E. Blaufuss

University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States

Are you E. Blaufuss?

Claim your profile

Publications (201)689.85 Total impact

  • Source
    M. G. Aartsen, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, D. Altmann, T. Anderson, C. Arguelles, T. C. Arlen, [......], K. Woschnagg, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, P. Zarzhitsky, J. Ziemann, S. Zierke, M. Zoll
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A search for high-energy neutrinos interacting within the IceCube detector between 2010 and 2012 provided the first evidence for a high-energy neutrino flux of extraterrestrial origin. Results from an analysis using the same methods with a third year (2012–2013) of data from the complete IceCube detector are consistent with the previously reported astrophysical flux in the 100 TeV–PeV range at the level of 10−8 GeV cm−2 s−1 sr−1 per flavor and reject a purely atmospheric explanation for the combined three-year data at 5.7σ. The data are consistent with expectations for equal fluxes of all three neutrino flavors and with isotropic arrival directions, suggesting either numerous or spatially extended sources. The three-year data set, with a live time of 988 days, contains a total of 37 neutrino candidate events with deposited energies ranging from 30 to 2000 TeV. The 2000-TeV event is the highest-energy neutrino interaction ever observed.
    Physical Review Letters 09/2014; 113:101101. · 7.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, IceCube found evidence for a diffuse signal of astrophysical neutrinos in an energy range of $60\,\mathrm{TeV}$ to the $\mathrm{PeV}$-scale. The origin of those events, being a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays, is still an unsolved question. So far, analyses have not succeeded to resolve the diffuse signal into point-like sources. Searches including a maximum-likelihood-ratio test, based on the reconstructed directions and energies of the detected down- and up-going neutrino candidates, were also performed on IceCube data leading to the exclusion of bright point sources. In this paper, we present two methods to search for faint neutrino point sources in three years of IceCube data, taken between 2008 and 2011. The first method is an autocorrelation test, applied separately to the northern and southern sky. The second method is a multipole analysis, which expands the measured data in the northern hemisphere into spherical harmonics and uses the resulting expansion coefficients to separate signal from background. With both methods, the results are consistent with the background expectation with a slightly more sparse spatial distribution, corresponding to an underfluctuation. Depending on the assumed number of sources, the resulting upper limit on the flux per source in the northern hemisphere for an $E^{-2}$ energy spectrum ranges from $1.5 \cdot 10^{-8}\,\mathrm{GeV}/(\mathrm{cm}^2 \mathrm{s})$, in the case of one assumed source, to $4 \cdot 10^{-10} \,\mathrm{GeV}/(\mathrm{cm}^2 \mathrm{s})$, in the case of $3500$ assumed sources.
    08/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the results of a multimessenger search for coincident signals from the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave observatories and the partially completed IceCube high-energy neutrino detector, including periods of joint operation between 2007-2010. These include parts of the 2005-2007 run and the 2009-2010 run for LIGO-Virgo, and IceCube's observation periods with 22, 59 and 79 strings. We find no significant coincident events, and use the search results to derive upper limits on the rate of joint sources for a range of source emission parameters. For the optimistic assumption of gravitational-wave emission energy of $10^{-2}$ M$_\odot$c$^2$ at $\sim 150$ Hz with $\sim 60$ ms duration, and high-energy neutrino emission of $10^{51}$ erg comparable to the isotropic gamma-ray energy of gamma-ray bursts, we limit the source rate below $1.6 \times 10^{-2}$ Mpc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$. We also examine how combining information from gravitational waves and neutrinos will aid discovery in the advanced gravitational-wave detector era.
    07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a large Cherenkov detector instrumenting 1km3 of Antarctic ice. The detector can be used to search for signatures of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we describe the search for non-relativistic, magnetic monopoles as remnants of the GUT (Grand Unified Theory) era shortly after the Big Bang. These monopoles may catalyze the decay of nucleons via the Rubakov-Callan effect with a cross section suggested to be in the range of 10−27cm2 to 10−21cm2. In IceCube, the Cherenkov light from nucleon decays along the monopole trajectory would produce a characteristic hit pattern. This paper presents the results of an analysis of first data taken from May 2011 until May 2012 with a dedicated slow-particle trigger for DeepCore, a subdetector of IceCube. A second analysis provides better sensitivity for the brightest non-relativistic monopoles using data taken from May 2009 until May 2010. In both analyses no monopole signal was observed. For catalysis cross sections of 10−22(10−24)cm2 the flux of non-relativistic GUT monopoles is constrained up to a level of Φ90≤10−18(10−17)cm−2s−1sr−1 at a 90% confidence level, which is three orders of magnitude below the Parker bound. The limits assume a dominant decay of the proton into a positron and a neutral pion. These results improve the current best experimental limits by one to two orders of magnitude, for a wide range of assumed speeds and catalysis cross sections.
    European Physical Journal C 07/2014; 74:2938. · 5.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dark matter which is bound in the Galactic halo might self-annihilate and produce a flux of stable final state particles, e.g. high energy neutrinos. These neutrinos can be detected with IceCube, a cubic-kilometer sized Cherenkov detector. Given IceCube's large field of view, a characteristic anisotropy of the additional neutrino flux is expected. In this paper we describe a multipole method to search for such a large-scale anisotropy in IceCube data. This method uses the expansion coefficients of a multipole expansion of neutrino arrival directions and incorporates signal-specific weights for each expansion coefficient. We apply the technique to a high-purity muon neutrino sample from the Northern Hemisphere. The final result is compatible with the null-hypothesis. As no signal was observed, we present limits on the self-annihilation cross-section averaged over the relative velocity distribution $\langle\sigma v\rangle$ down to $1.9\cdot 10^{-23}\,\mathrm{cm}^3\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ for a dark matter particle mass of $700\,\mathrm{GeV}$ to $1000\,\mathrm{GeV}$ and direct annihilation into $\nu\bar{\nu}$. The resulting exclusion limits are competitive when compared to exclusion limits from $\gamma$-ray experiments, that focus on the outer Galactic halo, for high dark matter masses of a few TeV and hard annihilation channels.
    06/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present results on searches for point-like sources of neutrinos using four years of IceCube data, including the first year of data from the completed 86-string detector. The total livetime of the combined dataset is 1,373 days. For an E$^{-2}$ spectrum the median sensitivity at 90\% C.L. is $\sim 10^{-12}$ TeV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ for energies between 1 TeV$-$1 PeV in the northern sky and $\sim 10^{-11}$ TeV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ for energies between 100 TeV $-$ 100 PeV in the southern sky. The sensitivity has improved from both the additional year of data and the introduction of improved reconstructions compared to previous publications. In addition, we present the first results from an all-sky search for extended sources of neutrinos. We update results of searches for neutrino emission from stacked catalogs of sources, and test five new catalogs; two of Galactic supernova remnants and three of active galactic nuclei. In all cases, the data are compatible with the background-only hypothesis, and upper limits on the flux of muon neutrinos are reported for the sources considered.
    06/2014;
  • Source
    Dataset: aa17810-11
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on the observation of a significant deficit of cosmic rays from the direction of the Moon with the IceCube detector. The study of this “Moon shadow” is used to characterize the angular resolution and absolute pointing capabilities of the detector. The detection is based on data taken in two periods before the completion of the detector: between April 2008 and May 2009, when IceCube operated in a partial configuration with 40 detector strings deployed in the South Pole ice, and between May 2009 and May 2010 when the detector operated with 59 strings. Using two independent analysis methods, the Moon shadow has been observed to high significance (>6σ) in both detector configurations. The observed location of the shadow center is within 0.2° of its expected position when geomagnetic deflection effects are taken into account. This measurement validates the directional reconstruction capabilities of IceCube.
    Physical Review D 05/2014; 89:102004. · 4.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A search for high-energy neutrinos interacting within the IceCube detector between 2010 and 2012 provided the first evidence for a high-energy neutrino flux of extraterrestrial origin. Results from an analysis using the same methods with a third year (2012-2013) of data from the complete IceCube detector are consistent with the previously reported astrophysical flux in the 100 TeV - PeV range at the level of $10^{-8}\, \mathrm{GeV}\, \mathrm{cm}^{-2}\, \mathrm{s}^{-1}\, \mathrm{sr}^{-1}$ per flavor and reject a purely atmospheric explanation for the combined 3-year data at $5.7 \sigma$. The data are consistent with expectations for equal fluxes of all three neutrino flavors and with isotropic arrival directions, suggesting either numerous or spatially extended sources. The three-year data set, with a livetime of 988 days, contains a total of 37 neutrino candidate events with deposited energies ranging from 30 to 2000 TeV, the highest ever observed.
    05/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A search for high-energy neutrinos interacting within the IceCube detector between 2010 and 2012 provided the first evidence for a high-energy neutrino flux of extraterrestrial origin. Results from an analysis using the same methods with a third year (2012-2013) of data from the complete IceCube detector are consistent with the previously reported astrophysical flux in the 100 TeV - PeV range at the level of 10−8 GeV cm−2 s−1 sr−1 per flavor and reject a purely atmospheric explanation for the combined 3-year data at 5.7σ. The data are consistent with expectations for equal fluxes of all three neutrino flavors and with isotropic arrival directions, suggesting either numerous or spatially extended sources. The three-year data set, with a livetime of 988 days, contains a total of 37 neutrino candidate events with deposited energies ranging from 30 to 2000 TeV, the highest ever observed.
    arXiv:1405.5303 [astro-ph.HE]. 05/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on the search for neutrino-induced particle showers, so-called cascades, in the IceCube-40 detector. The data for this search were collected between April 2008 and May 2009 when the first 40 IceCube strings were deployed and operational. Three complementary searches were performed, each optimized for different energy regimes. The analysis with the lowest energy threshold (2 TeV) targeted atmospheric neutrinos. A total of 67 events were found, consistent with the expectation of 41 atmospheric muons and 30 atmospheric neutrino events. The two other analyses targeted a harder, astrophysical neutrino flux. The analysis with an intermediate threshold of 25 TeV leads to the observation of 14 cascadelike events, again consistent with the prediction of 3.0 atmospheric neutrino and 7.7 atmospheric muon events. We hence set an upper limit of E^2Φlim≤7.46×10^−8 GeV sr^−1 s^−1 cm^−2 (90% C.L.) on the diffuse flux from astrophysical neutrinos of all neutrino flavors, applicable to the energy range 25 TeV to 5 PeV, assuming an E^−2ν spectrum and a neutrino flavor ratio of 1∶1∶1 at the Earth. The third analysis utilized a larger and optimized sample of atmospheric muon background simulation, leading to a higher energy threshold of 100 TeV. Three events were found over a background prediction of 0.04 atmospheric muon events and 0.21 events from the flux of conventional and prompt atmospheric neutrinos. Including systematic errors this corresponds to a 2.7σ excess with respect to the background-only hypothesis. Our observation of neutrino event candidates above 100 TeV complements IceCube’s recently observed evidence for high-energy astrophysical neutrinos.
    Physical Review D 05/2014; 89:102001. · 4.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A search for high-energy neutrinos was performed using data collected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory from May 2009 to May 2010, when the array was running in its 59-string configuration. The data sample was optimized to contain muon neutrino induced events with a background contamination of atmospheric muons of less than 1%. These data, which are dominated by atmospheric neutrinos, are analyzed with a global likelihood fit to search for possible contributions of prompt atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos, neither of which have yet been identified. Such signals are expected to follow a harder energy spectrum than conventional atmospheric neutrinos. In addition, the zenith angle distribution differs for astrophysical and atmospheric signals. A global fit of the reconstructed energies and directions of observed events is performed, including possible neutrino flux contributions for an astrophysical signal and atmospheric backgrounds as well as systematic uncertainties of the experiment and theoretical predictions. The best fit yields an astrophysical signal flux for νμ+ν¯μ of E2⋅Φ(E)=0.25×10−8 GeV cm−2 s−1 sr−1, and a zero prompt component. Although the sensitivity of this analysis for astrophysical neutrinos surpasses the Waxman and Bahcall upper bound, the experimental limit at 90% confidence level is a factor of 1.5 above at a flux of E2⋅Φ(E)=1.44×10−8 GeV cm−2 s−1 sr−1.
    Physical Review D 03/2014; 89:062007. · 4.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accurate measurement of neutrino energies is essential to many of the scientific goals of large-volume neutrino telescopes. The fundamental observable in such detectors is the Cherenkov light produced by the transit through a medium of charged particles created in neutrino interactions. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the deposited energy, which is approximately equal to the neutrino energy for νe and νμ charged-current interactions and can be used to set a lower bound on neutrino energies and to measure neutrino spectra statistically in other channels. Here we describe methods and performance of reconstructing charged-particle energies and topologies from the observed Cherenkov light yield, including techniques to measure the energies of uncontained muon tracks, achieving average uncertainties in electromagnetic-equivalent deposited energy of ∼15% above 10 TeV.
    Journal of Instrumentation. 03/2014; 9:P03009.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accurate measurement of neutrino energies is essential to many of the scientific goals of large-volume neutrino telescopes. The fundamental observable in such detectors is the Cherenkov light produced by the transit through a medium of charged particles created in neutrino interactions. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the deposited energy, which is approximately equal to the neutrino energy for νe and νμ charged-current interactions and can be used to set a lower bound on neutrino energies and to measure neutrino spectra statistically in other channels. Here we describe methods and performance of reconstructing charged-particle energies and topologies from the observed Cherenkov light yield, including techniques to measure the energies of uncontained muon tracks, achieving average uncertainties in electromagnetic-equivalent deposited energy of ∼15% above 10 TeV.
    Journal of Instrumentation 03/2014; 9:P03009. · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Dataset: 1311.4767v3
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a large Cherenkov detector instrumenting 1 km^3 of Antarctic ice. The detector can be used to search for signatures of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we describe the search for non-relativistic, magnetic monopoles as remnants of the GUT (Grand Unified Theory) era shortly after the Big Bang. These monopoles may catalyze the decay of nucleons via the Rubakov-Callan effect with a cross section suggested to be in the range of 10^−27 cm^2 to 10^−21 cm^2. In IceCube, the Cherenkov light from nucleon decays along the monopole trajectory would produce a characteristic hit pattern. This paper presents the results of an analysis of first data taken from May 2011 until May 2012 with a dedicated slow-particle trigger for DeepCore, a subdetector of IceCube. A second analysis provides better sensitivity for the brightest non-relativistic monopoles using data taken from May 2009 until May 2010. In both analyses no monopole signal was observed. For catalysis cross sections of 10^−22 (10^−24) cm^2 the flux of non-relativistic GUT monopoles is constrained up to a level of Φ_90 ≤10^−18 (10^−17) cm^−2.s^−1.sr^−1 at a 90% confidence level, which is three orders of magnitude below the Parker bound. The limits assume a dominant decay of the proton into a positron and a neutral pion. These results improve the current best experimental limits by one to two orders of magnitude, for a wide range of assumed speeds and catalysis cross sections.
    ArXiv. 02/2014; 1402.3460v1 [astro-ph.CO].
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The IceCube project has transformed 1 km3 of deep natural Antarctic ice into a Cherenkov detector. Muon neutrinos are detected and their direction is inferred by mapping the light produced by the secondary muon track inside the volume instrumented with photomultipliers. Reconstructing the muon track from the observed light is challenging due to noise, light scattering in the ice medium, and the possibility of simultaneously having multiple muons inside the detector, resulting from the large flux of cosmic ray muons. This paper describes work on two problems: (1) the track reconstruction problem, in which, given a set of observations, the goal is to recover the track of a muon; and (2) the coincident event problem, which is to determine how many muons are active in the detector during a time window. Rather than solving these problems by developing more complex physical models that are applied at later stages of the analysis, our approach is to augment the detector's early reconstruction with data filters and robust statistical techniques. These can be implemented at the level of on-line reconstruction and, therefore, improve all subsequent reconstructions. Using the metric of median angular resolution, a standard metric for track reconstruction, we improve the accuracy in the initial reconstruction direction by 13%. We also present improvements in measuring the number of muons in coincident events: we can accurately determine the number of muons 98% of the time.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 02/2014; A736:143-149. · 1.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU) is a proposed low-energy in-fill extension to the IceCube Observatory. With detection technology modeled closely on the successful IceCube example, PINGU will feature the world's largest effective volume for neutrinos at an energy threshold of a few GeV, enabling it to reach its chief goal of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH) quickly and at modest cost. PINGU will be able to distinguish between the normal and inverted NMH at 3σ significance with an estimated 3.5 years of data. With its unprecedented statistical sample of low energy atmospheric neutrinos, PINGU will also have highly competitive sensitivity to νμ disappearance, θ23 octant and maximal mixing, and ντ appearance. PINGU can also extend the search for solar WIMP dark matter into the region currently favored by some direct dark matter experiments. At the lower end of the energy range, PINGU can use neutrino tomography to perform the first-ever direct measurement of the composition of the Earth's core. With its increased module density, PINGU will improve IceCube's sensitivity to galactic supernova neutrino bursts and enable it to extract the neutrino energy spectral shape.
    E-Print: arXiv. 01/2014; 1401.2046 [physics.ins-det].
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a search for neutrino point sources using the IceCube data collected between 2008 April and 2011 May with three partially completed configurations of the detector: the 40-, 59-, and 79-string configurations. The live-time of this data set is 1040 days. An unbinned maximum likelihood ratio test was used to search for an excess of neutrinos above the atmospheric background at any given direction in the sky. By adding two more years of data with improved event selection and reconstruction techniques, the sensitivity was improved by a factor of 3.5 or more with respect to the previously published results obtained with the 40-string configuration of IceCube. We performed an all-sky survey and a dedicated search using a catalog of a priori selected objects observed by other telescopes. In both searches, the data are compatible with the background-only hypothesis. In the absence of evidence for a signal, we set upper limits on the flux of muon neutrinos. For an E –2 neutrino spectrum, the observed limits are (0.9-5) × 10–12 TeV–1 cm–2 s–1 for energies between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in the northern sky and (0.9-23.2) × 10–12 TeV–1 cm–2 s–1 for energies between 102 TeV and 102 PeV in the southern sky. We also report upper limits for neutrino emission from groups of sources that were selected according to theoretical models or observational parameters and analyzed with a stacking approach. Some of the limits presented already reach the level necessary to quantitatively test current models of neutrino emission.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 779(2):132. · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have searched for extremely high energy neutrinos using data taken with the IceCube detector between May 2010 and May 2012. Two neutrino-induced particle shower events with energies around 1 PeV were observed, as reported previously. In this work, we investigate whether these events could originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube’s large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out the corresponding models at more than 90% confidence level. The model-independent quasidifferential 90% C.L. upper limit, which amounts to E2ϕνe+νμ+ντ=1.2×10−7 GeV cm−2 s−1 sr−1 at 1 EeV, provides the most stringent constraint in the energy range from 10 PeV to 10 EeV. Our observation disfavors strong cosmological evolution of the highest energy cosmic-ray sources such as the Fanaroff-Riley type II class of radio galaxies.
    Physical Review D 12/2013; 88(11):112008. · 4.69 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
689.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Physics
      Maryland, United States
    • Tohoku University
      • Research Center for Neutrino Science
      Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, Japan
    • State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Adelaide
      • School of Chemistry and Physics
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2012
    • Bergische Universität Wuppertal
      Wuppertal, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Physics
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2010
    • The Ohio State University
      • Center for Cosmology and Astoparticle Physics
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2007
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
    • University of Kansas
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Lawrence, Kansas, United States
  • 2006
    • Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
      Bari, Apulia, Italy
  • 2004
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Irvine, CA, United States
  • 1999–2004
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute for Cosmic Ray Research
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan