[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [D-Lys3]-Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 (DLS) is widely utilized in vivo and in vitro as a selective ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) antagonist. Unexpectedly, we identified that DLS also has the ability to block CXCL12 binding and activity through CXCR4 on T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, as CXCR4 has been shown to act as a major co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into CD4 positive host cells, we have also found that DLS partially blocks CXCR4-mediated HIV-1 entry and propagation in activated human PBMCs. These data demonstrate that DLS is not the specific and selective antagonist as thought for GHS-R1a and appears to have additional effects on the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. Our findings also suggest that structural analogues that mimic DLS binding properties may also have properties of blocking HIV infectivity, CXCR4 dependent cancer cell migration and attenuating chemokine-mediated immune cell trafficking in inflammatory disorders.
International journal of biological sciences 01/2012; 8(1):108-17. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [D-Lys3]-Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-6 (DLS) is widely utilized in vivo and in vitro as a selective ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) antagonist. This antagonist is one of the most common antagonists utilized in vivo to block GHS-R function and activity. Here, we found that DLS also has the ability to modestly block chemokine function and ligand binding to the chemokine receptor CCR5. The DLS effects on RANTES binding and Erk signaling as well as calcium mobilization appears to be much stronger than its effects on MIP-1α and MIP-1β. CCR5 have been shown to act as major co-receptor for HIV-1 entry into the CD4 positive host cells. To this end, we also found that DLS blocks M-tropic HIV-1 propagation in activated human PBMCs. These data demonstrate that DLS may not be a highly selective GHS-R1a inhibitor and may also effects on other G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family members. Moreover, DLS may have some potential clinical applications in blocking HIV infectivity and CCR5-mediated migration and function in various inflammatory disease states.
International journal of medical sciences 01/2012; 9(1):51-8. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cell polarization and redistribution of cellular components are critical to processes such as activation, migration, and potentially HIV infection. Here, we investigate the effects of CD4 engagement on the redistribution and localization of chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CCR5, adhesion molecules, and lipid raft components including cholesterol, GM1, and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. We demonstrate that anti-CD4-coated beads (alpha CD4-B) rapidly induce co-capping of chemokine receptors as well as GPI-anchored proteins and adhesion molecules with membrane cholesterol and lipid rafts on human T cell lines and primary T cells to the area of bead-cell contact. This process was dependent on the presence of cellular cholesterol, cytoskeletal reorganization, and lck signaling. Lck-deficient JCaM 1.6 cells failed to cap CXCR4 or lipid rafts to alpha CD4-B. Biochemical analysis reveals that CXCR4 and LFA-1 are recruited to lipid rafts upon CD4 but not CD45 engagement. Furthermore, we also demonstrate T cell capping of both lipid rafts and chemokine receptors at sites of contact with HIV-infected cells, despite the binding of an HIV inhibitory mAb to CXCR4. We conclude that cell surface rearrangements in response to CD4 engagement may serve as a means to enhance cell-to-cell signaling at the immunological synapse and modulate chemokine responsiveness, as well as facilitate HIV entry and expansion by synaptic transmission.
Experimental Cell Research 05/2005; 304(2):559-69. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combination drug therapies exist that combat HIV replication and the production of virions. But just as the easiest way to deal with an interloper is to keep him from entering your home rather than removing him after the fact, most studies directed at reducing HIV infection are designed to keep HIV at bay, outside the host cell. Work on keeping HIV out has progressed from early work on CD4 to the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 found on the surface of host cells. More recently, the depletion of cholesterol, the presence of which is essential for HIV entry, has been studied as a means to subvert HIV entry, and new work by Finnegan and others suggest that another useful strategy may involve increasing the amount of the sphingolipid ceramide found in lipid rafts on the surface of host cells. Increased ceramide might inhibit HIV entry by a number of means, including the displacement of cholesterol and modifying the overall organization and structure of the lipid rafts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human aging is associated with an increase in immune cell cholesterol levels, independent of circulating cholesterol levels. The effects of such an increase in membrane cholesterol on lipid raft-associated immune cell function have not been investigated. We sought to examine the effects of in vitro cholesterol loading on two known lipid raft-associated pathways of T cells, namely T cell activation and chemokine stimulation. Using beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) as a vehicle, we were able to rapidly load cholesterol onto human T cell lines and primary peripheral blood T cells without inducing significant cell toxicity. Loading of cholesterol to four-fold that of normal levels induced significant inhibition of intracellular calcium mobilization by both alphaCD3 and SDF-1alpha. Cholesterol-loaded peripheral T cells were completely unresponsive to alphaCD3/alphaCD28 stimulation, demonstrating no increase in IL-2, GM1 expression or cell size. T cell polarization of lipid rafts to alphaCD3/alphaCD28 beads was also impaired. In addition, cholesterol loading potently inhibited SDF-1alpha-induced chemotaxis. We propose that excess membrane cholesterol could potentially disrupt raft-related cell functions downstream of receptor triggering and that the loss of cholesterol regulation of aging immune cells could contribute to immune cell senescence.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 10/2004; 125(9):641-50. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts have been shown to play a role in T cell maturation, activation as well as in the formation of immunological synapses in CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, the differential expression of lipid raft components between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is still poorly defined. To examine this question, we analyzed the expression of GM1 in T cells from young and aged mice as well as the expression of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein Thy-1 and cholesterol in murine CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subpopulations.
We found that CD4+CD8- and CD8+CD4- thymocytes at different stages of maturation display distinct GM1 surface expression. This phenomenon did not change with progressive aging, as these findings were consistent over the lifespan of the mouse. In the periphery, CD8+ T cells express significantly higher levels of GM1 than CD4+ T cells. In addition, we observed that GM1 levels increase over aging on CD8+ T cells but not in CD4+ T cells. We also verified that naïve (CD44lo) and memory (CD44hi) CD8+ T cells as well as naïve and memory CD4+ T cells express similar levels of GM1 on their surface. Furthermore, we found that CD8+ T cells express higher levels of the GPI-anchored cell surface protein Thy-1 associated with lipid raft domains as compared to CD4+ T cells. Finally, we observed higher levels of total cellular cholesterol in CD8+ T cells than CD4+ T cells.
These results demonstrate heterogeneity of lipid raft components between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in young and aged mice. Such differences in lipid raft composition may contribute to the differential CD4 and CD8 molecule signaling pathways as well as possibly to the effector responses mediated by these T cell subsets following TCR activation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membrane cholesterol is required to maintain chemokine receptor conformation and function for CXCR4 and CCR5. We previously demonstrated that chemokines preferentially bind to receptors within lipid rafts, which are cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains. To further elucidate the role of cholesterol in chemokine receptor function, we examined the effects of membrane cholesterol oxidation by cholesterol oxidase (CO), which enzymatically converts cholesterol to 4-cholesten-3-one. Here, we demonstrate that CO treatment (0.25-2.0 U/ml) of human T cells inhibits CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) and CCL4 (MIP-1beta) binding to cell surface CXCR4 and CCR5, respectively, resulting in the inhibition of chemokine-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization and chemotaxis. The effects were significantly enhanced by cotreatment with low-dose sphingomyelinase (SMase) (0.125 mU/ml), which produced little inhibitory effect by itself. CO and SMase treatment also inhibited HIV-1 infection through CXCR4, but not virus replication. Similar to the removal of membrane cholesterol, CO/SMase treatment induced conformation changes in the chemokine receptors as detected by differential loss in binding of epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies. We conclude that the native form of cholesterol with the hydroxyl group at C3 is critical to CXCR4 and CCR5 conformation and function.
Experimental Cell Research 12/2003; 291(1):36-45. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell membrane exposure to oxysterols, such as 22-hydroxycholesterol (22-OHC), has previously been shown to induce a suppressive effect on lymphocyte activation. Based on our previous findings that chemokine binding was significantly inhibited by the extraction of membrane cholesterol, we sought to assess the effects of 22-OHC treatment on chemokine ligand-binding and receptor activity. Our results revealed that 22-OHC, but not nonoxidized cholesterol, significantly reduced the binding of both SDF-1alpha and MIP-1beta to human T-cell lines and PBMCs within 1 h of treatment. Incubating the treated cells at 37 degrees C for 1 h reversed a majority of the inhibitory effects on chemokine binding. 22-OHC also inhibited intracellular calcium mobilization and cell migration in response to SDF-1alpha treatment. Interestingly, while the presence of oxysterols in cell membranes significantly inhibits chemokine receptor function, this inhibitory effect does not involve alterations in receptor conformation, expression, or a direct antagonism of chemokine binding. We propose here a novel mechanism for oxysterol-mediated inhibition of chemokine receptor function and the implications for the presence of oxysterols on immune cells.
Experimental Cell Research 06/2003; 285(2):268-77. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor, CCR5, is used as a human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor in combination with CD4 during transmission and early infection. CCR5 has been shown to be palmitoylated and targeted to cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains termed "lipid rafts." However, the role of cholesterol and lipid rafts on chemokine binding and signaling through CCR5 remains unknown. We found that cholesterol extraction by hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) significantly reduced the binding and signaling of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1 beta) using CCR5-expressing CEM-NKR T cells. Reloading treated cells with cholesterol but not 4-cholesten-3-one, an oxidized form of cholesterol, restored MIP-1 beta binding to BCD-treated cells. Antibodies specific for distinct CCR5 epitopes lost their ability to bind to the cell surface after cholesterol extraction to varying degrees. Moreover, cells stained with fluorescently labeled MIP-1 beta extensively colocalized with the GM1 lipid raft marker while using anti-CCR5 antibodies; most of CCR5 on these cells only partially colocalized with GM1, suggesting that active ligand binding facilitates receptor association with lipid rafts or that raft association promotes a higher affinity conformation of CCR5. Together, these data demonstrate that cholesterol and lipid rafts are important for the maintenance of the CCR5 conformation and are necessary for both the binding and function of this chemokine receptor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV requires cholesterol and lipid rafts on target cell membranes for infection. To elucidate a possible mechanism, we determined that cholesterol extraction by hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) inhibits stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha) binding to CXCR4 on T cell lines and PBMCs. Intracellular calcium responses to SDF-1alpha, as well as receptor internalization, were impaired in treated T cells. Loss in ligand binding is likely due to conformational changes in CXCR4 and not increased sensitivity to internalization. SDF-1alpha binding and calcium responses were effectively restored by reloading cholesterol. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that SDF-1alpha binding occurred in lipid raft microdomains that contained GM1. CXCR4 surface expression, on the other hand, only partially colocalized with GM1. HIV-1(IIIB) infection assays confirmed the functional loss of CXCR4 in the cell lines tested, Sup-T1 and CEM-NKR-CCR5. These data suggest that cholesterol is essential for CXCR4 conformation and function and that lipid rafts may play a regulatory role in SDF-1alpha signaling.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2002; 168(8):4121-6. · 5.52 Impact Factor