Kathleen K Brown

Research Triangle Park Laboratories, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (21)99.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pioglitazone is prescribed to improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and has been discussed as a therapy for metabolic syndrome. Pioglitazone and other thiazolidinediones are associated with fluid retention and edema that may exacerbate existing or developing congestive heart failure, which is often present in these patients. Using a nonhuman primate model, our aims were to evaluate (1) whether fluid shifts were detectable in normoglycemic monkeys, (2) which fluid compartment changed, and (3) whether fluid retention was dose dependent. Seventeen adult male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were studied in a Latin square design such that all animals received 0, 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg pioglitazone for 6 weeks with 2 weeks of washout between dosing intervals. Doses approximated human exposures achieved with 30, 45, and 60 mg. At the end of each period, animals were weighed and underwent dual-absorption x-ray absorption scanning for body composition measurements. Fluid volumes were quantitated by Evans blue dilution for plasma volume, equilibration of sodium bromide for extracellular water, and deuterated water for total body water. Significant (P < .05) effects were seen with expansion of PV at both the 2- and 5-mg/kg doses, along with reduced plasma sodium at 5 mg/kg; however, surrogate end points used to indicate fluid retention (body weight, hematocrit, total protein, and albumin) did not change significantly. Significant trends toward increases in interstitial fluid and extracellular water with increasing dose were apparent. Pioglitazone effectively improved metabolic status by significantly decreasing fasting glucose and triglycerides and increasing adiponectin. We conclude that thiazolidinedione-related plasma volume expansion occurs in nondiabetic primates and that fluid retention is detectable when compartments are directly measured.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 03/2010; 59(6):914-20. DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2010.02.010 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PPARgamma agonists are synthetic ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). These agents have insulin-sensitizing properties but can cause fluid retention, thereby limiting their usefulness in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. The side effect etiology is unknown, but the nature of presentation suggests modulation of renal salt and water homeostasis. In a well-characterized cell culture model of the principal cell type [Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-C7], PPARgamma agonists inhibit vasopressin-stimulated Cl(-) secretion with agonist dose-response relationships that mirror receptor transactivation profiles. Analyses of the components of the vasopressin-stimulated intracellular signaling pathway indicated no PPARgamma agonist-induced changes in basolateral membrane conductances, intracellular cAMP, protein kinase A, or total cellular adenine nucleotides. The PPARgamma agonist-induced decrease in anion secretion is the result of decreased mRNA of the final effector in the pathway, the apically located cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR). These data showing that CFTR is a target for PPARgamma agonists may provide new insights into the physiology of PPARgamma agonist-induced fluid retention.
    AJP Renal Physiology 05/2009; 297(1):F55-62. DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00090.2009 · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental exposures to organophosphate pesticides are virtually ubiquitous. These agents are neurotoxicants, but recent evidence also points to lasting effects on metabolism. We administered parathion to neonatal rats. In adulthood, we assessed the impact on weight gain, food consumption, and glucose and lipid homeostasis, as well as the interaction with the effects of a high-fat diet. Neonatal rats were given parathion on postnatal days 1-4 using doses (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg/day) that straddle the threshold for barely detectable cholinesterase inhibition and the first signs of systemic toxicity. In adulthood, animals were either maintained on standard lab chow or switched to a high-fat diet for 7 weeks. In male rats on a normal diet, the low-dose parathion exposure caused increased weight gain but also evoked signs of a prediabetic state, with elevated fasting serum glucose and impaired fat metabolism. The higher dose of parathion reversed the weight gain and caused further metabolic defects. Females showed greater sensitivity to metabolic disruption, with weight loss at either parathion dose, and greater imbalances in glucose and lipid metabolism. At 0.1 mg/kg/day parathion, females showed enhanced weight gain on the high-fat diet; This effect was reversed in the 0.2-mg/kg/day parathion group, and was accompanied by even greater deficits in glucose and fat metabolism. Neonatal low-dose parathion exposure disrupts glucose and fat homeostasis in a persistent and sex-selective manner. Early-life toxicant exposure to organophosphates or other environmental chemicals may play a role in the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 12/2008; 116(11):1456-62. DOI:10.1289/ehp.11673 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis of a series of phenethanolamine aniline agonists that contain an aniline ring on the right-hand side of the molecule substituted at the meta position with a benzoic acid or a pyridyl carboxylate is described. Several of the analogues (e.g., 34, 36-38, 40, and 44) have high beta(3) adrenergic receptor (AR) potency and selectivity against beta(1) and beta(2) ARs in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing beta ARs. The dog pharmacokinetic profile of some of these analogues showed >25% oral bioavailability and po half-lives of at least 1.5 h. Among the compounds described herein, the 3,3'-biarylaniline carboxylate derivatives 36, 38 and the phenylpyridyl derivative 44 demonstrated outstanding in vitro properties and reasonable dog pharmacokinetic profiles. These three analogues also showed dose dependent beta(3) AR mediated responses in mice. The ease of synthesis and superior dog pharmacokinetics of compound 38 relative to that of 44 in combination with its in vitro profile led us to choose this compound as a development candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2006; 49(9):2758-71. DOI:10.1021/jm0509445 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study examined the relationship between skeletal muscle levels of adiponectin and parameters of insulin sensitivity. A high fat/sucrose diet (HFD) for 20 weeks resulted in significant increases in body weight, serum insulin, triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acids (FFA) (all p < 0.01). Interestingly, this diet leads to a slight increase in serum adiponectin, but significant decreases in gastrocnemius muscle and white adipose adiponectin (all p < 0.05). HFD for 4 weeks also resulted in a significant decrease in muscle adiponectin, which correlated with serum insulin, TG, and FFA (all p < 0.05). Treatment of the 4-week HFD rats with a PPARgamma agonist GI262570 ameliorated the diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia, and effectively restored muscle adiponectin (all p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia appeared without changes in serum adiponectin, but were associated with decreased tissue adiponectin. This provides the first evidence for a connection between tissue adiponectin and diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2006; 341(1):209-17. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.12.172 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selective agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) are anti-diabetic drugs that enhance cellular responsiveness to insulin. However, in some patients, fluid retention, plasma volume expansion, and edema have been observed. It is well established that insulin regulates Na(+) reabsorption via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) located in the distal tubule. Therefore, we hypothesized that these agonists may positively modulate insulin-stimulated ENaC activity leading to increased Na(+) reabsorption and fluid retention. Using electrophysiological techniques, dose-response curves for insulin-mediated Na(+) transport in the A6, M-1, and mpkCCD(cl4) cell lines were performed. Each line demonstrated hormone efficacy within physiological concentration ranges and, therefore, can be used to monitor clinically relevant effects of pharmacological agents which may affect electrolyte transport. Immunodetection and quantitative PCR analyses showed that each cell line expresses viable and functional PPARgamma receptors. Despite this finding, two PPARgamma agonists, pioglitazone and GW7845 did not directly enhance basal or insulin-stimulated Na(+) flux via ENaC, as shown by electrophysiological methodologies. These studies provide important results, which eliminate insulin-mediated ENaC activation as a candidate mechanism underlying the fluid retention observed with PPARgamma agonist use.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 01/2006; 451(3):445-53. DOI:10.1007/s00424-005-1477-4 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos alters cell signaling both in the brain and in peripheral tissues, affecting the responses to a variety of neurotransmitters and hormones. We administered 1 mg/kg/day chlorpyrifos to rats on postnatal days 1-4, a regimen below the threshold for systemic toxicity. When tested in adulthood, chlorpyrifos-exposed animals displayed elevations in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, without underlying alterations in nonesterified free fatty acids and glycerol. This effect was restricted to males. Similarly, in the postprandial state, male rats showed hyperinsulinemia in the face of normal circulating glucose levels but demonstrated appropriate reduction of circulating insulin concentrations after fasting. These outcomes and sex selectivity resemble earlier findings at the cellular level, which identified hepatic hyperresponsiveness to gluconeogenic inputs from beta-adrenoceptors or glucagon receptors. Our results thus indicate that apparently subtoxic neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure, devoid of effects on viability or growth but within the parameters of human fetal or neonatal exposures, produce a metabolic pattern for plasma lipids and insulin that resembles the major adult risk factors for atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 11/2005; 113(10):1291-4. DOI:10.1289/ehp.8133 · 7.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonists have been shown to have significant therapeutic benefits such as desirable glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients; however, these agents may cause fluid retention in susceptible individuals. Since PPARgamma is expressed selectively in distal nephron epithelium, we studied the mechanism of PPARgamma agonist-induced fluid retention using male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either vehicle or GI262570 (farglitazar), a potent PPARgamma agonist. GI262570 (20 mg/kg/day) induced a plasma volume expansion. The plasma volume expansion was accompanied by a small but significant decrease in plasma potassium concentration. Small but significant increases in plasma sodium and chloride concentrations were also observed. These changes in serum electrolytes suggested an activation of the renal mineralocorticoid response system; however, GI262570-treated rats had lower plasma levels of aldosterone compared with vehicle-treated controls. mRNA levels for a group of genes involved in distal nephron sodium and water absorption are changed in the kidney medulla with GI262570 treatment. In addition, due to a possible rebound effect on epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, a low dose of amiloride did not prevent GI262570-induced fluid retention. On the contrary, the rebound effect after amiloride treatment potentiated GI262570-induced plasma volume expansion. This is at least partially due to a synergistic effect of GI262570 and the rebound from amiloride treatment on ENaCalpha expression. In summary, our current data suggest that GI262570 can increase water and sodium reabsorption in distal nephron by stimulating the ENaC and Na,K-ATPase system. This may be an important mechanism for PPARgamma agonist-induced fluid retention.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2005; 312(2):718-25. DOI:10.1124/jpet.104.074088 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma regulate genes involved in the control of lipid metabolism and inflammation and are expressed in all major cell types of atherosclerotic lesions. In vitro studies have suggested that PPARs exert antiatherogenic effects by inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory genes and enhancing cholesterol efflux via activation of the liver X receptor-ABCA1 (LXR-ABCA1) pathway. To investigate the potential importance of these activities in vivo, we performed a systematic analysis of the effects of PPARalpha, beta, and gamma agonists on foam-cell formation and atherosclerosis in male LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice. Like the PPARgamma agonist, a PPARalpha-specific agonist strongly inhibited atherosclerosis, whereas a PPARbeta-specific agonist failed to inhibit lesion formation. In concert with their effects on atherosclerosis, PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists, but not the PPARbeta agonist, inhibited the formation of macrophage foam cells in the peritoneal cavity. Unexpectedly, PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists inhibited foam-cell formation in vivo through distinct ABCA1-independent pathways. While inhibition of foam-cell formation by PPARalpha required LXRs, activation of PPARgamma reduced cholesterol esterification, induced expression of ABCG1, and stimulated HDL-dependent cholesterol efflux in an LXR-independent manner. In concert, these findings reveal receptor-specific mechanisms by which PPARs influence macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. In the future, these mechanisms may be exploited pharmacologically to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/2005; 114(11):1564-76. DOI:10.1172/JCI18730 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background PPARγ agonists ameliorate insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Adiponectin possesses insulin sensitizing properties, and predicts insulin sensitivity of both glucose and lipid metabolism. In diet-induced insulin resistant rats and ZDF rats, the current studies determined the correlation between PPARγ agonist-upregulated fatty acid binding protein(FABP3) mRNA in adipose tissue and PPARγ agonist-elevated serum adiponectin, and the correlation between PPARγ agonist-elevated serum adiponectin and PPARγ agonist-mediated efficacy in insulin sensitization and lipid lowering. Results Parallel groups of SD rats were fed a high fat/sucrose (HF) diet for 4 weeks. These rats were orally treated for the later 2 weeks with vehicle, either PPARγ agonist GI262570 (0.2–100 mg/kg, Q.D.), or GW347845 (3 mg/kg, B.I.D). Rats on HF diet showed significant increases in postprandial serum triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, and area under curve (AUC) of serum insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test, but showed no change in serum glucose, adiponectin, and glucose AUC. Treatment with GI262570 dose-dependently upregulated adipose FABP3 mRNA, and increased serum adiponectin. There was a positive correlation between adipose FABP3 mRNA and serum adiponectin (r = 0.7350, p < 0.01). GI262570 dose-dependently decreased the diet-induced elevations in triglycerides, FFA, insulin, and insulin AUC. Treatment with GW347845 had similar effects on serum adiponectin and the diet-induced elevations. There were negative correlations for adiponectin versus triglycerides, FFA, insulin, and insulin AUC (For GI262570, r = -0.7486, -0.4581, -0.4379, and -0.3258 respectively, all p < 0.05. For GW347845, r = -0.6370, -0.6877, -0.5512, and -0.3812 respectively, all p < 0.05). In ZDF rats treated with PPARγ agonists pioglitazone (3–30 mg/kg, B.I.D.) or GW347845 (3 mg/kg, B.I.D.), there were also negative correlations for serum adiponectin versus glucose, triglycerides, FFA (for pioglitazone, r = -0.7005, -0.8603, and -0.9288 respectively; for GW347845, r = -0.9721, -0.8483, and -0.9453 respectively, all p < 0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated that (a) PPARγ agonists improved insulin sensitivity and ameliorated dyslipidemia in HF fed rats and ZDF rats, which were correlated with serum adiponectin; (b) Serum adiponectin was positively correlated with adipose FABP3 mRNA in GI262570-treated rats. These data suggest that serum adiponectin can serve as a biomarker for both in vivo PPARγ activation and PPARγ agonist-induced efficacy on insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in rats.
    BMC Pharmacology 10/2004; 4. DOI:10.1186/1471-2210-4-23
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    ABSTRACT: This study provides novel data on the regional hemodynamic effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activator, GI 262570 [(S)-2-(2-benzoylphenylamino)-3-[4-[2-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-2-oxazol-4-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]propionic acid], in conscious, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Administration of GI 262570 twice daily for 4 days caused a slowly developing, modest fall in mean arterial blood pressure, associated with a progressive, hyperemic hindquarters vasodilatation, but with no consistent changes in renal or mesenteric hemodynamics. The hindquarters vasodilator effect of GI 262570 was not inhibited by the beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118551 ((+/-)-1-[2,3-(dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl) amino]-2-butanol hydrochloride), and was still apparent in the presence of the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, phentolamine. Neither the latter, nor antagonism of angiotensin (AT1) and endothelin (ETA and ETB) receptors unmasked vasodilator responses to GI 262570 in the renal or mesenteric vascular beds. In the presence of GI 262570, vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and vasoconstrictor responses to methoxamine were normal. Furthermore, the cardiovascular responses to nonselective nitric-oxide synthase inhibition were not influenced by GI 262570. Collectively, these results indicate that the vasodilator action of GI 262570 is specific to the hindquarters vascular bed (of those studied), does not involve alpha- or beta2-adrenoceptors, and is not associated with a change in basal or stimulated nitric oxide release.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2004; 310(3):1226-33. DOI:10.1124/jpet.104.068817 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PPARgamma agonists ameliorate insulin resistance and lower blood pressure. Volume expansion/edema has been observed in susceptible patients treated with these agents. Alterations of renal hemodynamics affect renal tubular reabsorption, and thus may contribute to volume expansion. This study seeks to determine whether volume expansion caused by a PPARgamma agonist, GI262570, is related to changes in glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, or renal filtration fraction. Chronically catheter-implanted conscious rats were studied to determine the effects on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, and renal filtration fraction after 1, 4, and 10 days of GI262570 treatment (8 mg/kg, p.o., B.I.D.). Elevated adipose mRNA of PPARgamma target genes confirmed PPARgamma activation in GI262570-treated rats. GI262570 treatment for 10 days decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and serum albumin (all P < 0.05), indicating volume expansion, but did not alter glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, or renal filtration fraction. However, nitrate + nitrite was significantly higher in plasma and hind limb muscle of GI262570-treated rats (both P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that treatment with PPARgamma agonist GI262570 resulted in volume expansion and increased nitric oxide, but did not affect glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, or renal filtration fraction, indicating PPARgamma agonist-induced volume expansion is not related to changes in renal filtration fraction, and increased nitric oxide may contribute to the PPARgamma agonist-induced blood-pressure lowering.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 10/2003; 42(3):436-41. DOI:10.1097/00005344-200309000-00016 · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 06/2001; 33(6). DOI:10.1016/S0022-2828(01)90638-8 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g (PPARg) agonists, in- cluding the glitazone class of drugs, are insulin sensitizers that reduce glucose and lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To more fully understand the molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic actions, we have characterized the effects of the potent, tyrosine-based PPARg ligand GW1929 on serum glucose and lipid parameters and gene expression in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In time-course studies, GW1929 treatment decreased circulating FFA levels before reducing glucose and triglyceride levels. We used a com- prehensive and unbiased messenger RNA profiling technique to iden- tify genes regulated either directly or indirectly by PPARg in epidi- dymal white adipose tissue, interscapular brown adipose tissue, liver, and soleus skeletal muscle. PPARg activation stimulated the expres- sion of a large number of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in both white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. In muscle, PPARg agonist treatment decreased the expression of pyru- vate dehydrogenase kinase 4, which represses oxidative glucose me- tabolism, and also decreased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation. These changes suggest a molecular basis for PPARg-mediated increases in glucose utilization in muscle. In liver, PPARg activation coordinately decreased the expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis. We conclude from these studies that the antidiabetic actions of PPARg agonists are probably the consequence of 1) their effects on FFA levels, and 2), their coordinate effects on gene expression in multiple insulin-sensitive tissues. (En- docrinology 142: 1269 -1277, 2001)
    Endocrinology 03/2001; 142(3):1269-1277. DOI:10.1210/en.142.3.1269 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates fat-cell development and glucose homeostasis and is the molecular target of a class of insulin-sensitizing agents used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PPARgamma is highly expressed in macrophage foam cells of atherosclerotic lesions and has been demonstrated in cultured macrophages to both positively and negatively regulate genes implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. We report here that the PPARgamma-specific agonists rosiglitazone and GW7845 strongly inhibited the development of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient male mice, despite increased expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor in the arterial wall. The antiatherogenic effect in male mice was correlated with improved insulin sensitivity and decreased tissue expression of TNF-alpha and gelatinase B, indicating both systemic and local actions of PPARgamma. These findings suggest that PPARgamma agonists may exert antiatherogenic effects in diabetic patients and provide impetus for efforts to develop PPARgamma ligands that separate proatherogenic activities from antidiabetic and antiatherogenic activities.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 09/2000; 106(4):523-31. DOI:10.1172/JCI10370 · 13.77 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 09/2000; 50:388-388. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8227(00)81323-6 · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 09/2000; 50:388-388. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8227(00)81325-X · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified a novel series of antidiabetic N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-l-tyrosine derivatives which are potent, selective PPARγ agonists. Through the use of in vitro PPARγ binding and functional assays (2S)-3-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-2-((1-methyl-3-oxo-3-phenylpropenyl)amino)propionic acid (2) was identified as a structurally novel PPARγ agonist. Structure−activity relationships identified the 2-aminobenzophenone moiety as a suitable isostere for the chemically labile enaminone moiety in compound 2, affording 2-((2-benzoylphenyl)amino)-3-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)propionic acid (9). Replacement of the benzyl group in 9 with substituents known to confer in vivo potency in the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of antidiabetic agents provided a dramatic increase in the in vitro functional potency and affinity at PPARγ, affording a series of potent and selective PPARγ agonists exemplified by (2S)-((2-benzoylphenyl)amino)-3-{4-[2-(methylpyridin-2-ylamino)ethoxy]phenyl}propionic acid (18), 3-{4-[2-(benzoxazol-2-ylmethylamino)ethoxy]phenyl}-(2S)-((2-benzoylphenyl)amino)propanoic acid (19), and (2S)-((2-benzoylphenyl)amino)-3-{4-[2-(5-methyl-2-phenyloxazol-4-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}propanoic acid (20). Compounds 18 and 20 show potent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity when given orally in two rodent models of type 2 diabetes. In addition, these analogues are readily prepared in chiral nonracemic fashion from l-tyrosine and do not show a propensity to undergo racemization in vitro. The increased potency of these PPARγ agonists relative to troglitazone may translate into superior clinical efficacy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 11/1998; 41(25). DOI:10.1021/jm9804127 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3-{4-[2-(Benzoxazol-2-ylmethylamino)ethoxy]phenyl}-(2S)-((2-benzoylphenyl)amino)propionic acid (1) and (2S)-((2-benzoylphenyl)amino)-3-{4-[2-(5-methyl-2-phenyloxazol-4-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}propionic acid (2) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists and have antidiabetic activity in rodent models of type 2 diabetes. As part of an effort to develop the SAR of the N-2-benzoylphenyl moiety of 1 and 2, a series of novel carboxylic acid analogues, 23−66, modified only in the N-2-benzoylphenyl moiety were synthesized from l-tyrosine and evaluated as PPARγ agonists. In general, only modest changes in the N-2-benzoylphenyl moiety of 1 and 2 are tolerated. More specifically, the best changes involve bioisosteric replacement of one of the two phenyl rings of this moiety. Addition of substituents to this moiety generally produced compounds that are less active in the cell-based functional assays of PPARγ activity although binding affinity to PPARγ may be maintained. A particularly promising set of analogues is the anthranilic acid esters 63−66 in which the phenyl ring in the 2-benzoyl group of 1 and 2 has been replaced by an alkoxy group. In particular, (S)-2-(1-carboxy-2-{4-[2-(5-methyl-2-phenyloxazol-4-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}ethylamino)benzoic acid methyl ester (63) has a pKi of 8.43 in the binding assay using human PPARγ ligand binding domain and a pEC50 of 9.21 in the in vitro murine lipogenesis functional assay of PPARγ activity. Finally, 63 was found to normalize glycemia when dosed at 3 mg/kg bid po in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat model of type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 11/1998; 41(25). DOI:10.1021/jm980414r · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stimulation of peripheral alpha-adrenergic receptors by circulating catecholamines derived from the adrenal medulla is essential for surviving neonatal hypoxia. In 1-day-old rats, where sympathetic innervation of cardiovascular sites has not yet developed, blockade of these receptors results in failure of cardiac performance from a progressive decline in sinus rate and atrioventricular conduction deficits. These effects are absent in 8-day-old rats, where sympathetic efferent innervation has become established.
    Toxicology Letters 07/1987; 37(1):79-84. DOI:10.1016/0378-4274(87)90170-6 · 3.36 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
99.52 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2008
    • Research Triangle Park Laboratories, Inc.
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2005
    • GlaxoSmithKline plc.
      • Department of Molecular Pharmacology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2000–2005
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (CMM)
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 1987
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States