Publications (2)4.07 Total impact
Article: Transcriptomes and pathways associated with infectivity, survival and immunogenicity in Brugia malayi L3.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Filarial nematode parasites cause serious diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness in humans, and heartworm infections in dogs. Third stage filarial larvae (L3) are a critical stage in the life cycle of filarial parasites, because this is the stage that is transmitted by arthropod vectors to initiate infections in mammals. Improved understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with this transition may provide important leads for development of new therapies and vaccines to prevent filarial infections. This study explores changes in gene expression associated with the transition of Brugia malayi third stage larvae (BmL3) from mosquitoes into mammalian hosts and how these changes are affected by radiation. Radiation effects are especially interesting because irradiated L3 induce partial immunity to filarial infections. The underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of such vaccines are unkown. Expression profiles were obtained using a new filarial microarray with 18, 104 64-mer elements. 771 genes were identified as differentially expressed in two-way comparative analyses of the three L3 types. 353 genes were up-regulated in mosquito L3 (L3i) relative to cultured L3 (L3c). These genes are important for establishment of filarial infections in mammalian hosts. Other genes were up-regulated in L3c relative to L3i (234) or irradiated L3 (L3ir) (22). These culture-induced transcripts include key molecules required for growth and development. 165 genes were up-regulated in L3ir relative to L3c; these genes encode highly immunogenic proteins and proteins involved in radiation repair. L3ir and L3i have similar transcription profiles for genes that encode highly immunogenic proteins, antioxidants and cuticle components. Changes in gene expression that normally occur during culture under conditions that support L3 development and molting are prevented or delayed by radiation. This may explain the enhanced immunogenicity of L3ir. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses revealed altered pathways between L3 types. Energy and "immune pathways" are up-regulated and may be needed for L3i invasion and survival, while growth and development are priorities for L3c. This study has improved our understanding of molecules involved in parasite invasion and immune evasion, potential targets of protective immunity, and molecules required for parasite growth and development.BMC Genomics 07/2009; 10:267. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: DNA vaccination is a convenient means of immunizing animals with recombinant parasite antigens. DNA delivery methods are believed to affect the qualitative nature of immune responses to DNA vaccines in ways that may affect their protective activity. However, relatively few studies have directly compared immune responses to plasmids encoding the same antigens after injection by different routes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of the route of administration on antibody responses to plasmids encoding antigens from the filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi. METHODS: Four B. malayi genes and partial genes encoding paramyosin (BM5), heat shock protein (BMHSP-70), intermediate filament (BMIF) and a serodiagnostic antigen (BM14) were inserted in eukaryotic expression vectors (pJW4303 and pCR trade mark 3.1). BALB/c mice were immunized with individual recombinant plasmids or with a cocktail of all four plasmids by intramuscular injection (IM) or by gene gun-intradermal inoculation (GG). Antibody responses to recombinant antigens were measured by ELISA. Mean IgG1 to IgG2a antibody ratios were used as an indicator of Th1 or Th2 bias in immune responses induced with particular antigens by IM or GG immunization. The statistical significance of group differences in antibody responses was assessed by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Mice produced antibody responses to all four filarial antigens after DNA vaccination by either the IM or GG route. Antibody responses to BM5 paramyosin were strongly biased toward IgG1 with lower levels of IgG2a after GG vaccination, while IM vaccination produced dominant IgG2a antibody responses. Antibody responses were biased toward IgG1 after both IM and GG immunization with BMIF, but antibodies were biased toward IgG2a after IM and GG vaccination with BMHSP-70 and BM14. Animals injected with a mixture of four recombinant plasmid DNAs produced antibodies to all four antigens. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that monovalent and polyvalent DNA vaccination successfully induced antibody responses to a variety of filarial antigens. However, antibody responses to different antigens varied in magnitude and with respect to isotype bias. The isotype bias of antibody responses following DNA vaccination can be affected by route of administration and by intrinsic characteristics of individual antigens.Filaria Journal 02/2004; 3(1):1.