N O Dalby

IT University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (20)101.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Explorations into the heterogenous population of native γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA Rs) and the physiological functions governed by the multiple GABAA R subtypes have for decades been hampered by the lack of subtype-selective ligands. The functional properties of the orthosteric GABAA receptor ligand 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isothiazolol (Thio-4-PIOL) have been investigated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Thio-4-PIOL displayed substantial partial agonist activity at the human extrasynaptic GABAA R subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes, eliciting maximal responses of up to ∼30% of that of GABA at α5 β3 γ2S , α4 β3 δ and α6 β3 δ and somewhat lower efficacies at the corresponding α5 β2 γ2S , α4 β2 δ and α6 β2 δ subtypes (maximal responses of 4-12%). In contrast, it was an extremely low efficacious agonist at the α1 β3 γ2S , α1 β2 γ2S , α2 β2 γ2S , α2 β3 γ2S , α3 β2 γ2S and α3 β3 γ2S GABAA Rs (maximal responses of 0-4%). In concordance with its agonism at extrasynaptic GABAA Rs and its defacto antagonism at the synaptic receptors, Thio-4-PIOL elicited robust tonic currents in electrophysiological recordings on slices from rat CA1 hippocampus and ventrobasal thalamus and antagonized phasic currents in hippocampal neurons. Finally, the observed effects of Thio-4-PIOL in rat tests of anxiety, locomotion, nociception and spatial memory were overall in good agreement with its in vitro and ex vivo properties. The diverse signaling characteristics of Thio-4-PIOL at GABAA Rs represent one of the few examples of a functionally subtype-selective orthosteric GABAA R ligand reported to date. We propose that Thio-4-PIOL could be a useful pharmacological tool in future studies exploring the physiological roles of native synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA Rs.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The underlying mechanism of the GABAergic deficits observed in schizophrenia has been proposed to involve NMDA receptor hypofunction. An emerging treatment strategy therefore aims at enhancing GABAergic signalling by increasing the excitatory transmission onto interneurons. We wanted to determine whether behavioural and GABAergic functional deficits induced by the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), could be reversed by repeated administration of two drugs known to enhance GABAergic transmission: the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), ADX47273, and the partial agonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), SSR180711. Adolescent rats (4-5 weeks) subjected to PCP treatment during the second postnatal week displayed a consistent deficit in prepulse inhibition (PPI), which was reversed by a one week treatment with ADX47273 or SSR180711. We examined GABAergic transmission by whole cell patch-clamp recordings of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) in pyramidal neurons in layer II/III of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and by activation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABAA receptors by THIP. Following PCP treatment, pyramidal neurons displayed a reduced mIPSC frequency and up-regulation of extrasynaptic THIP-induced current. ADX47273 treatment restored this up-regulation of THIP-induced current. Finally, we showed that repeated treatment with ADX47273 and SSR180711 decreased the induction of spontaneous inhibitory current caused by acute and direct agonism of mGluR5s and α7 nAChRs in slices. These results show that repeated administration of ADX47273 or SSR180711 reverses certain behavioural and functional deficits induced by PCP, likely through down-regulation or desensitisation of mGluR5s and α7 nAChRs, respectively.
    Neuropharmacology 05/2013; · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A compromised γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system is hypothesized to be part of the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction during neurodevelopment is proposed to disrupt maturation of interneurons causing an impaired GABAergic transmission in adulthood. The present study examines prefrontal GABAergic transmission in adult rats administered with the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), for 3 days during the second postnatal week. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in PCP-treated rats showed a 22% reduction in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl-methylene)amino]oxy]ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, and also diminished currents passed by δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. The observed impairments in GABAergic function are compatible with the alteration of GABAergic markers as well as cognitive dysfunction observed in early postnatal PCP-treated rats and support the hypothesis that PCP administration during neurodevelopment affects the functionality of interneurons in later life.
    Cerebral Cortex 04/2013; · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and PurposeExplorations into the heterogeneous population of native GABA type A receptors (GABAARs) and the physiological functions governed by the multiple GABAAR subtypes have for decades been hampered by the lack of subtype‐selective ligands. Experimental ApproachThe functional properties of the orthosteric GABAA receptor ligand 5‐(4‐piperidyl)‐3‐isothiazolol (Thio‐4‐PIOL) have been investigated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Key ResultsThio‐4‐PIOL displayed substantial partial agonist activity at the human extrasynaptic GABAAR subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes, eliciting maximal responses of up to ∼30% of that of GABA at α5β3γ2S, α4β3δ and α6β3δ and somewhat lower efficacies at the corresponding α5β2γ2S, α4β2δ and α6β2δ subtypes (maximal responses of 4–12%). In contrast, it was an extremely low efficacious agonist at the α1β3γ2S, α1β2γ2S, α2β2γ2S, α2β3γ2S, α3β2γ2S and α3β3γ2S GABAARs (maximal responses of 0–4%). In concordance with its agonism at extrasynaptic GABAARs and its de facto antagonism at the synaptic receptors, Thio‐4‐PIOL elicited robust tonic currents in electrophysiological recordings on slices from rat CA1 hippocampus and ventrobasal thalamus and antagonized phasic currents in hippocampal neurons. Finally, the observed effects of Thio‐4‐PIOL in rat tests of anxiety, locomotion, nociception and spatial memory were overall in good agreement with its in vitro and ex vivo properties. Conclusion and ImplicationsThe diverse signalling characteristics of Thio‐4‐PIOL at GABAARs represent one of the few examples of a functionally subtype‐selective orthosteric GABAAR ligand reported to date. We propose that Thio‐4‐PIOL could be a useful pharmacological tool in future studies exploring the physiological roles of native synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2013; 170(4). · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: δ-subunit containing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors are potential targets for modifying neuronal activity in a range of brain disorders. With the aim of gaining more insight in synaptic and extrasynaptic inhibition, we used a new positive modulator, AA29504, of δ-subunit containing GABA(A) receptors in mouse neurons in vitro and in vivo. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were carried out in the dentate gyrus in mouse brain slices. In granule cells, AA29504 (1 μM) caused a 4.2-fold potentiation of a tonic current induced by THIP (1 μM), while interneurons showed a potentiation of 2.6-fold. Moreover, AA29504 (1 μM) increased the amplitude and prolonged the decay of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in granule cells, and this effect was abolished by Zn²⁺ (15 μM). AA29504 (1 μM) also induced a small tonic current (12.7 ± 3.2 pA) per se, and when evaluated in a nominally GABA-free environment using Ca²⁺ imaging in cultured neurons, AA29504 showed GABA(A) receptor agonism in the absence of agonist. Finally, AA29504 exerted dose-dependent stress-reducing and anxiolytic effects in mice in vivo. We propose that AA29504 potentiates δ-containing GABA(A) receptors to enhance tonic inhibition, and possibly recruits perisynaptic δ-containing receptors to participate in synaptic phasic inhibition in dentate gyrus.
    Neuropharmacology 04/2012; 63(3):469-79. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects of [2-amino-4-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzylamino)-phenyl]-carbamic acid ethyl ester (AA29504), which is a close analogue of retigabine, have been investigated. AA29504 induced a rightward shift of the activation threshold at cloned KCNQ2, 2/3 and 4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, with a potency 3-4fold lower than retigabine. AA29504 (1 muM) had no agonist activity when tested at alpha(1)beta(3)gamma(2s) or alpha(4)beta(3)delta GABA(A) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, but left-shifted the EC(50) for GABA and gaboxadol (THIP) at both receptors. The maximum GABA response at alpha(1)beta(3)gamma(2s) receptors was unchanged by AA29504 (1 muM), but increased 3-fold at alpha(4)beta(3)delta receptors. In slices prepared from the prefrontal cortex of adult rats AA29504 had no effect alone on the average IPSC or the tonic current in layer II/III pyramidal neurons, but potentiated the effect of gaboxadol on both phasic and tonic currents. Thus, the effects of gaboxadol could be positively modulated by AA29504. Systemic administration of AA29504 at doses relevant for modulating GABA transmission produced anxiolytic effects and reduced motor coordination consistent with activity at GABA(A) receptors. We conclude that AA29504 exerts a major action via alpha(4)beta(3)delta-containing GABA(A) receptors, which will be important for interpreting its effect in vivo.
    Neuropharmacology 01/2010; 58(4-5):702-11. · 4.11 Impact Factor
  • Nils Ole Dalby
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    ABSTRACT: The transport of gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) limits the overspill from the synaptic cleft and serves to maintain a constant extracellular level of GABA. Two transporters, GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) and GAT-3, are the most likely candidates for regulating GABA transport in the brain. Drugs acting either selectively or nonselectively at GATs exert distinct anticonvulsant effects, presumably because of distinct regions of action. Here I shall give a brief review of the localization and physiology of GATs and describe effects of selective and nonselective inhibitors thereof in different animal models of epilepsy.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 11/2003; 479(1-3):127-37. · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • N O Dalby, I Mody
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    ABSTRACT: Several recent advances have contributed to our understanding of the processes associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in humans and in experimental animal models. Common pathological features between the human condition and the animal models may indicate a fundamental involvement of the given pathology in the process of epileptogenesis.
    Current Opinion in Neurology 05/2001; 14(2):187-92. · 5.42 Impact Factor
  • N O Dalby
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examines the effect of tiagabine (a selective inhibitor of GABA transporter 1, GAT-1), SNAP-5114 (a semi-selective inhibitor of rat GAT-3/mouse GAT4) and NNC 05-2045 (a non-selective GABA uptake inhibitor) in modulating GABA levels in the hippocampus and thalamus. Anticonvulsant effects of the same compounds were assessed (after intranigral administration) after maximal electroshock (MES) in juvenile rats. Anticonvulsant effects were also tested after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration against audiogenic seizures in DBA/2 mice and against pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-induced tonic convulsions or MES in NMRI mice. Tiagabine (30 microM, perfused through the microdialysis probe in halothane anaesthetized rats) increased GABA levels to (% basal+/-SEM) 645+/-69 in the hippocampus and 409+/-61 in the thalamus. SNAP-5114 (100 microM) increased GABA levels in the thalamus (% basal+/-SEM) to 247+/-27 but had no effect on hippocampal GABA-levels. NNC 05-2045 (100 microM) increased GABA levels both in the hippocampus (% basal+/-SEM, 251+/-51) and in the thalamus (298+/-27). All compounds protected against tonic hindlimb extension (THE) in juvenile male rats after intranigral administration. Sound induced convulsions in DBA/2 mice were dose-dependently inhibited by all compounds (administered intraperitoneal, i.p.) with ED(50) values of 1, 6 and 110 micromol/kg, for tiagabine, NNC 05-2045 and SNAP-5114, respectively. Tiagabine and NNC 05-2045 but not SNAP-5114 protected against PTZ-induced tonic convulsions whereas only NNC 05-2045 protected against MES-induced tonic convulsions in NMRI mice. However, tiagabine and NNC 05-2045 exerted a synergistic effect in the MES model. These findings substantiate and extend previous findings of different effects of selective versus non-selective GABA uptake inhibitors in animal models of epilepsy.
    Neuropharmacology 10/2000; 39(12):2399-407. · 4.11 Impact Factor
  • C Thomsen, N O Dalby
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    ABSTRACT: The anticonvulsant or proconvulsant properties of ligands at metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were examined in a chemoconvulsant model using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Mice received mGluR ligands by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion prior to a subcutaneous injection of PTZ and the latency to onset of tonic convulsions was recorded. The group I mGluR antagonist 1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA) dose-dependently antagonised PTZ-induced seizures with a mean ED50 value of 465 nmol. In contrast, the selective group I mGluR agonist, (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine [(S)-DHPG], was proconvulsive and decreased the PTZ-induced seizure latency (ED50=60 nmol i.c.v.). A selective agonist of group II mGluRs, (1S,3S)-1-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylic acid [(1S,3S)-ACPD], was proconvulsive but did not affect PTZ-induced seizure latency. Moreover, the proconvulsant effect of (IS,3S)-ACPD was not blocked by the mGluR2 antagonist, alpha-methylserine-O-phosphate monophenyl ester but was blocked by AIDA suggesting the involvement of group I mGluRs. (2S,1'S,2'S,3'R)-2-(2'-carboxy-3'-phenylcyclopropyl)glycine (PCCG-IV), which is a potent mGluR2 antagonist and a group III mGluR agonist at higher doses, increased the PTZ-induced seizure latency (ED50=51 nmol) and this effect was fully reversed by the group III mGluR antagonist, (S)-2-amino-2-methyl-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (MAP4). Similarly, the group III mGluR agonist 1-amino-3-(phosphonomethylene)cyclobutanecarboxylate (cyclobutylene-AP5) increased the PTZ-induced seizure latency (ED50=12 nmol) in a MAP4-sensitive manner. Collectively, these data suggest that mGluR ligands modulate PTZ-induced seizure activity in mice by either antagonizing group I mGluRs or activating group III mGluRs.
    Neuropharmacology 01/1999; 37(12):1465-73. · 4.11 Impact Factor
  • N O Dalby, M West, B Finsen
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    ABSTRACT: The loss of neurons in the dentate gyrus have been evaluated in rats in which kindling had been induced through stimulation of the hippocampal perforant path. The total number of granule cells, hilar neurons and the total number of neurons expressing the message for somatostatin (SS-mRNA) were estimated with stereological methods in five rats sacrificed 24 h after the last seizure and compared with estimates made in five control animals. The mean total number of granule cells was 981,000 in control rats and 943,000 in kindled rats, a non-significant difference at the 5% level of significance (P = 0.78, Student's t-test). The mean total number of hilar neurons was 52,100 compared with a mean of 58,520 in the control group, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0.04). The mean total number of SSergic hilar neurons was 16,630 compared with a mean of 15,430 in the control rats (non-significant, P = 0.12). These findings indicate that hilar neurons are lost after kindling but that these neurons are not somatostatinergic.
    Neuroscience Letters 11/1998; 255(1):45-8. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two novel nipecotic acid derivatives, 1-(3-(9H-Carbazol-9-yl)-1-propyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-piperidino l (NNC 05-2045) and 1-(3-(9H-Carbazol-9-yl)-l-propyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-piperidino l (NNC 05-2090) have been tested for inhibition of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporters in synaptosomal preparations of rat cerebral cortex and inferior colliculus and found to differ markedly from gabitril (tiagabine), a selective GAT-1 inhibitor. IC50 values for inhibition of [3H]GABA uptake into synaptosomes from cerebral cortex for NNC 05-2045 and NNC 05-2090 were 12 +/- 2 and 4.4 +/- 0.8 microM, respectively. In synaptosomes from inferior colliculus in the presence of 1 microM 1-(2-(((diphenylmethylene)amino)oxy)ethyl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-3- pyridinecarboxylic acid (NNC 05-0711), a highly potent and selective GAT-1 inhibitor, IC50 values for inhibition of [3H]GABA uptake were 1.0 +/- 0.1 and 2.5 +/- 0.7 microM, respectively. A receptor profile showed that NNC 05-2045 has binding affinities to sigma-, alpha 1- and D2-receptors of 113, 550 and 122 nM, respectively. NNC 05-2090 displayed alpha 1- and D2-receptor affinity of 266 and 1632 nM, respectively. The anticonvulsant action of both compounds was tested in four rodent models after intra peritoneal (i.p.) injection. Both NNC 05-2090 dose-dependently inhibited sound-induced tonic and clonic convulsions in DBA/2 mice with ED50 values of 6 and 19 mumol/kg, respectively. NNC 05-2045 also antagonized sound-induced seizures in genetic epilepsy prone rats (GEP rats) with ED50 values against wild running, clonic and tonic convulsions of 33, 39 and 39 mumol/kg, respectively (NNC 05-2090 was not tested in GEP rats). Both NNC 05-2045 and NNC 05-2090 dose-dependently antagonized tonic hindlimb extension in the maximal electroshock (MES) test with ED50 values of 29 and 73 mumol/kg, respectively. In amygdala kindled rats NNC 05-2045 and NNC 05-2090 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced generalized seizure severity (seizure grade 3-5) at highest doses (72-242 mumol/kg) and NNC 05-2090 also significantly reduced afterdischarge duration at these doses (P < 0.05). These data show that inhibition of GABA uptake through non-GAT-1 transporters has different anticonvulsant effects than selective GAT-1 inhibitors (e.g. tiagabine) in that enhanced efficacy against MES and reduced efficacy against kindled seizures is observed. Although a contribution of adrenergic agonistic effects cannot be entirely ruled out, it is proposed that inhibition of GAT-3 (mouse GAT4) is primarily responsible for the anticonvulsant action of these two nipecotic acid derivatives in MES, amygdala kindled rats and in sound-induced seizures in GEP-rats and DBA/2 mice.
    Epilepsy Research 07/1997; 28(1):51-61. · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • N O Dalby, E B Nielsen
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    ABSTRACT: Tiagabine (TGB) is a novel antiepileptic drug whose anticonvulsant effects are due to inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport mediated by the GABA transporter-1. We have previously shown that TGB is effective in acute amygdala kindled seizures, and consequently we wanted to test the hypothesis that TGB also could suppress the development of kindling epileptogenesis. Rats had stereotaxically implanted stimulating/recording electrodes in the basolateral amygdala and recording electrode in the contralateral occipital cortex. Rats were divided in three groups (n = 8 for each group) intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered vehicle, TGB 7.3 micromol/kg and TGB 24.3 micromol/kg, respectively, 30 min before stimulation. TGB dose-dependently suppressed the development of the behavioral seizure score and afterdischarge (AD) duration recorded from the amygdala and cortex. Vehicle treated animals displayed at the 16th stimulation an average behavioral score of 4.7 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SEM) compared to 3.9 +/- 0.2 in the 7.3 micromol/kg TGB treated group and 1.4 +/- 0.3 in the 24.3 micromol/kg TGB treated group. Amygdaloid AD in controls on the 16th stimulation was 92 +/- 10 s compared to 56 +/- 12 s in group 2 and 25 +/- 3 s in group 3. Cortical AD was at the same time 92 +/- 10, 55 +/- 13 and 20 +/- 5 s, respectively. Groups 2 and 3 required four and seven further stimulations, respectively, without TGB administration to reach the AD level in the control group. At the 17th stimulation, rats in group 1 were administered TGB 24.3 micromol/kg and displayed an average behavioral score of 0.5 +/- 0.2. Amygdaloid and cortical AD were both 6 +/- 1 s. Tiagabine 24.3 micromol/kg suppresses both the kindling process and the expression of the fully kindled seizure.
    Neuroscience Letters 07/1997; 229(2):135-7. · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • N O Dalby, E B Nielsen
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    ABSTRACT: Tiagabine is a novel antiepileptic drug which has clinical efficacy against complex refractory and myoclonic seizures. The anticonvulsant mechanism of action of tiagabine results from its blockade of neuronal and glial GABA-uptake, thereby increasing GABA levels in the synaptic cleft. Here we present a comparison of the preclinical anticonvulsant profile of tiagabine with that of lamotrigine, gabapentin and vigabatrin in the following tests (all antiepileptic drugs were administered i.p.): seizures induced by pentylentetrazol (PTZ), 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-b-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) and maximal electroshock (MES); sound induced seizures in DBA/2 mice and finally acute amygdala kindled seizures. Tiagabine was the most potent drug in antagonizing tonic convulsions induced by PTZ, DMCM and sound induced seizures in DBA/2 mice with ED50 values of 2, 2 and 1 mumol/kg, respectively, followed by lamotrigine with ED50 values of 9, 43 and 6 mumol/kg, respectively. Gabapentin and vigabatrin had ED50 values in the same tests of 185, 452, 66 mumol/kg and 2322, > 7740, 3883 mumol/kg, respectively. Tiagabine was the only drug capable of blocking PTZ-induced clonic convulsions (ED50 = 5 mumol/kg), an effect seen at low but not high doses of tiagabine. Lamotrigine was the only drug which antagonized tonic convulsions in the MES test (ED50 = 36 mumol/kg). Therapeutic index (TI) of antiepileptic drugs in NMRI- and DBA/2-mice ranked with decreasing TI lamotrigine > gabapentin > vigabatrin > tiagabine. All drugs reduced the generalized seizures in amygdala kindled rats, but tiagabine and gabapentin furthermore attenuated afterdischarge duration of amygdala kindled seizures. However, an ED50 value against amygdala kindled focal seizures was only obtained for tiagabine (36 mumol/kg). The data here presented show that tiagabine, lamotrigine, gabapentin and vigabatrin possess different preclinical anticonvulsant profiles which is of relevance to the clinical anticonvulsant profiles of the drugs.
    Epilepsy Research 07/1997; 28(1):63-72. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electrically induced seizures with anesthesia and muscle relaxation (ECT) is commonly used in the therapy of psychotic depression in humans. Unmodified electroshock (ECS) is used as a model for epilepsy in the rat. In several seizure models of epilepsy, in particular the dentate hilar somatostatin-containing (SSergic) neurons have been found to undergo degeneration. To assess the potential loss of SSergic hilar neurons after repeated ECS, 10 rats were given 110 ECS, one per day, 5 days a week. One day after the last ECS the rats were anesthesized, perfused, the brains cut on a vibratome and prepared for nonradioactive in situ hybridization for somatostatin along with five control rats. Like rats given 10-36 ECS in earlier studies, the ECS-treated rats displayed a markedly increased neuronal hybridization labeling when compared with control rats. The total number of dentate hilar SSergic neurons of each rat was estimated using the optical disector technique. The mean number of hilar SSergic neurons in the ECS-treated rats was 12,785, compared to 12,392 in the control rats. The total number of hilar SSergic neurons in ECS-treated versus control rats was not significantly different (Student's t test; t value = .35; p = .74). We conclude that repeated ECS treatment does not cause loss of hilar SSergic neurons.
    Biological Psychiatry 08/1996; 40(1):54-60. · 9.25 Impact Factor
  • N O Dalby, C Thomsen
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    ABSTRACT: The anticonvulsant properties of ligands at metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were examined in different seizure models by use of intracerebroventricular infusion. The mGluR1a antagonist/mGluR2 agonist, (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine [(S)-4C3HPG] dose-dependently antagonized pentylenetetrazol- and methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-2-carboxylate (DMCM)-induced clonic convulsions in mice with ED50 values of 400 and 180 nmol/mice, respectively. A modest increase in electrical seizure threshold was observed in mice injected with (S)-4C3HPG. No effect on seizures induced by systemic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate was observed by prior intracerebroventricular infusion of (S)-4C3HPG. The more selective (but less potent) mGluR1a antagonist, (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine, was a weak anticonvulsant in similar seizure models with the exception of convulsions induced by electrical stimulation. (+)-alpha-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine showed no anticonvulsant activity in any of the models examined. Agonists of mGluRs which are particularly potent at mGluR2, (2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine and (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylic acid significantly protected against sound-induced convulsions in DBA/2 mice and DMCM-induced seizures in mice but were inactive against seizures induced by administration of pentylenetetrazol or by electrical stimulation. These data suggest that mGluR ligands modulate seizure activity in mice and this effect may be mediated via antagonism of mGluR1a-type as well as via activation of mGluR2-type mGluRs.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/1996; 276(2):516-22. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electrically induced seizures with anesthesia and muscle relaxation (ECT) is commonly used in the therapy of psychotic depression in humans. Unmodified electroshock (ECS) is used as a model for epilepsy in the rat. In several seizure models of epilepsy, in particular the dentate hilar somatostatin-containing (SSergic) neurons have been found to undergo degeneration. To assess the potential loss of SSergic hilar neurons after repeated ECS, 10 rats were given 110 ECS, one per day, 5 days a week. One day after the last ECS the rats were anesthesized, perfused, the brains cut on a vibratome and prepared for nonradioactive in situ hybridization for somatostatin along with five control rats. Like rats given 10-36 ECS in earlier studies, the ECS-treated rats displayed a markedly increased neuronal hybridization labeling when compared with control rats. The total number of dentate hilar SSergic neurons of each rat was estimated using the optical disector technique. The mean number of hilar SSergic neurons in the ECS-treated rats was 12,785, compared to 12,392 in the control rats. The total number of hilar SSergic neurons in ECS-treated versus control rats was not significantly different (Student's t test; t value = .35; p = .74). We conclude that repeated ECS treatment does not cause loss of hilar SSergic neurons.
    Biological psychiatry 01/1996; 40(1):54-60. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electrically induced seizures with anesthesia and muscle relaxation (ECT) is commonly used in the therapy of psychotic depression in humans. Unmodified electroshock (ECS) is used as a model for epilepsy in the rat. In several seizure models of epilepsy, in particular the dentate hilar somatostatin-containing (SSergic) neurons have been found to undergo degeneration. To assess the potential loss of SSergic hilar neurons after repeated ECS, 10 rats were given 110 ECS, one per day, 5 days a week. One day after the last ECS the rats were anesthesized, perfused, the brains cut on a vibratome and prepared for nonradioactive in situ hybridization for somatostatin along with five control rats. Like rats given 10-36 ECS in earlier studies, the ECS-treated rats displayed a markedly increased neuronal hybridization labeling when compared with control rats. The total number of dentate hilar SSergic neurons of each rat was estimated using the optical disector technique. The mean number of hilar SSergic neurons in the ECS-treated rats was 12,785, compared to 12,392 in the control rats. The total number of hilar SSergic neurons in ECS-treated versus control rats was not significantly different (Student's t test; t value = .35; p = .74). We conclude that repeated ECS treatment does not cause loss of hilar SSergic neurons.
    Biological Psychiatry 01/1996; 40(1):54-60. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Body water balance is controlled by vasopressin, which regulates Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels in kidney collecting duct cells by vesicular trafficking between intracellular vesicles and the plasma membrane. To examine the molecular apparatus involved in vesicle trafficking and vasopressin regulation of AQP2 in collecting duct cells, we tested if targeting proteins expressed in the synaptic vesicles, namely vesicle-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (VAMP1 and 2), are expressed in kidney collecting duct. Immunoblotting revealed specific labeling of VAMP2 (18-kD band) but not VAMP1 in membrane fractions prepared from kidney inner medulla. Controls using preadsorbed antibody or preimmune serum were negative. Bands of identical molecular size were detected in immunoblots of brain membrane vesicles and purified synaptic vesicles. VAMP2 in kidney membranes was cleaved by tetanus toxin, revealing a tetanus toxin-sensitive VAMP homologue. Similarly, tetanus toxin cleaved VAMP2 in synaptic vesicles. In kidney inner medulla, VAMP2 was predominantly expressed in the membrane fraction enriched for intracellular vesicles, with little or no VAMP2 in the plasma membrane enriched fraction. This was confirmed by immunocytochemistry using semithin cryosections, which showed mainly vesicular labeling in collecting duct principal cells, with no labeling of intercalated cells. VAMP2 immunolabeling colocalized with AQP2 labeling in intracellular vesicles, as determined by immunoelectron microscopy after double immunolabeling of isolated vesicles. Quantitative analysis of 1,310 vesicles revealed a highly significant association of both AQP2 and VAMP2 in the same vesicles (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the presence of AQP2 in vesicles immunoisolated with anti-VAMP2 antibodies was confirmed by immunoblotting. In conclusion, VAMP2, a component of the neuronal SNARE complex, is expressed in vesicles carrying AQP2, suggesting a role in vasopressin-regulated vesicle trafficking of AQP2 water channels.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 11/1995; 96(4):1834-44. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kindling is an animal model of epilepsy which is accompanied by morphological and biochemical changes in the brain, including sprouting of fibers and increased transmitter release. Here we have examined the immunocytochemical expression of 1) GAP-43, a growth-associated protein, which is a neuron-specific PKC substrate, particularly expressed in development and regeneration and 2) glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), part of the astrocytic cytoskeleton, after perforant path kindling. Subsequent to kindling, GAP-43 immunoreactivity was increased in CA1 stratum lacunosum-moleculare and the inner and outer molecular layer of the fascia dentata. Other hippocampal subregions showed a lower increase. GFAP immunoreactivity was increased in the entire hippocampus, but especially in stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the CA1 and the hilus of fascia dentata. The difference between the number of GFAP-positive profiles in the hippocampus of control rats and in fully kindled rats was found to be non-significant. We interpret these findings as being related to both plastic neuronal changes and possible neuronal degeneration.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 09/1995; 41(5):613-9. · 2.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

524 Citations
101.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2003
    • Lundbeck
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2000–2001
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Neurology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1996–1999
    • Novo Nordisk
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1996–1998
    • Aarhus University
      • Institute of Anatomy
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark