[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis across Asia with approximately 70,000 cases a year and 10,000 to 15,000 deaths. Because JE incidence varies widely over time, partly due to inter-annual climate variability effects on mosquito vector abundance, it becomes more complex to assess the effects of a vaccination programme since more or less climatically favourable years could also contribute to a change in incidence post-vaccination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify vaccination effect on confirmed Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases in Sarawak, Malaysia after controlling for climate variability to better understand temporal dynamics of JE virus transmission and control.
Monthly data on serologically confirmed JE cases were acquired from Sibu Hospital in Sarawak from 1997 to 2006. JE vaccine coverage (non-vaccine years vs. vaccine years) and meteorological predictor variables, including temperature, rainfall and the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) were tested for their association with JE cases using Poisson time series analysis and controlling for seasonality and long-term trend. Over the 10-years surveillance period, 133 confirmed JE cases were identified. There was an estimated 61% reduction in JE risk after the introduction of vaccination, when no account is taken of the effects of climate. This reduction is only approximately 45% when the effects of inter-annual variability in climate are controlled for in the model. The Poisson model indicated that rainfall (lag 1-month), minimum temperature (lag 6-months) and SOI (lag 6-months) were positively associated with JE cases.
This study provides the first improved estimate of JE reduction through vaccination by taking account of climate inter-annual variability. Our analysis confirms that vaccination has substantially reduced JE risk in Sarawak but this benefit may be overestimated if climate effects are ignored.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), with severe neurological complications and cardio-respiratory compromise, but the pathogenesis is poorly understood. Methods. We measured levels of 30 chemokines and cytokines in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from Malaysian children hospitalized with EV71 infection (n = 88), comprising uncomplicated HFMD (n = 47), meningitis (n = 8), acute flaccid paralysis (n = 1), encephalitis (n = 21), and encephalitis with cardio-respiratory compromise (n = 11). Four of the latter patients died. Results. Both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator levels were elevated, with different patterns of mediator abundance in the CSF and vascular compartments. Serum concentrations of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were raised significantly in patients who developed cardio-respiratory compromise (P = .013, P = .004, and P < .001, respectively). Serum IL-1Ra and G-CSF levels were also significantly elevated in patients who died, with a serum G-CSF to interleukin 5 ratio of >100 at admission being the most accurate prognostic marker for death (P < .001; accuracy, 85.5%; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 84.7%). Conclusions. Given that IL-1β has a negative inotropic action on the heart, and that both its natural antagonist, IL-1Ra, and G-CSF are being assessed as treatments for acute cardiac impairment, the findings suggest we have identified functional markers of EV71-related cardiac dysfunction and potential treatment options.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2012; 206(6):881-92. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate if two important epidemic viral encephalitis in children, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) encephalomyelitis and Japanese encephalitis (JE) whose clinical and pathological features may be nonspecific and overlapping, could be distinguished.
Tissue sections from the central nervous system of infected cases were examined by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.
All 13 cases of EV71 encephalomyelitis collected from Asia and France invariably showed stereotyped distribution of inflammation in the spinal cord, brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebellar dentate nucleus and, to a lesser extent, cerebral cortex and meninges. Anterior pons, corpus striatum, thalamus, temporal lobe, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex were always uninflamed. In contrast, the eight JE cases studied showed inflammation involving most neuronal areas of the central nervous system, including the areas that were uninflamed in EV71 encephalomyelitis. Lesions in both infections were nonspecific, consisting of perivascular and parenchymal infiltration by inflammatory cells, oedematous/necrolytic areas, microglial nodules and neuronophagia. Viral inclusions were absent.
Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization assays were useful to identify the causative virus, localizing viral antigens and RNA, respectively, almost exclusively to neurones. The stereotyped distribution of inflammatory lesions in EV71 encephalomyelitis appears to be very useful to help distinguish it from JE.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 01/2012; 38(5):443-53. · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are two major aetiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Recently there have been several large outbreaks of HFMD in Vietnam and the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, a multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed in order to detect simultaneously HEV71, CVA16 and other human enteroviruses. Enterovirus detection was performed with a mixture of three pairs of oligonucleotide primers: one pair of published primers for amplifying all known enterovirus genomes and two new primer pairs specific for detection of the VP1 genes of HEV71 and CVA16. Enterovirus isolates, CVA16 and HEV71 strains identified previously from patients with HFMD were examined to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex RT-PCR assay. The assay was then applied to the direct detection of these viruses in clinical specimens obtained from HFMD cases identified at Children's Hospital Number 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The multiplex RT-PCR assay showed 100% specificity in screening for enteroviruses and in identifying HEV71 and CVA16. Similar results were obtained when using the multiplex RT-PCR assay to screen for enteroviruses and to identify HEV71 and CVA16 in clinical specimens obtained from HFMD cases identified at the hospital. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a rapid, sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of HEV71 or CVA16 infection in cases of HFMD and is also potentially useful for molecular epidemiological investigations.
Journal of virological methods 12/2010; 170(1-2):134-9. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although poliomyelitis has been mostly eradicated worldwide, large outbreaks of the related enterovirus 71 have been seen in Asia-Pacific countries in the past 10 years. This virus mostly affects children, manifesting as hand, foot, and mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, poliomyelitis-like acute flaccid paralysis, brainstem encephalitis, and other severe systemic disorders, including especially pulmonary oedema and cardiorespiratory collapse. Clinical predictors of severe disease include high temperature and lethargy, and lumbar puncture might reveal pleocytosis. Many diagnostic tests are available, but PCR of throat swabs and vesicle fluid, if available, is among the most efficient. Features of inflammation, particularly in the anterior horns of the spinal cord, the dorsal pons, and the medulla can be clearly seen on MRI. No established antiviral treatment is available. Intravenous immunoglobulin seems to be beneficial in severe disease, perhaps through non-specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms, but has not been tested in any formal trials. Milrinone might be helpful in patients with cardiac dysfunction.
The Lancet Neurology 11/2010; 9(11):1097-105. · 21.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent outbreaks of enterovirus in Southeast Asia emphasize difficulties in diagnosis of this infection. To address this issue, we report 5 (4.7%) children infected with enterovirus 75 among 106 children with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2005-2007 in southern India. Throat swab specimens may be useful for diagnosis of enterovirus 75 infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-throughput multiplex bead suspension array was developed for the rapid subgenogrouping of EV71 strains, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms observed within the VP1 region with a high sensitivity as low as 1 PFU. Of 33 viral isolates and 55 clinical samples, all EV71 strains were successfully detected and correctly subgenogrouped.
Journal of clinical microbiology 11/2010; 49(1):419-22. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First isolated in California, USA, in 1969, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major public health issue across the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. The virus, which is closely related to polioviruses, mostly affects children and causes hand, foot, and mouth disease with neurological and systemic complications. Specific receptors for this virus are found on white blood cells, cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, and dendritic cells. Being an RNA virus, EV71 lacks a proofreading mechanism and is evolving rapidly, with new outbreaks occurring across Asia in regular cycles, and virus gene subgroups seem to differ in clinical epidemiological properties. The pathogenesis of the severe cardiopulmonary manifestations and the relative contributions of neurogenic pulmonary oedema, cardiac dysfunction, increased vascular permeability, and cytokine storm are controversial. Public health interventions to control outbreaks involve social distancing measures, but their effectiveness has not been fully assessed. Vaccines being developed include inactivated whole-virus, live attenuated, subviral particle, and DNA vaccines.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10/2010; 10(11):778-90. · 19.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a simple tool for assessing the severity of disability resulting from Japanese encephalitis and whether, as a result, a child is likely to be dependent.
A new outcome score based on a 15-item questionnaire was developed after a literature review, examination of current assessment tools, discussion with experts and a pilot study. The score was used to evaluate 100 children in Malaysia (56 Japanese encephalitis patients, 2 patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology and 42 controls) and 95 in India (36 Japanese encephalitis patients, 41 patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology and 18 controls). Inter- and intra-observer variability in the outcome score was determined and the score was compared with full clinical assessment.
There was good inter-observer agreement on using the new score to identify likely dependency (Kappa = 0.942 for Malaysian children; Kappa = 0.786 for Indian children) and good intra-observer agreement (Kappa = 1.000 and 0.902, respectively). In addition, agreement between the new score and clinical assessment was also good (Kappa = 0.906 and 0.762, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the new score for identifying children likely to be dependent were 100% and 98.4% in Malaysia and 100% and 93.8% in India. Positive and negative predictive values were 84.2% and 100% in Malaysia and 65.6% and 100% in India.
The new tool for assessing disability in children after Japanese encephalitis was simple to use and scores correlated well with clinical assessment.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 08/2010; 88(8):584-92. · 5.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The VP4, VP2, and VP1 gene regions were evaluated for their usefulness in typing human enteroviruses. Three published RT-PCR primers sets targeting separately these three gene regions were used. Initially, from a total of 86 field isolates (36 HEV-A, 40 HEV-B, and 10 HEV-C) tested, 100% concordance in HEV-A was identified from all three gene regions (VP4, VP2, and VP1). However, for HEV-B and HEV-C viruses, only the VP2 and VP1 regions, and not VP4, showed 100% concordance in typing these viruses. To evaluate further the usefulness of VP4 in typing HEV-A enteroviruses, 55 Japanese and 203 published paired VP4 and VP1 nucleotide sequences were also examined. In each case, typing by VP4 was 100% in concordance with typing using VP1. Given these results, it is proposed that for HEV-A enteroviruses, all three gene regions (VP4, VP2, and VP1), would be useful for typing these viruses. These options would enhance the capability of laboratories in identifying these viruses and would greatly help in outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease.
Journal of Medical Virology 02/2010; 82(4):649-57. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes childhood hand, foot, and mouth disease and neurological complications, and no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are currently available. Formaldehyde-inactivated whole-virus vaccines derived from EV71 clinical isolates and a mouse-adapted virus (MAV) were tested in a mouse model of EV71 encephalomyelitis. After only two immunizations, given to mice at 1 and 7 days of age, the MAV vaccine protected mice at 14 days of age from disease. Tissues from immunized mice were negative for virus by viral culture, reverse transcriptase PCR, immunohistochemistry analysis, and in situ hybridization. Cross-neutralizing EV71 antibodies to strains with genotypes B3, B4, and C1 to C5 generated in immunized adult mice were able to passively protect 14-day-old mice from disease.
Journal of Virology 10/2009; 84(1):661-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) can cause Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with neurological complications, which may rapidly progress to fulminant cardiorespiratory failure, and death. Early recognition of children at risk is the key to reduce acute mortality and morbidity.
We examined data collected through a prospective clinical study of HFMD conducted between 2000 and 2006 that included 3 distinct outbreaks of HEV71 to identify risk factors associated with neurological involvement in children with HFMD.
Total duration of fever >or= 3 days, peak temperature >or= 38.5 degrees C and history of lethargy were identified as independent risk factors for neurological involvement (evident by CSF pleocytosis) in the analysis of 725 children admitted during the first phase of the study. When they were validated in the second phase of the study, two or more (>or= 2) risk factors were present in 162 (65%) of 250 children with CSF pleocytosis compared with 56 (30%) of 186 children with no CSF pleocytosis (OR 4.27, 95% CI2.79-6.56, p < 0.0001). The usefulness of the three risk factors in identifying children with CSF pleocytosis on hospital admission during the second phase of the study was also tested. Peak temperature >or= 38.5 degrees C and history of lethargy had the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 28%(48/174), 89%(125/140), 76%(48/63) and 50%(125/251), respectively in predicting CSF pleocytosis in children that were seen within the first 2 days of febrile illness. For those presented on the 3rd or later day of febrile illness, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of >or= 2 risk factors predictive of CSF pleocytosis were 75%(57/76), 59%(27/46), 75%(57/76) and 59%(27/46), respectively.
Three readily elicited clinical risk factors were identified to help detect children at risk of neurological involvement. These risk factors may serve as a guide to clinicians to decide the need for hospitalization and further investigation, including cerebrospinal fluid examination, and close monitoring for disease progression in children with HFMD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a model of Enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis in 2-week-old mice that shares many features with the human central nervous system (CNS) disease. Mice were infected via oral and parenteral routes with a murine-adapted virus strain originally from a fatal human case. The mice succumbed to infection after 2 to 5 days. Vacuolated and normal-appearing CNS neurons showed viral RNA and antigens and virions by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy; inflammation was minimal. The most numerous infected neurons were in anterior horns, motor trigeminal nuclei, and brainstem reticular formation; fewer neurons in the red nucleus, lateral cerebellar nucleus, other cranial nerve nuclei, motor cortex, hypothalamus, and thalamus were infected. Other CNS regions, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia were spared. Intramuscular-inoculated mice killed 24 to 36 hours postinfection had viral RNA and antigens in ipsilateral lumbar anterior horn cells and adjacent axons. Upper cord motor neurons, brainstem, and contralateral motor cortex neurons were infected from 48-72 hours. Viral RNA and antigens were abundant in skeletal muscle and adjacent tissues but not in other organs. The distinct, stereotypic viral distribution in this model suggests that the virus enters the CNS via peripheral motor nerves after skeletal muscle infection, and spread within the CNS involves motor and other neural pathways. This model may be useful for further studies on pathogenesis and for testing therapies.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 06/2008; 67(6):532-42. · 4.37 Impact Factor