of microtriches can be found. In general the microtriches are quite uniformly distributed throughout the surface of the worm. The presence of cestodarian-like microtriches raises interesting evolutionary questions.Histochemical tests localized acid and alkaline phosphatase activity on various parts of the tegument, as well as on host intestine, while acian blue tests showed that acid mucopolysaccharide levels correspond with the concentration of the tegument vesicles.
    International Journal for Parasitology 07/1975; · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • A J Grey, J S Mackiewicz
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    ABSTRACT: The chromosomes of the monozoic tapeworm Glaridacris laruei, from 4 locations in New York State, were studied in leucobasic fuchsin stained squashes of testes and vitelline cells. The diploid chromosome number is 16. Metaphase figures from vitelline cells consist of 3 pairs of metacentrics (“V's”), 4 pairs of acrocentrics (“rods”), and 1 pair of submetacentrics (“J's”). The complement is characterized by a pair of metacentrics 9 μm long, representing 11.5% of the total chromosome length. The shortest are acrocentrics, 2–4 μm long. Meiosis was observed only in spermatogenesis, which proceeds as usual with normal sperm formed after 2 meiotic divisions. Colchicine pretreatment did not facilitate analysis of chromosomes. The scarcity of cell division in 2 populations of G. laruei suggests a possible mitotic rhythm or temperature effect on cell division. Similarities were observed between the the complements of G. laruei and Hunterella nodulosa (2n = 14). A theoretical idiogram, constructed from that of G. laruei, closely resembles H. nodulosa, indicating that there may be a close cytological relationship between these phenotypically different caryophyllids. An idiogram and photographs of chromosomes supplement the paper.
    Experimental Parasitology 11/1974; 36(2):159-66. · 2.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

292 Citations
57.32 Total Impact Points


  • 1962–2013
    • State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Slovak Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Parasitology
      Presburg, Bratislavský, Slovakia
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      • Papanin Institute of the Biology of Inland Waters
      Moscow, Moscow, Russia
  • 1972–2011
    • University at Albany, The State University of New York
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of Tennessee
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2007
    • Medical University of Warsaw
      • Zakład Biologii Ogólnej i Parazytologii
      Warsaw, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 1976
    • University of Geneva
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 1968
    • Université de Neuchâtel
      Neuenburg, Neuchâtel, Switzerland